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Article
Publication date: 16 August 2021

Muhammad Usman Arif

Multi-robot coalition formation (MRCF) refers to the formation of robot coalitions against complex tasks requiring multiple robots for execution. Situations, where the…

Abstract

Purpose

Multi-robot coalition formation (MRCF) refers to the formation of robot coalitions against complex tasks requiring multiple robots for execution. Situations, where the robots have to participate in multiple coalitions over time due to a large number of tasks, are called Time-extended MRCF. While being NP-hard, time-extended MRCF also holds the possibility of resource deadlocks due to any cyclic hold-and-wait conditions among the coalitions. Existing schemes compromise on solution quality to form workable, deadlock-free coalitions through instantaneous or incremental allocations.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper presents an evolutionary algorithm (EA)-based task allocation framework for improved, deadlock-free solutions against time-extended MRCF. The framework simultaneously allocates multiple tasks, allowing the robots to participate in multiple coalitions within their schedule. A directed acyclic graph–based representation of robot plans is used for deadlock detection and avoidance.

Findings

Allowing the robots to participate in multiple coalitions within their schedule, significantly improves the allocation quality. The improved allocation quality of the EA is validated against two auction schemes inspired by the literature.

Originality/value

To the best of the author's knowledge, this is the first framework which simultaneously considers multiple MR tasks for deadlock-free allocation while allowing the robots to participate in multiple coalitions within their plans.

Details

International Journal of Intelligent Unmanned Systems, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-6427

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Article
Publication date: 29 March 2011

Daniela P. Blettner

The basic assumption in strategic management is that consistently high performing companies are able to adapt effectively to external shocks. While adaptation of allocation

Abstract

Purpose

The basic assumption in strategic management is that consistently high performing companies are able to adapt effectively to external shocks. While adaptation of allocation of resources and its constraints have been investigated, it is important to also consider the allocation of attention. Therefore, this study seeks to examine the differences in the patterns in the allocation of resources and attention in a comparative case study with focus on Southwest Airlines. This study illustrates that the comparison of the patterns of allocation of resource and attention is very promising for the explanation of consistent superior performance.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper analyzes Federal Aviation Administration and American Transport Association data in order to determine actual resource allocation. Moreover, textual analysis of annual reports serves as basis for examining the patterns of allocation of attention.

Findings

The results of this paper reveal a striking divergence of allocation of resources and attention (particularly attention to differentiation) for Southwest Airlines – the consistently high performing firm in the US airline industry.

Research limitations/implications

The major limitation of the current study is the fact that it is a single industry study. It would be very interesting to replicate this study in other industries.

Practical implications

This study shows the importance of allocation of attention for firm performance. This is particularly relevant for resource intensive industries such as the airline industry where organizational inertia makes it hard to move resources fast. Yet, attention appears to have a great potential for firm performance and can be changed more easily.

Originality/value

Despite great interest in allocation of resources and attention in strategy research, authors rarely combine these two perspectives. Nadkarni and Barr present a notable exception. Yet, the latter authors focus on one specific aspect of adaptation of strategic actions, i.e. the timeliness of response. The present study takes a more comprehensive view of adaptation, e.g. the respective changes in slopes of adaptation.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. 34 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

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Article
Publication date: 15 July 2021

Gaurav Singh Chauhan

The article highlights potential mismeasurement in working capital allocations among academicians and practitioners and revisits the relationship between firms' working…

Abstract

Purpose

The article highlights potential mismeasurement in working capital allocations among academicians and practitioners and revisits the relationship between firms' working capital and productivity, as evident from their values.

Design/methodology/approach

The research design acknowledges the relative role of firms' working capital vis-a-vis other assets in generating revenue, thereby effectively accounting for the overall asset efficiency in influencing firm value. The authors use a multivariate framework to draw inferences from the marginal impact of working capital and its components on firm value while controlling for asset utilization.

Findings

The authors find that, after accounting for asset utilization, the marginal impact of working capital and its components on firm value is quite weak. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that firms' trade-off between short-term and long-term assets per se should not have any value implications. After controlling for their asset turnovers, the authors find that higher allocations to working capital relative to other assets are not necessarily value-destructive. The findings contrast with the past literature.

Research limitations/implications

The article, through its analytical and empirical insights, suggests that working capital allocations should be measured by managers and academicians relative to firms' other asset rather than their sales. Firm values should, therefore, be compared based on firms' overall asset utilization rather than inter-temporal allocations to short-term versus long-term assets.

Originality/value

Contrary to the existing literature so far, the article explicitly acknowledges the relative role of firms' other assets, and hence the overall asset utilization, to infer the marginal impact of working capital on firm value.

Details

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 16 June 2021

Umesh K. Raut and L.K. Vishwamitra

Software-define vehicular networks (SDVN) assure the direct programmability for controlling the vehicles with improved accuracy and flexibility. In this research, the…

Abstract

Purpose

Software-define vehicular networks (SDVN) assure the direct programmability for controlling the vehicles with improved accuracy and flexibility. In this research, the resource allocation strategy is focused on which the seek-and-destroy algorithm is implemented in the controller in such a way that an effective allocation of the resources is done based on the multi-objective function.

Design/methodology/approach

The purpose of this study is focuses on the resource allocation algorithm for the SDVN with the security analysis to analyse the effect of the attacks in the network. The genuine nodes in the network are granted access to the communication in the network, for which the factors such as trust, throughput, delay and packet delivery ratio are used and the algorithm used is Seek-and-Destroy optimization. Moreover, the optimal resource allocation is done using the same optimization in such a way that the network lifetime is extended.

Findings

The security analysis is undergoing in the research using the simulation of the attackers such as selective forwarding attacks, replay attacks, Sybil attacks and wormhole attacks that reveal that the replay attacks and the Sybil attacks are dangerous attacks and in future, there is a requirement for the security model, which ensures the protection against these attacks such that the network lifetime is extended for a prolonged communication. The achievement of the proposed method in the absence of the attacks is 84.8513% for the remaining nodal energy, 95.0535% for packet delivery ratio (PDR), 279.258 ms for transmission delay and 28.9572 kbps for throughput.

Originality/value

The seek-and-destroy algorithm is one of the swarm intelligence-based optimization designed based on the characteristics of the scroungers and defenders, which is completely novel in the area of optimizations. The diversification and intensification of the algorithm are perfectly balanced, leading to good convergence rates.

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

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Book part
Publication date: 7 July 2006

Matthew A. Halloran, James M. Walker and Arlington W. Williams

This paper examines binding multi-round commitments (MRCs) to the group account in a repeated voluntary contributions mechanism (VCM) game. Before each five-round…

Abstract

This paper examines binding multi-round commitments (MRCs) to the group account in a repeated voluntary contributions mechanism (VCM) game. Before each five-round interval, subjects in a four-person group are given the option to commit a portion of their endowments to the group account for each of the next five rounds. Decision rounds proceed, with each subject's commitment acting as the binding minimum of his group-account allocation for each round. The opportunity to make MRCs does not increase mean allocations to the group account relative to a control treatment. However, commitments do have implications for reciprocal behavior within groups, leading to higher outcome variances across groups in the MRCs treatment.

Details

Experiments Investigating Fundraising and Charitable Contributors
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-301-3

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Book part
Publication date: 16 January 2014

Martin Sefton and Ping Zhang

We compare allocation rules in uniform price divisible-good auctions. Theoretically, a “standard allocation rule (STANDARD)” and a “uniform allocation rule (UNIFORM)”…

Abstract

Purpose

We compare allocation rules in uniform price divisible-good auctions. Theoretically, a “standard allocation rule (STANDARD)” and a “uniform allocation rule (UNIFORM)” admit different types of low-price equilibria, which are eliminated by a “hybrid allocation rule (HYBRID).” We use a controlled laboratory experiment to compare the empirical performances of these allocation rules.

Design/methodology/approach

We conduct three-bidder uniform price divisible-good auctions varying the different allocation rules (standard, uniform, or hybrid) and whether or not explicit communication between bidders is allowed. For the case where explicit communication is allowed we also study six-bidder auctions.

Findings

We find that prices are similar across allocation rules. Under all three allocation rules, prices are competitive when bidders cannot explicitly communicate. With explicit communication, prices are collusive, and we observe collusive prices even when collusive agreements are broken. Collusive agreements are particularly fragile when the gain from a unilateral deviation is larger, and an implication of this is that collusive agreements are more robust under STANDARD.

Research limitations/implications

We do not find conclusive evidence of differences in performance among allocation rules. However, there is suggestive evidence that STANDARD may be more vulnerable to collusion.

Originality/value

Divisible-good uniform price auctions are used in financial markets, but it is not possible to use naturally occurring data to test how alternatives to the standard format would perform. Using laboratory methods we provide an initial test of alternative allocation rules.

Details

Experiments in Financial Economics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-141-0

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 27 February 2009

Mukesh Bajaj, Sumon Mazumdar, Vikram Nanda and Rahul Surana

It is widely believed that contrary to standard asset allocation theory, employees irrationally hold concentrated investments in company stock in their 401(k) plans thus…

Abstract

It is widely believed that contrary to standard asset allocation theory, employees irrationally hold concentrated investments in company stock in their 401(k) plans thus bearing firm-specific risk that could otherwise have been diversified away (see e.g., Benartzi, 2001). However, in measuring any such lack of diversification costs, a unique tax benefit associated with such investments (available to those who choose the Net Unrealized Appreciation (NUA) strategy) has been hitherto ignored. We analyze an employee's optimal allocation of retirement assets among alternative investments, including company stock, in the presence of the NUA tax benefit. The employee has a standard power utility function and seeks to maximize expected utility from her after-tax wealth upon retirement. Based on simulations, we find that, even when company stock is stochastically dominated by investments in the market index, the employee will allocate a non-trivial part of her retirement funds to company stock for a wide range of parameter values. Consistent with empirical evidence, the allocation to company stock is greater for employees closer to retirement and when the company's stock has experienced substantial gain in value.

Details

Research in Finance
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-447-4

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Book part
Publication date: 12 August 2017

Lisa M. Dilks, Tucker S. McGrimmon and Shane R. Thye

To determine the role of status information conveyance in a negative reward allocation setting.

Abstract

Purpose

To determine the role of status information conveyance in a negative reward allocation setting.

Methodology

Using previously published experimental data, we test the relative effects of status information conveyed by expressive and indicative status cues on the allocation of a negative reward. Further, we construct an alternative graph theoretic model of expectation advantage which is also tested to determine its model fit relative to the classic model of Reward Expectations Theory.

Findings

Results provide strong support for the conclusion that status information conveyed by expressive status cues influences reward allocations more than information conveyed by indicative cues. We also find evidence that our alternative graph theoretic model of expectation advantage improves model fit.

Originality

This research is the first to test the relative impact of expressive versus indicative status cues on the allocation of negative rewards and shows that status characteristics can have differential impacts on these allocations contingent on how characteristics are conveyed. Furthermore, the research suggests a graph theoretic model that allows for this differentiation based on information conveyance and provides empirical support for its structure in a negative reward allocation environment.

Research limitations

Future research is required to validate the results in positive reward situations.

Social implications

The results show that an individual’s expectations are altered by varying the manner in which status information is presented, thereby influencing the construction and maintenance of status hierarchies and the inequalities those structures generate. Thus, this research has implications for any group or evaluative task where status processes are relevant.

Details

Advances in Group Processes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-192-8

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 1 January 2014

Florian Kellner, Andreas Otto and Bernhard Lienland

Tooling is a common component of an industrial product’s manufacture. Specific tooling is devised to serve the fabrication of a particular product, while generic tooling…

Abstract

Purpose

Tooling is a common component of an industrial product’s manufacture. Specific tooling is devised to serve the fabrication of a particular product, while generic tooling can be used in the manufacture of multiple products. In the latter case, companies are confronted with the problem of fairly allocating the indirect costs of the tooling. This article studies how to allocate costs of generic tooling to single production orders.

Methodology

Ten allocation methods (AMs) are described that are in principle suited to the distribution of generic tooling costs to production orders. Since the presented methods have for the most part been discussed in differing contexts, we apply them to a specified generic tooling problem for comparison. Evaluation of the various methods is based on 16 criteria. Reasoning is supported by a computational Monte Carlo simulation. Furthermore, we suggest using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) to elaborate one final proposition concerning the most preferable allocation scheme.

Findings

The article reports the single allocation rules’ performances for different allocation scenarios. The described characteristics refer to fairness, efficiency, and simplicity as well as to empty-core performance. Using AHP analysis allows for the aggregation of the rules’ criteria ratings. Thus, especially suitable allocation schemes for the problem at hand are identified.

Practical implications

An allocation is required for budgeting reasons and also for the definition of projects’ bottom-up sales prices. Selecting the “right” AM is important, as a suboptimal AM can result in unfair allocation vectors, which will act as incentives to stop using the common resource, potentially leading to higher total costs.

Originality/value of the article

Research on the comparison of AMs is typically performed for certain purposes, such as enterprise networks, horizontal cooperative purchasing scenarios, or municipal service units. This article will augment the research evaluating AMs by introducing a novel set of evaluation criteria and by providing an in-depth comparison of AMs suited for the allocation of generic tooling costs.

Details

Advances in Management Accounting
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-632-3

Keywords

Abstract

Details

The Savvy Investor's Guide to Building Wealth Through Traditional Investments
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-608-2

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