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Article
Publication date: 18 December 2020

Amanda Kirby, W. Huw Williams, Betony Clasby, Nathan Hughes and Mary Ann Megan Cleaton

This paper aims to examine the relationship between patterns of functioning in four domains (attention and concentration; social and communication; coordination and organisation;…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the relationship between patterns of functioning in four domains (attention and concentration; social and communication; coordination and organisation; and literacy and numeracy) in women in prison. Also, to consider potential associations between functioning and previous Neurodevelopmental Disorder (NDD) diagnoses, previous mental health diagnoses and history of head injury, self-harm and attempted suicide.

Design/methodology/approach

Women in one Scottish prison were invited to participate; 87 consented. Women were screened for functional difficulties and asked about their relevant educational and medical history.

Findings

Half of participants reported difficulties in one or more domains. All possible combinations of functional difficulties were found. Only eight women reported previous NDD diagnoses. Functional difficulties were significantly associated with history of self-harm, history of attempted suicide and mental health diagnoses. In total, 32% of women reported at least one head injury, but this was not significantly associated with functional difficulties.

Research limitations/implications

The sample was comparatively small and questions were self-report. Analyses were based on within-cohort comparisons due to a lack of appropriate general population data.

Practical implications

There is a clear need for timely, practical and comprehensive profiling of females in the Justice System. Current systems do not appear to adequately identify women with functional difficulties or other adversity. Greater use of interdisciplinary working and shared training is indicated, as is a move from categorical diagnostic systems towards dimensional approaches.

Originality/value

This study is the first to investigate associations between difficulties associated with NDDs, mental health difficulties and head injury in women in prison.

Details

International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 January 2023

Hope Kent, Amanda Kirby, George Leckie, Rosie Cornish, Lee Hogarth and W. Huw Williams

Looked after children (LAC) are criminalised at five times the rate of children in the general population. Children in contact with both child welfare and child justice systems…

Abstract

Purpose

Looked after children (LAC) are criminalised at five times the rate of children in the general population. Children in contact with both child welfare and child justice systems have higher rates of neurodisability and substance use problems, and LAC in general have high rates of school exclusion, homelessness and unemployment. This study aims to understand whether these factors persist in LAC who are in prison as adults.

Design/methodology/approach

Administrative data collected by the Do-IT profiler screening tool in a prison in Wales, UK, were analysed to compare sentenced prisoners who were LAC (n = 631) to sentenced prisoners who were not LAC (n = 2,201). The sample comprised all prisoners who were screened on entry to prison in a two-year period.

Findings

Prisoners who were LAC scored more poorly on a functional screener for neurodisability (effect size = 0.24), and on four self-report measures capturing traits of dyslexia (0.22), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (0.40), autism spectrum disorders (0.34) and developmental co-ordination disorder (0.33). Prisoners who were LAC were more likely to have been to a pupil referral unit (0.24), have substance use problems (0.16), be homeless or marginally housed (0.18) and be unemployed or unable to work due to disability (0.13).

Originality/value

This study uniquely contributes to our understanding of prisoners who were LAC as a target group for intervention and support with re-integration into the community upon release. LAC in prison as adults may require additional interventions to help with employment, housing and substance use. Education programmes in prison should screen for neurodisability, to develop strategies to support engagement.

Details

International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. 19 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 18 October 2018

Charlotte Sullivan, Helen Lynch and Amanda Kirby

As occupational therapists embrace evidence-informed and occupation-centred practice, the use of standardised visual perceptual tests remains a strong feature of typical…

3171

Abstract

Purpose

As occupational therapists embrace evidence-informed and occupation-centred practice, the use of standardised visual perceptual tests remains a strong feature of typical paediatric practice. Yet, the research evidence for the use of such tools is inconclusive at best. This study compared the results of the Test of Visual Perceptual Skills (TVPS) with a checklist of reported functional difficulties in 30 children attending occupational therapy. The purpose of this paper was to determine the usefulness of visual perceptual testing in relation to occupation-centred practice.

Design/methodology/approach

A descriptive correlational study design was used. Participants were 30 primary school-age children who were on a paediatric occupational therapy caseload. An additional 30 typically developing children participated in the development of the checklist.

Findings

Correlations were found between reported functional visual skill difficulties and two subtests of the TVPS (visual memory and visual discrimination). No correlation was found between the reported functional difficulties and any of the other five subtests of the TVPS or the total score.

Originality/value

Results highlight the weak relationship that existed in this study between standardised measures of visual perception, as measured by the TVPS, and functional difficulties. Therapists are cautioned to explore both the evidence base for continued use of standardised visual perceptual measures to inform occupation-centred practice and the need to embrace a more comprehensive person-centred approach to visual perceptual assessment.

Details

Irish Journal of Occupational Therapy, vol. 46 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-8819

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 June 2015

Amanda Kirby and Lisette Saunders

The purpose of this paper is to describe first the rationale for an embedded process for learning difficulties and disabilities in the criminal justice system (CJS). This is…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe first the rationale for an embedded process for learning difficulties and disabilities in the criminal justice system (CJS). This is followed by an example of how this approach has been delivered in one offender setting. The use of a novel computerised assessment tool is described, and the way it has been used to undertake the initial screening processes and provide person centred guidance for staff and the individuals. The bio-psychosocial approach to supporting individuals moving through the CJS is suggested as an approach that could be potentially used in other prisons settings. The paper also highlights some of the current challenges in doing so.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper presents a review of the currently literature to provide a rationale for the example of the embedded approach taken.

Findings

The approach, aligns to the challenges cited in much of the research.

Practical implications

The model presented can be used as a basis for potentially delivering such a system in other prisons settings and to highlight areas that remain contentious.

Social implications

The embedded model represents a bio-psychosocial approach to supporting individuals moving through the CJS so has important implications.

Originality/value

This is novel approach.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-8824

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 9 June 2015

Amanda Kirby and Lisette Saunders

160

Abstract

Details

Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-8824

Article
Publication date: 2 December 2010

Stuart Kirby, Amanda Quinn and Scott Keay

The movement of policing from a traditional reactive approach to a more proactive ‘intelligence‐led’ approach has been a widespread but infrequently evaluated process. This study…

Abstract

The movement of policing from a traditional reactive approach to a more proactive ‘intelligence‐led’ approach has been a widespread but infrequently evaluated process. This study compares 200 offenders arrested for dealing Class A drugs in public spaces, half of whom have been arrested through ‘intelligence‐led’ police operations and half of whom have been arrested through traditional ‘reactive’ approaches. Analysis shows the offenders arrested through an intelligence‐led approach show a ‘local lifestyle’ profile. They are more likely to be older, be unemployed and live closer to their drug market, are less likely to diversify in relation to the illicit drugs sold, and show a high incidence of prior offending (especially in relation to acquisitive crime). The study argues that taking an intelligence‐led approach to open drug markets identifies prolific offenders who cause the most distress to the local community, as well as highlighting those most in need for treatment services.

Details

Drugs and Alcohol Today, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1745-9265

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 2000

Amanda Kirby

The takeover of Asda by US retail giant Wal‐Mart has created a great deal of speculation by business analysts and the media. Wal‐Mart is recognized as the world’s largest retailer…

1149

Abstract

The takeover of Asda by US retail giant Wal‐Mart has created a great deal of speculation by business analysts and the media. Wal‐Mart is recognized as the world’s largest retailer and its move into the UK is creating interest in its future plans for Europe. Some consider that the move will cause a complete realignment of grocery chains across Europe and that the move will be revolutionary. Others consider that the move will simply augment and accelerate current retailing trends but will not completely change the face of supermarket retailing. This issue brings together a variety of viewpoints. First, Paul Whysall reviews and analyses the press coverage. He provides insights into the possible outcomes of the deal. The second piece is an industry insight prepared by Retail Intelligence, which is followed by an overview of the Institute of Grocery Distribution’s research document Wal‐Mart in the UK. Finally, we present a number of abstracts that offer further thoughts on the subject.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 28 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

Article
Publication date: 1 September 2003

Amanda Kirby

Follows the career development of handbag and accessory designer Sarah Clough. Focuses on the contribution made by her six‐year spell of Voluntary Service Overseas (VSO) in…

560

Abstract

Follows the career development of handbag and accessory designer Sarah Clough. Focuses on the contribution made by her six‐year spell of Voluntary Service Overseas (VSO) in Africa. Highlights the nature of VSO and the application process for volunteers. Looks at the importance of cultural awareness in creating projects and working with small businesses in the developing world. Discusses the service offered by Business Link.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 8 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 April 2019

Stephen J. Macdonald and Faye Cosgrove

The purpose of this paper is to explore the experiences of officers/civilians with dyslexia serving in the police service in England and Wales. Although there has been a growing…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the experiences of officers/civilians with dyslexia serving in the police service in England and Wales. Although there has been a growing body of research which has analysed the experiences of offenders and victims with dyslexia, there have been few studies focusing on the experiences of police officers/civilians with this condition. This study employs the social model of disability to conceptualise the experiences of these police officers/civilians from a disability rights perspective.

Design/methodology/approach

This applies a quantitative methodology to analyse data on disabling environments experienced by officers/civilians serving in a police service situated in the North of England. The paper collected data from 56 police employees previously diagnosed with dyslexia.

Findings

The findings reveal that a significant number of officers were reluctant to disclose that they had dyslexia to their police service. The choice to disclose was a key concern for officers/civilians, as this was directly linked to their experiences of stigmatisation, as well as the risk of their competences being questioned at work. The analysis presents evidence that, although officers/civilians have legal protections under the Equality Act 2010 (c15) in the UK, very few had experienced any form of “reasonable adjustment” in the workplace.

Originality/value

Drawing on the social model of disability, the paper concludes that the police service must improve access to reasonable adjustment, for example, through the use of assistive technologies, to create a more inclusive and supportive working environment for their employees.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 38 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 June 2015

Clare Sarah Allely

The purpose of this paper is to explore the research which has examined the link between autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and offending behaviour and the impact of prison on…

1432

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the research which has examined the link between autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and offending behaviour and the impact of prison on individuals with ASDs. Studies suggest that inmates with ASDs may be at an increased risk of bullying, confrontations, exploitation, anxiety and social isolation as a result of their ASD traits such as obsessions, social naivety and impaired empathy.

Design/methodology/approach

An extensive review of the literature.

Findings

The review identifies a modest amount of studies (n=4) which have explored the experience of individuals with ASD in prison and highlights that inmates with ASDs face a multitude of problems when they enter prison. Despite an extensive literature search only one study was identified which investigated the knowledge and understanding of ASDs amongst prison staff.

Research limitations/implications

Further research is urgently needed to consider the specific problems faced by inmates with ASD, to identify how to make the prison environment safer and more supportive for inmates with ASD and how to reduce the likelihood of re-offending.

Practical implications

This review highlights that, to date, there has been relatively little to guide service design in order to develop support services for individuals with ASD in prison. There has been a scarcity of studies investigating the effectiveness of various treatment models to target offending behaviour in individuals with ASD.

Originality/value

This paper fulfils an identified need to study and identify the specific problems faced by inmates with ASD and to identify changes which are required to provide an environment in prison which is safer and more supportive.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-8824

Keywords

1 – 10 of 63