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1 – 10 of over 202000
Book part
Publication date: 3 December 2005

Harry F. Dahms

For sociological perspectives on globalization to do justice to its many facets, they must be informed by an understanding of modern societies as simultaneously complex…

Abstract

For sociological perspectives on globalization to do justice to its many facets, they must be informed by an understanding of modern societies as simultaneously complex, contingent, and contradictory – as modern capitalist societies. As is becoming ever more apparent, such an understanding of modern societies is the necessary precondition for identifying the defining features of globalization. Yet, for the most part, the history of the social sciences did not produce research agendas, theories, and methods designed to grasp complexity, contingency, and contradiction as core dimensions of modern social life that continually reinforce each other. The social sciences did not evolve as ongoing efforts to grasp the gravity each dimension exerts on concrete forms of political, economic and cultural life, and how the force of each depends on the constant exchange of energy with the other two. To the extent that scrutinizing the impact of globalization on the future – and possible futures – of human civilization is the primary challenge for social scientists to confront today, the current condition presents a unique, and perhaps most unusual opportunity to conceive anew the promise of each and all the social sciences, as elucidating how the complex, contingent, and contradictory nature of modern societies, in the name of advancing social justice, has engendered a regime of managing “social problems.”

Details

Social Theory as Politics in Knowledge
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-363-1

Book part
Publication date: 1 April 2003

Lawrence T Nichols

What I refer to as a “monological” tendency is clearly seen in Spector and Kitsuse’s definition of their central term:…we define social problems as the actions of

Abstract

What I refer to as a “monological” tendency is clearly seen in Spector and Kitsuse’s definition of their central term: …we define social problems as the actions of individuals or groups making assertions of grievances and claims with respect to some putative conditions (2001, p. 75).There is no mention here of audiences who hear such claims and grievances. The definition suggests that social problems are spoken into existence unilaterally by those who are especially aggrieved by perceived conditions of group life. Speakers are thus of primary importance, while listeners are not. There is likewise no reference to interactions between speakers and their audiences.

Details

Studies in Symbolic Interaction
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-009-8

Book part
Publication date: 20 May 2011

Harry F. Dahms

For perspectives on globalization to do justice to its many facets, they must be informed by an understanding of modern societies as simultaneously complex, contingent…

Abstract

For perspectives on globalization to do justice to its many facets, they must be informed by an understanding of modern societies as simultaneously complex, contingent, and contradictory – as modern capitalist societies. As is becoming ever more apparent, such an understanding of modern societies is the necessary precondition for identifying the defining features of globalization. Yet, for the most part, the history of the social sciences did not produce research agendas, theories, and methods designed to grasp complexity, contingency, and contradiction as core dimensions of modern social life that continually reinforce each other. The social sciences did not evolve as ongoing efforts to grasp the gravity each dimension exerts on concrete forms of political, economic, and cultural life, and how the force of each depends on the constant exchange of energy with the other two. To the extent that scrutinizing the impact of globalization on the future – find possible futures – of human civilization is the primary challenge for social scientists to confront today, the current condition presents a unique, and perhaps most unusual opportunity to conceive anew the promise of each and all the social sciences, as elucidating how the complex, contingent, and contradictory nature of modern societies, in the name of advancing social justice, has engendered a regime of managing “social problems.”

Details

The Vitality Of Critical Theory
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-798-8

Article
Publication date: 12 April 2022

Jonathan Kimmitt, Vesna Mandakovic and Pablo Muñoz

Social entrepreneurs engage in action because social entrepreneurs want to solve social problems. Consequently, to see more social entrepreneurship in contexts with the…

Abstract

Purpose

Social entrepreneurs engage in action because social entrepreneurs want to solve social problems. Consequently, to see more social entrepreneurship in contexts with the most severe social problems is expected. This paper argues that this is an oversimplification of the problem-action nexus in social entrepreneurship and that action does not necessarily correspond to the observed scale of social problems. Drawing on the theoretical framing of crescive conditions, this relationship is affected by forms of public investment as institutions that distinctively promote engagement and public interest amongst social entrepreneurs. Thus, this paper assesses the relationship between varying levels of social problems and social entrepreneurship action (SEA) and how and to what extent public investment types – as more and less locally anchored crescive conditions – affect this relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

The hypotheses are tested with a series of random-effects regression models. The data stem from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor's (GEM) 2015 social entrepreneurship survey and Chile's 2015 National Socioeconomic Characterisation Survey (CASEN). The authors combined both data sets and cross-matched individual-level data (action and investment) with commune-level data (social problem scale) resulting in unique contextualised observations for 1,124 social entrepreneurs.

Findings

Contrary to current understanding, this study finds that SEA is positively associated with low-social problem scale. This means that high levels of deprivation do not immediately lead to action. The study also finds that locally anchored forms of investment positively moderate this relationship, stimulating action in the most deprived contexts. On the contrary, centralised public investment leads to increased social entrepreneurial action in wealthier communities where it is arguably less needed.

Originality/value

The findings contribute to the literature on SEA in deprived contexts, social and public investment as well as policy-level discussion and broader issues of entrepreneurship and social problems.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 28 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 October 2019

Hamilton Coimbra Carvalho and Jose Afonso Mazzon

This paper aims to expose the inadequacy of social marketing to tackle complex social problems, while proposing an expansion in the discipline’ conceptual repertoire. The…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to expose the inadequacy of social marketing to tackle complex social problems, while proposing an expansion in the discipline’ conceptual repertoire. The goal is to incorporate complexity tools, in particular from the system dynamics field, and the promotion of mindware within a true transdisciplinary paradigm.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses literature review to support the proposed theoretical development. It also presents a short case study.

Findings

Most problems that plague our modern societies have a distinctive complex nature that is not amenable to traditional social marketing interventions. Social marketing has simplified the problem of bringing about societal change by thinking that upstream social actors can be influenced in the same way as downstream individuals. This paper shows that this is not the case while proposing a framework to close this gap.

Research limitations/implications

The proposed framework is a theoretical one. It depends on further refinements and actual application to wicked problems.

Practical implications

Complex social problems – or wicked problems – remain widespread in modern societies. Moreover, they are getting worse over time. The paper presents a proposal to redefine the limits of the social marketing discipline so it can be more useful to tackle such problems. Practical approaches such as measuring the success of mindware in the marketplace of ideas are implied in the proposed framework.

Social implications

The increase in complexity of social problems has not been accompanied by an evolution in the discipline of social marketing. The lack of proper conceptual tools has prevented the discipline from contributing to tackling these problems effectively. Some interventions may actually worsen the underlying problems, as illustrated in the paper.

Originality/value

This paper identifies two major gaps associated with the social marketing discipline, in particular the lack of complexity and systems thinking and the forsaking of ideas (mindware) as a legitimate goal of the discipline. This realization corroborates the claim that boundaries among disciplines are often artificial, hindering the proper understanding of complex social problems. In turn, only the use of adequate conceptual lenses makes it possible to devise interventions and programs that tackle actual causes (instead of symptoms) of complex social problems.

Details

Journal of Social Marketing, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-6763

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1996

David Marshall Hunt and Mohammed I. At‐Twaijri

Stafford & Waifs (1985) research focused on delineating what constitutes a social problem. ‘Issues managers’ will benefit greatly from an improved understanding of the…

Abstract

Stafford & Waifs (1985) research focused on delineating what constitutes a social problem. ‘Issues managers’ will benefit greatly from an improved understanding of the characteristics which delineate issues as social problems in the eyes of the public, the public being only one of their stakeholders (e.g. public, customers, suppliers, government, shareholders and employees) Greening & Gray (1994). This research is an international or cultural extension of the Stafford & Warr research on a U.S.A. sample to a Saudi Arabian sample. Saudi Arabia is a distinctly different culture in values and language from the U.S.A. and therefore offers some interesting cross‐cultural contrasts and comparisons with regard to perceptions of social issues. As many organizations go global, they must develop an understanding of what constitutes a social problem within each of the cultures they operate in. The results of this study show significant differences between what Saudi's and U.S.A. citizen's perceive to be social problems/issues. These findings strongly support Stafford & Warr's three part scheme for delineating social issues.

Details

Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

Article
Publication date: 15 August 2011

Jed Boardman

This paper aims to provide an overview of social exclusion and the way in which people with mental health problems are excluded from mainstream society in contemporary Britain.

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to provide an overview of social exclusion and the way in which people with mental health problems are excluded from mainstream society in contemporary Britain.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper presents the main findings of the work of the Royal College of Psychiatrists Scoping Group on Social Exclusion and Mental Health.

Findings

An individual is socially excluded if he or she does not participate in key activities of the society in which he or she lives. People with mental health problems, particularly those with long‐term psychoses, are among the most excluded groups in the UK. They may be excluded from material resources (poverty), from socially valued productive activity, from social relations and neighborhoods, from civic participation and from health and health services.

Originality/value

The findings of the Scoping Group provide an up to date view of the exclusion in people with mental health problems in the UK.

Details

Mental Health and Social Inclusion, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-8308

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 February 2011

Walter Wymer

The reason for this paper is to better understand why many social marketing campaigns produce poor results and to propose a model to guide social marketing strategic…

14498

Abstract

Purpose

The reason for this paper is to better understand why many social marketing campaigns produce poor results and to propose a model to guide social marketing strategic planning to improve program outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a conceptual paper which discusses a new social marketing model to remove upstream causes of target social problems.

Findings

It appears that social marketing planning may be limited by over‐reliance on commercial marketing tactics and an over‐emphasis on individual behavior change. Finding upstream sources of social problems is a first step. However, social marketers must be willing to employ tactics to ameliorate structural, upstream causes of social problems.

Research limitations/implications

The social marketing field needs to further its developmental progress by reducing its use of commercial marketing concepts and increasing its use of concepts from other fields like public health, political science, and social movements.

Practical implications

Practicing social marketers can improve their outcomes if they identify upstream causes of social problems and find ways to reduce their harmful effects.

Social implications

There are major social implications because removing upstream sources of social problems will invoke opposition from powerful interests. A new array of complexity is involved in using activism as a tactic, which may be needed. Conflicts will have to be dealt with and responded to effectively.

Originality/value

The value of this paper is to enhance awareness of the self‐imposed limitations on social marketing strategies and to propose a means of removing these limitations and improving the ability to improve social well‐being.

Details

Journal of Social Marketing, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-6763

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 January 2017

Ann-Marie Kennedy, Sommer Kapitan, Neha Bajaj, Angelina Bakonyi and Sean Sands

This paper aims to use systems thinking, systems theory and Camillus’ framework for responding to wicked problems to provide social marketers with a theoretically based…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to use systems thinking, systems theory and Camillus’ framework for responding to wicked problems to provide social marketers with a theoretically based framework for approaching strategy formation for wicked problems. The paper treats fast fashion as an illustrative case and takes a step back from implementation to provide a framework for analysing and gaining understanding of wicked problem system structure for social marketers to then plan more effective interventions. The proposed approach is intended as a theory-based tool for social marketing practitioners to uncover system structure and analyse the wicked problems they face.

Design/methodology/approach

Following Layton, this work provides theoretically based guidelines for analysing the black box of how to develop and refine strategy as first proposed in Camillus’ (2008) framework for responding to wicked issues.

Findings

The prescription thus developed for approaching wicked problems’ system structure revolves around identifying the individuals, groups or entities that make up the system involved in the wicked problem, and then determining which social mechanisms most clearly drive each entity and which outcomes motivate these social mechanisms, before determining which role the entities play as either incumbent, challenger or governance and which social narratives drive each role’s participation in the wicked problem.

Originality/value

This paper shows that using systems thinking can help social marketers to gain big picture thinking and develop strategy for responding to complex issues, while considering the consequences of interventions.

Details

Journal of Social Marketing, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-6763

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 23 September 2016

Aparna Katre

Social entrepreneurs who use market mechanisms to solve wicked problems (Rittel & Webber, 1973) may benefit from practices based on design thinking. Design thinking offers…

Abstract

Social entrepreneurs who use market mechanisms to solve wicked problems (Rittel & Webber, 1973) may benefit from practices based on design thinking. Design thinking offers approaches to work iteratively on both problem and solution spaces collaboratively with multiple diverse stakeholders, which is characteristic of innovating for social change. This research conceptualizes designing as a construct formed by three practices: making improvements, generating creative leaps, and problem-solving. Using Boland and Collopy’s (2004) conception of a sense-making manager, it proposes “how” nascent social entrepreneurs take actions and also proposes “what” specific activities they undertake for the development of the venture. A conceptual model proposing “what” it is that social entrepreneurs do and “how” they go about their activities affecting new venture development is tested using structural equation modeling. Preliminary support for the predictive capability of the model is encouraging, suggesting that practices based on design thinking may be further developed in order to advance theoretical understanding of the application of design thinking for social entrepreneurship.

Details

Models of Start-up Thinking and Action: Theoretical, Empirical and Pedagogical Approaches
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-485-3

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 202000