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Book part
Publication date: 28 February 2022

Natalie Persadie

Neurodiverse conditions, or developmental disorders, are neither well-known nor understood by the general population in Trinidad and Tobago. Awareness of, or sensitivity…

Abstract

Neurodiverse conditions, or developmental disorders, are neither well-known nor understood by the general population in Trinidad and Tobago. Awareness of, or sensitivity toward, children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), in particular, is lacking in Trinidad and Tobago. Generation A is those persons who will reach adulthood in the next decade or so and be seeking employment opportunities. Given the current challenges faced by persons with ASD in securing and maintaining employment and the fact that this is a generally underexplored area of research, focusing on Generation A provides an opportunity to explore what provisions are in place for individuals with ASD to assist with future transitions into the workplace in Trinidad and Tobago. This chapter focuses on the existing policy, legal, and institutional framework in Trinidad and Tobago for ASD in the workplace, with particular reference to Generation A, to determine how it is currently addressed and what accommodations are being made to facilitate this demographic. A review of ASD-related data and select, relevant policy, law and institutions in Trinidad and Tobago has revealed that very few preparations, if any, are being made to facilitate Generation A individuals' entry into the workplace. The most relevant sector for addressing ASD needs falls to the NGO movement, but these organizations do not focus on employment preparation. Several recommendations for the key stakeholders in this process have been made that can assist in this regard.

Details

Generation A
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80262-263-8

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 12 November 2008

Julie A. Deisinger

The heritability of ASDs reportedly exceeds 90% (Halgin & Whitbourne, 2007; Rutter, 2005), indicating that genetic endowment strongly influences the etiology of these…

Abstract

The heritability of ASDs reportedly exceeds 90% (Halgin & Whitbourne, 2007; Rutter, 2005), indicating that genetic endowment strongly influences the etiology of these disorders (Halgin & Whitbourne, 2007). Research to date has suggested chromosomes 2, 7, and 15 as possible sites for genetic abnormalities associated with ASDs (Filipek et al., 1999; Halgin & Whitbourne, 2007; Muhle, Trentacoste, & Rapin, 2004; Yonan et al., 2003). However, the genetics of autism is complex and is not yet fully known (Chuthapisith, Ruangdaraganon, Sombuntham, & Roongpraiwan, 2007; Goldberg et al., 2005; Muhle et al., 2004; Ozonoff, South, & Provencal, 2005; Rutter, 2005; Szatmari, Zwaigenbaum, & Bryson, 2004).

Details

Autism and Developmental Disabilities: Current Practices and Issues
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-357-6

Book part
Publication date: 30 August 2019

Karen E. Joseph-Kent

This study illuminates the experiences of adults diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and intellectual disabilities (IDs) and their challenges and successes in…

Abstract

Purpose

This study illuminates the experiences of adults diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and intellectual disabilities (IDs) and their challenges and successes in receiving quality healthcare services. Individuals with developmental disabilities often experience health issues associated with aging at earlier ages and at higher rates than the general population. This population has a higher incidence of chronic health conditions that require regular medical attention.

The intent of this project was to learn directly from adults and their caregivers how well healthcare providers understand autism, explore their experience with how well their care is coordinated between primary healthcare and other specialty services, and identify factors which could impact access to care and to discover what other barriers which may potentially influence health outcomes for ASD adult.

Method

A qualitative study conducted with semi-structured interviews with 12 adults diagnosed with ASD and/or their guardians/caregivers.

Findings

Some of the adults interviewed experienced negative health outcomes and suboptimal relationships with healthcare providers; others seemed to have positive relationships. Clinical and communications accommodations were necessary to make healthcare provision more comfortable. Barriers to accessing healthcare services existed in many forms.

Implications/Limitations

The healthcare needs of the growing population adults diagnosed with ASD/ID are anticipated to be significant. This challenge is further exacerbated given there are few trained healthcare providers who are prepared or dedicated to serve this population. Continuing to build awareness of the health needs of the ASD/ID adult population is critical.

Originality

This project is highly innovative as it is the first attempt to understand how the adult autism population accesses care and perceives their healthcare interactions. This study serves as a starting point to suggest new opportunities for further research for this growing population.

Details

Underserved and Socially Disadvantaged Groups and Linkages with Health and Health Care Differentials
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-055-9

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 1 August 2004

Janet E Graetz

The transition from elementary to secondary school involves major changes for students that are reflected socially, academically, and environmentally. Increased emphasis…

Abstract

The transition from elementary to secondary school involves major changes for students that are reflected socially, academically, and environmentally. Increased emphasis on social interactions, school procedures, and academics make high school potentially stressful. For students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), these new academic and social challenges may be particularly anxiety-producing as they reluctantly leave familiar surroundings and friends and transition to high school.

Many of the characteristics of students with ASD may be incompatible with the demands of life in high school. This paper examines the skills that are required for students to be successful in high school and compares them to the skills of many adolescents with ASD. Following a description of individuals with autism spectrum disorder, the paper presents an overview of curriculum analysis and possible curricular changes to assist these students in high school. To enhance the support of the curriculum, subsequent information in this chapter includes the use of visual supports and the implementation of technology. Additional strategies are then presented including information on peer tutoring, and the use of social scripts and social stories. The final section discusses components of high school that may prove challenging, such as block scheduling and the use unstructured time. It concludes with a description of the effective secondary teacher and a look at future directions for this topic.

Details

Research in Secondary Schools
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-107-1

Abstract

Details

The Broad Autism Phenotype
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-657-7

Book part
Publication date: 18 January 2022

Melissa J. Bjelland and Susanne M. Bruyère

A sizable cohort of youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) will transition into adulthood over the next 10 years. Employment participation is an important part of…

Abstract

A sizable cohort of youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) will transition into adulthood over the next 10 years. Employment participation is an important part of individual economic independence but also of one's ability to contribute to broader civil society in meaningful ways. Yet, to date, the majority of young adults with autism are not successfully entering the workforce. Of particular importance for this “Generation A” will be to establish a sound foundation as they exit their teenage years that includes postsecondary educational pursuits and labor force involvement. Exploring corresponding outcomes of individuals with ASD who recently progressed through these life stages will help inform Generation A and families and educators who support them how to better prepare for the workplace of the future. For this purpose, robust representative data containing refined disability detail, employment and training information, and well-being and support content are necessary. Currently available public survey and administrative microdata that can be used by researchers and practitioners as they delve into these issues are discussed. Additionally, appropriate restricted-access datasets and the process involved in obtaining them are highlighted. After summarizing key resources and noting their advantages, their drawbacks, limitations, and areas for improvement are addressed. Implications of the data available to date to assist educators, family members, and young adults with autism themselves to better navigate the transition from school to work, to successfully secure work, and ultimately economic independence, which is critical to adulthood, are presented.

Article
Publication date: 31 August 2022

Katie Warner, Saskia Keville, Jemma Hockley and Amanda Ludlow

This research indicates females with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have a diverse clinical presentation compared to males. Furthermore, females with ASD are often…

Abstract

Purpose

This research indicates females with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have a diverse clinical presentation compared to males. Furthermore, females with ASD are often diagnosed later and typically experience greater levels of mental health difficulties. Evidence suggests that clinic-based verbal interventions for ASD have limited efficacy; therefore, alternative therapies, such as equine-assisted therapies (EATs), are gaining recognition. The purpose of this study was to directly explore the experiences of females with an ASD who have undertaken EAT.

Design/methodology/approach

Five female participants with a diagnosis of ASD were recruited from two equine therapy centres. Participants were aged between 15 and 30 years and undertook semi-structured interviews, which were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis.

Findings

Three superordinate themes emerged: the difficult experience of the social world, the process of EAT and the emotional impact of horses.

Originality/value

Directly exploring the experiences of females with ASD highlights benefits from engaging therapeutically with horses, building confidence and independence to transferring this into more effective social communication with other people. Offering emotion-focused therapeutic complementary interventions for females with ASD should be forefronted to help remediate the impact of difficult and sometimes traumatic earlier experiences in the social world. This requires increased funding for EAT, combined with larger-scale research projects to evaluate this.

Details

Advances in Autism, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3868

Keywords

Abstract

Details

The Broad Autism Phenotype
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-657-7

Book part
Publication date: 12 November 2008

Sandra Burkhardt

The core deficits associated with ASD pose significant obstacles to achieving social competence; indeed, the deficits, in many cases, define social incompetence. The…

Abstract

The core deficits associated with ASD pose significant obstacles to achieving social competence; indeed, the deficits, in many cases, define social incompetence. The diagnostic criteria for autism include qualitative impairment in social interactions and verbal and non-verbal communication, including delay in the acquisition of expressive language (American Psychiatric Association (APA), 2000). A pattern of narrow, restricted interests and stereotyped behavior are also requirements of the diagnosis. The diagnostic criteria for Asperger's Disorder also include impaired social interaction and restricted interests without delay in language acquisition and with average to above average intelligence (APA, 2000). In sum, ASD is defined by significant impairment in social functioning that is qualitatively distinctive from both typical social functioning and from social functioning deficits associated with other diagnoses.

Details

Autism and Developmental Disabilities: Current Practices and Issues
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-357-6

Book part
Publication date: 22 May 2013

Richard Simpson and Stephen Crutchfield

Identification, implementation, and ongoing evaluation of scientifically supported and effective-practice methods are fundamental and crucial elements of an effective…

Abstract

Identification, implementation, and ongoing evaluation of scientifically supported and effective-practice methods are fundamental and crucial elements of an effective educational program for all children and youth, including learners with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). To be sure, there is an unambiguous link between use of interventions and supports that have empirically supported merit and positive school and post-school outcomes. This chapter examines progress in the wide-scale adoption of evidence-based methods with learners with ASD. We also offer recommendations for advancing effective-practice initiatives and discuss trends and themes connected to effective-practice use with students with ASD.

Details

Evidence-Based Practices
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-429-9

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