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This study takes the position that the vitality of academic libraries is grounded in the working experiences of its librarians. It suggests that a full understanding of…
This study takes the position that the vitality of academic libraries is grounded in the working experiences of its librarians. It suggests that a full understanding of problems facing contemporary information professionals in the post-industrial workplace requires an analysis of the labouring aspects as well as the professional nature of their work. The study of changes in the academic library work experience thus depicts the state of the library, and has implications for other intellectual workers in a social environment characterized by expanding information technologies, constricted economic resources, and the globalization of information production. Academic librarians have long recognized that their vocation lies not only in the classical role in information collection, organization, and dissemination, but also in collaboration with faculty in the teaching and research process, and in the contribution to university governance. They are becoming increasingly active in the protection of information access and assurance of information quality in view of information degradation on the Internet and various compromises necessitated by interaction with third party commercial information producers.
The purpose of this paper is to provide a better understanding of the links between labor market conditions and academic performance by disentangling the effects of…
The purpose of this paper is to provide a better understanding of the links between labor market conditions and academic performance by disentangling the effects of unemployment. The contribution of this study is, therefore, threefold: first, it provides new evidence on the link between labor market conditions and educational decisions; second, it quantifies separately the two separate effects of unemployment on academic performance at age 15; and third, it analyses heterogeneous effects of the “family” and “local labor market” – proxied through the unemployment rate of the school community – effects.
The analysis of the impact of unemployment on academic performance is performed through hierarchical linear regressions.
The results show that academic performance at age 15 is affected by labor market conditions, and, at the same time, previous performance determines future educational decisions. Thus, these results highlight the sensitivity of students’ educational decisions and academic performance to shifts in the labor market.
This suggests that strategies aimed at reducing early school dropout rates should not be restricted solely to the education system. In other words, school failure is not only dependent on schools and, hence, on education policies.
This paper contributes to the existing literature by providing new evidence on the relationship between short-term labor market dynamics and academic performance. More specifically, this paper represents a significant step forward in comparison to the previous literature as it has provided responses to three key questions faced by countries with high unemployment and high early school dropout.
The institution of tenure has elicited debate and controversy since its introduction in higher education. Proponents argue the need for tenure based on academic freedom…
The institution of tenure has elicited debate and controversy since its introduction in higher education. Proponents argue the need for tenure based on academic freedom and efficient university governance. Critics argue that it represents inefficiency in the higher education labor market and protects less productive faculty members. The use of tenure in academic libraries has been no less controversial, with only 40−60% of academic libraries supporting tenure track positions for academic librarians. This dichotomy in the labor market for academic librarians represents a natural experiment and allows for the testing of the presence of a compensating wage differential for tenure.
This study examines 10 years’ worth of cross-sectional data drawn from member libraries of the Association of Research Libraries (ARL). Models examine both the institutional characteristics of tenure-granting ARL academic libraries and the impact of tenure on starting salaries. Issues related to both a union wage premium and a compensating wage differential due to tenure are explored. The results of this research suggest that tenure, while serving other functions within an academic library setting, does not have the predicted impact on starting salaries.
Aims to extend internal labour market theory by identifyingsub‐markets that influence administrative staffing decisions, and totest a theoretical model regarding the role…
Aims to extend internal labour market theory by identifying sub‐markets that influence administrative staffing decisions, and to test a theoretical model regarding the role of sub‐markets in explaining decisions to hire or promote. Hypothesizes that two latent dimensions (hierarchical and functional) of labour markets would explain these decisions. Analyses data from personnel records for position vacancies in a major university for three years 1982‐85 (n = 840), and confirms the fit of the theoretical model. Staffing decisions are directly influenced by characteristics associated with the sub‐markets of the position.
This essay offers a subjective literary exploration of personal events relevant to understanding an assault on academic freedom in a two-year college. The critically…
This essay offers a subjective literary exploration of personal events relevant to understanding an assault on academic freedom in a two-year college. The critically qualitative inquiry focuses on two events: (a) the questioning by faculty of dual credit policies and (b) an administratively engineered disciplinary action that functioned to have a chilling effect on free speech and to, thereby, quell academic freedom. The dual credit story comes in the form of an embedded narrative essay previously published as a Facebook note. That embedded essay presents the tale of the author and a colleague, the advisor for their community college newspaper, exercising their academic freedom to critically engage a community college administration’s violations of Illinois State dual credit laws. The embedded essay serves also to reveal an administrative response to the professors’ decision to report the violation of state law to the Higher Learning Commission and the Illinois Community College Board. Following that, the essay provides a qualitative examination of the administrative response and explains how the response served to quell academic freedom.
The paper aims to argue that US colleges and universities resemble a “leaning tower” with ever expanding layers of administrators and managers who control and dominate…
The paper aims to argue that US colleges and universities resemble a “leaning tower” with ever expanding layers of administrators and managers who control and dominate university life. This set of institutional changes has altered the way that college administrators are recruited.
The paper uses recent developments in institutional theories of organisations to explain the changing environment facing US colleges and universities and the role that college administrators play in this environment. The paper matches data from a sample of administrative positions advertised in the 2004‐2005 Careers section of the Chronicle of Higher Education with web‐based data on incumbents subsequently hired for each position. These data are supplemented with aggregate statistics provided by the Chronicle and the American Association of University Professors (AAUP).
Results suggest that only a small number of administrative positions advertised involve academic appointments with tenure and that the educational qualifications advertised span a surprisingly wide spectrum of credentials other than academic PhD's. Ethnically underrepresented groups and women are most likely to hold jobs requiring PhD's while whites and men occupy most of the positions where qualifications are ambiguous or classic academic qualifications are not called for.
The paper is the first to discuss the growing distinctive labour market for college administrators while providing preliminary data on the diversity effects of this labour market.
Studying academic careers can be particularly useful for discussions about new forms of professional careers. This conceptual paper seeks to shed light on academic careers…
Studying academic careers can be particularly useful for discussions about new forms of professional careers. This conceptual paper seeks to shed light on academic careers by discussing the (changing) multiple contexts governing academic careers.
A neo‐institutional framework for analysing academic careers is developed that treats them as outcomes of overlapping institutions belonging to the different social contexts in which academics simultaneously act. This approach allows one to locate academic careers in the context of new and traditional career literature and to address changes in the institutional context of academic careers.
Shows how traditional structures and mechanisms of academic careers are interwoven with the overall patterns of national higher education systems and their societal embeddedness. Empirical evidence was found that academic careers are becoming more boundaryless. But evidence was also found that academic careers are more bound to the organisation due to recent changes in university policies and practices.
The paper is limited to the discussion of overlapping institutional contexts governing academic careers. Further international comparisons could deepen understanding of specific formal and informal rules. Future macro‐micro research enables one to show how the career models can be traced to the career experiences and practices. Micro‐macro research allows one to see how the aggregate outcomes of individual actions can be traced to the overall performance of a given higher education system.
This conceptual paper proposes a neo‐institutional framework for analysing academic careers. This approach is useful for cross‐national comparisons, the study of emerging new career models and practices in academe, and the study of macro‐micro‐links in career research.
Surveys, from an American perspective, the existing literature oneconomic explanations of the behaviour of universities and scholars. Themodern literature is put in…
Surveys, from an American perspective, the existing literature on economic explanations of the behaviour of universities and scholars. The modern literature is put in historical perspective introduced by a brief discussion of the positions of two of the earliest and most distinguished contributors to the literature: Adam Smith and Max Weber. Discusses the human capital and implicit contracts literatures of the behaviour of scholars, the latter elaborated in terms of the issue of tenure. The most common theoretical economic analysis of the university is the view that it is best thought of as a non‐profit organization. Discusses variants of this view, with special attention to the literature on rent‐seeking in academe. Goes on to the empirical literature on the economics of academe in the areas of academic institutions, academic earnings functions, the earnings and status of minority scholars and academic production functions. Briefly considers the relevance of the current literature to the Althoff system, suggesting that Althoff′s able, trusted advisers, and his system of institutes, may have allowed him to avoid several inefficiences that have been identified by economists as present in other academic institutions. Although the centralization of decision making in the hands of one decision maker may be efficient if the decision maker is exceptionally able, more commonly the most efficient system will be a decentralized system that allows for greater diversity and competition. Concludes with a discussion of how hypotheses on the efficiency (and fairness) of various aspects of the Althoff system could, in principle, be tested.
This study examines the perspectives of adjunct (short-term contract) faculty teaching at offshore branch campuses in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. The rise of the global…
This study examines the perspectives of adjunct (short-term contract) faculty teaching at offshore branch campuses in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. The rise of the global adjunct labor class and the expansion of universities to overseas markets in the form of branch campuses are just two examples of the extension of neoliberal and consumerist ideology to higher education. While the problems of implementing corporate-style practice and policy in higher education is much critiqued in the literature, this research centers on the intersection of the two issues just mentioned. The primary motivations for undertaking this study were to explore a) branch campus adjuncts’ perceptions of being connected to their university community, and b) the possible impact of their labor conditions on pedagogical conditions. Five adjuncts from four separate branch campuses were interviewed, and the semi-structured interviews analyzed using a critical discourse analysis approach. The findings revealed that the adjuncts often felt isolated from their branch campus and considered themselves to be carrying out the educational mission of the home campus despite having no contractual relationship with the home campus. I argue that the working conditions of the adjuncts have a negative impact on teaching experience and, to a degree, on pedagogy. A more formalized employment relationship between branch campus adjuncts and the home campus is recommended, as well as the provision of professional development and research engagement opportunities for adjuncts.
ﺗﺑﺣ ث ھذه اﻟ د ر ا ﺳ ﺔ ﻓ ﻲ وﺟ ﮭﺎ ت ﻧ ظ ر اﻟ ﻣد ر ﺳ ﯾ ن اﻟ ﻣﻠ ﺣ ﻘﯾ ن ﻓ ﻲ ﻓ ر وع اﻟ ﺟ ﺎ ﻣﻌﺎ ت ﻓ ﻲ دﺑﻲ ، اﻹﻣﺎ را ت اﻟ ﻌرﺑﯾﺔ اﻟ ﻣﺗ ﺣدة. إ ن ﺻ ﻌود اﻟ طﺑﻘﺔ اﻟﻌﺎ ﻣﻠ ﺔ اﻟﻌﺎﻟ ﻣﯾ ﺔ اﻟﻣﻠ ﺣ ﻘﺔ و ﺗ و ﺳ ﻊ اﻟﺟ ﺎ ﻣﻌﺎ ت إﻟﻰ ا ﻷ ﺳ و ا ق اﻟﺧ ﺎ ر ﺟ ﯾ ﺔ ﻓ ﻲ ﺷ ﻛ ل ﻓ ر و ع ﺟ ﺎ ﻣﻌﯾ ﺔ ﻟﯾ ﺳ ت ﺳ و ى ﻣﺛﺎﻟﯾ ن ﻋ ﻠ ﻰ ا ﻣﺗدا د ا ﻹ ﯾدﯾ و ﻟ و ﺟ ﯾ ﺔ اﻟ ﻧﯾ و ﻟﯾﺑ ر اﻟﯾ ﺔ و ا ﻻ ﺳ ﺗ ﮭ ﻼ ﻛﯾ ﺔ إﻟ ﻰ اﻟﺗ ﻌﻠﯾم اﻟ ﻌﺎﻟ ﻲ. ﻋﻠ ﻰ اﻟ رﻏم ﻣ ن أ ن ﻣ ﺷﻛﻠ ﺔ ﺗ طﺑﯾ ق ﻣﻣﺎ رﺳﺎ ت وﺳﯾﺎ ﺳﺎ ت اﻟﻧ ﻣ ط اﻟﺗ ﺟﺎ ر ي ﻓ ﻲ اﻟﺗ ﻌﻠﯾم اﻟ ﻌﺎﻟ ﻲ ﻗد ﺗ ﻌر ﺿ ت ﻟﻧﻘد ﻛﺑﯾ ر ﻓ ﻲ اﻷدﺑﯾﺎ ت، ﻓﺈن ھذا اﻟﺑ ﺣ ث ﯾ رﻛز ﻋ ﻠ ﻰ ﺗﻘﺎط ﻊ اﻟ ﻣﺛﺎﻟﯾ ن اﻟ ﻣو ﺻ وﻓﯾ ن . ﻛﺎﻧ ت اﻟ دواﻓ ﻊ اﻟ رﺋﯾ ﺳ ﯾ ﺔ ﻹ ﺟ را ء ھذه اﻟد ر ا ﺳ ﺔ ھ ﻲ ا ﺳ ﺗ ﻛ ﺷ ﺎ ف 1 ( ﻣﻔﺎ ھﯾم ﻣﻠ ﺣﻘ ﻲ ﻓ روع اﻟﺟ ﺎ ﻣﻌﺎ ت ﻟ ﻛوﻧﮭم ﻣرﺗ ﺑ طﯾ ن ﺑ ﻣ ﺟﺗ ﻣﻊ اﻟﺟ ﺎ ﻣﻌﺔ؛ 2 ( ﻣﺎ ﺗﺄﺛﯾ ر ظرو ف ﻋﻣﻠ ﮭم ﻋﻠ ﻰ اﻟظ ر و ف اﻟ ﺗ ر ﺑ و ﯾ ﺔ. ﻟ ﺟ ﻣﻊ اﻟ ﺑﯾﺎﻧﺎ ت ، أﺟرﯾ ت ﻣﻘﺎﺑ ﻼت ﻣﻊ ﺧﻣ ﺳﺔ ﻣدرﺳﯾ ن ﻣﻠ ﺣﻘﯾ ن ﻣ ن أ رﺑ ﻌﺔ ﻓ روع ﺟﺎ ﻣﻌﯾ ﺔ ﻣﻧﻔ ﺻ ﻠ ﺔ. ﺗم ﺗ ﺣﻠﯾ ل اﻟ ﻣﻘﺎﺑ ﻼ ت ﺷﺑ ﮫ اﻟ ﻣﻧ ظﻣﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺗ ﺧدام ﻣﻧﮭ ﺞ ﺗ ﺣﻠﯾ ل اﻟ ﺧطﺎ ب اﻟﻧﻘد ي. وﻛ ﺷﻔ ت اﻟﻧﺗﺎﺋ ﺞ أ ن اﻟ ﻣﻠ ﺣﻘﯾ ن ﻏﺎ ﻟ ﺑًﺎ ﻣ ﺎ ﺷ ﻌ ر و ا ﺑ ﺎ ﻟ ﻌ ز ﻟ ﺔ ﻋ ن ﺣ ر ﻣ ﮭ م ا ﻟ ﺟ ﺎ ﻣ ﻌ ﻲ وا ﻋﺗﺑ روا أﻧﻔ ﺳﮭم ﯾﻧﻔذون اﻟ ﻣﮭﻣﺔ اﻟﺗ ﻌﻠﯾ ﻣﯾ ﺔ ﻟﻠ ﺣرم اﻟ ﺟﺎ ﻣﻌ ﻲ اﻟ ﻣ ﺣﻠ ﻲ رﻏم ﻋدم وﺟود ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺗ ﻌﺎﻗدﯾ ﺔ ﻟ ﮭم دا ﺧل اﻟ ﺣرم اﻟ ﺟﺎ ﻣﻌ ﻲ. أﻧﺎ أ زﻋم أن ظرو ف ﻋﻣ ل اﻟ ﻣﻠ ﺣﻘﯾ ن ﻟ ﮭﺎ ﺗﺄﺛﯾ ر ﺳﻠﺑ ﻲ ﻋﻠ ﻰ ﻣﻣﺎ رﺳﺔ اﻟﺗد رﯾ س . ﺗ و ﺻ ﻲ اﻟ د را ﺳﺔ ﺑ ﺧﻠ ق ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺗ و ظﯾ ف أ ﻛﺛ ر رﺳﻣﯾﺔ ﺑﯾ ن اﻟ ﻣﻠ ﺣﻘﯾ ن ﻓ ﻲ اﻟﺣ ر م اﻟﺟ ﺎ ﻣﻌ ﻲ اﻟﻔ ر ﻋ ﻲ و اﻟﺣ ر م اﻟ ﺟ ﺎ ﻣﻌ ﻲ اﻟدا ﺧ ﻠ ﻲ ، ﺑﺎﻹ ﺿ ﺎﻓﺔ إﻟ ﻰ ﺗ وﻓﯾ ر ﻓ ر ص اﻟﺗ ط وﯾ ر اﻟ ﻣﮭﻧ ﻲ واﻟﺑ ﺣ ث ﻟﻠ ﻣ ﺷ ﺎ ر ﻛﺔ ﻟﻠ ﻣد ر ﺳ ﯾ ن اﻟ ﻣﻠ ﺣ ﻘﯾ ن .