Including Learners with Low-Incidence Disabilities: Volume 5

Cover of Including Learners with Low-Incidence Disabilities

Table of contents

(23 chapters)
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Introduction

Pages xiii-xiv
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Section I: Strategies and Supports for Inclusion

Abstract

This chapter provides an overview of inclusion for learners with low-incidence disabilities and highlights related terminology. Special education is detailed as a service and not a place. A comprehensive definition of the term low-incidence disabilities is provided. The chapter concludes with potentials and challenges related to the least restrictive environment and inclusion.

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Abstract

This chapter provides a conceptual framework for inclusive education for learners with low-incidence disabilities grounded in the argument that increased access and participation in socially valued roles, activities, and settings are both the most fundamental goals of the inclusive education process and also the primary means in which these goals are achieved. By challenging traditional views of learning development as merely the acquisition of skills, the proposed framework largely considers the social contexts in which the development of new skills takes place. Through the presentation of three case illustrations, the authors describe ways in which the framework may be relevant to designing and evaluating programs of inclusive education that are responsive to the needs of diverse communities, including those in a variety of international contexts.

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Abstract

A shift from a medical model to a social model of including learners with disabilities has occurred over the past 25 years (Stella, Forlin, & Lan, 2007). This shift has impacted both preservice teacher preparation and in-service teacher professional development. This chapter utilizes a conceptual framework built on the work of Forlin and colleagues (Forlin, Loreman, Sharma, & Earle, 2009; Sharma, Forlin, Loreman, & Earle, 2006; Stella et al., 2007) to guide teacher preparation and professional development. This conceptual framework provides a model for (1) addressing attitudes and perceptions; (2) increasing knowledge of disability policies, laws, and evidence-based practices for providing instruction in inclusive settings; (3) and increasing experiences with individuals with disabilities, including experiences within inclusive settings. In addition, the framework incorporates aspects of the context within which inclusion is to occur. Implications include recommendations for teacher training and professional development to improve inclusive education for learners with LID.

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Abstract

This chapter explores a US state-endorsed tool for reviewing district, school, and classroom inclusive practices. The Best Practices for Inclusive Education (BPIE) assessment tool was developed through a collaborative initiative between state personnel, University faculty, and representatives from a federally funded technical assistance project, Florida Inclusion Network. The tool supports a facilitated review and subsequent action planning for greater inclusive practices that includes learners with severe intellectual disabilities. This chapter describes the BPIE process and offers examples of its application in districts across Florida with particular reference to practices that support learners with severe intellectual disabilities.

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Abstract

This chapter describes the influences that are fundamental to facilitating a system of support for inclusive education for students with low-incidence disabilities. Some of the major factors are values and beliefs, rights, relationships and a sense of belonging, policy, and effective practices (Smith, 2006; Walther-Thomas, Korinek, McLaughlin, & Williams, 2000). Within each of the features, collaboration is inherent and essential. A summary of literature on each feature is provided with examples to support the importance for students with low-incidence disabilities. The effective practices of Universal Design for Learning (UDL), co-teaching, peer supports, and school-based teams are highlighted. In order to move forward, educators and administrators need to take responsibility for all children. Effective leadership models are characterized by collaborative efforts that foster a shared responsibility of the team, emphasize thoughtful planning, and identify and allocate the necessary resources and supports.

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Abstract

Facilitating inclusive supports and services for learners with low-incidence disabilities involves collaborative teaming, understanding the benefits and challenges involved in delivering inclusive supports, and appreciating the diverse and unique needs of this population. In this chapter, we provide families, educators, researchers, academics, related service personnel, and other professionals with examples of models of service and support delivery. Emphasis will be on school-age learners with low-incidence disabilities. Additionally, an insider perspective of the opportunities for, as well as benefits and barriers to, successful implementation of supports and services for learners with low-incidence disabilities is presented. The chapter concludes with future directions for research.

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Abstract

In the United States, the mandate to provide access to general education curriculum standards for all learners is clear. This chapter provides an overview and a framework for making individualized and curriculum choices for learners with low-incidence disabilities and cognitive deficits. Topics covered include reconciling an ecological curriculum model with a standards-based framework and an expanded discussion on embedding individualized learning targets within the ongoing lessons, routines, and activities of inclusive classrooms. Carefully planned and implemented embedded instruction can provide a match between a student’s need for individualized instruction and the everyday practices of inclusive classrooms.

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Abstract

Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is the most common brain injury and the leading cause of disability in children in the United States (Schilling & Getch, 2012). In addition to physical and cognitive rehabilitation, a family and their child need socio-emotional supports during school re-entry after brain injury. This chapter presents an understanding of the experience of school re-entry for children with TBI from the perspective of the parents. Their narratives of the preinjury, injury, and postinjury experience are framed in the medical and social models as well as special education. Findings suggest that throughout the process, community is a constant while parents’ advocacy roles shift with regard to their child’s holistic care. Academic research in this area is limited given TBI is a hidden disability representing a broad spectrum of diagnosis, where the individual may have no obvious physical effects even though the injury may have a significant impact on their behavior and daily life. This chapter will propose interventions for educators to use with consideration of cultural and familiar traditions.

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Section II: International Perspectives on Including Learners with Low-Incidence Disabilities

Abstract

This chapter draws upon research conducted in the Republic of Ireland to discuss the views of students who have been identified as having a range of high and low-incidence special educational needs. The data reported within the chapter are taken from Project Inclusive Research in Irish Schools (IRIS), a longitudinal research investigation using a mixed methods approach conducted within the country. The chapter provides evidence that students with a range of needs are able to articulate their views of their learning needs, to comment upon approaches that they find helpful and to reflect upon their personal growth. The authors suggest that the insights that can be provided by students should inform the development of the curriculum and approaches to teaching.

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The purpose of this chapter is to share the experience and discuss issues that support and hinder inclusive practices in Taiwan. In this chapter, inclusion-related culture and policies are described in the context of Taiwan, followed by the challenges and lessons learned from promoting inclusive education for students with disabilities from the perspectives of general and special education teachers. Some promising strategies applied by teachers are also discussed in this chapter based on the findings of the research literature in Taiwan. Implications for practice and research about inclusion are addressed at the end of this chapter.

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This chapter focuses on the participation and social interaction of pupils with low-incidence disabilities in the Swedish educational system with the goal of relating policies and practices in education for learners with low-incidence disabilities. Sweden has a welfare system that ensures that all low-incidence learners and their families receive support in education and in their everyday life. The research section concentrates on studies that focus on participation and social interaction in an educational context (training school), which is an adapted education program for low-incidence learners characterized by its high staff ratio and individualized forms of teaching. Despite legislation, policies, and intentions that Swedish schools shall include all pupils, it is still a challenge for the Swedish school system to provide education for low-incidence learners in inclusive environments. Research shows that low-incidence learners primarily have vertical relations with teachers and assistants in school, and that there is a lack of horizontal relationships with peers. The greatest challenge is to create learning environments that contribute to building relationships between low-incidence learners and learners without disabilities.

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There has been a policy for including pupils with severe, profound and multiple learning difficulties in mainstream schools in England since the 1980s. However, effective inclusive education has proved to be very difficult to achieve in practice. Currently, there is a mixed economy of special and mainstream schools offering inclusive education, and we argue that the place of education is less important than the quality of that education. Ideally, pupils with S/PMLD would be educated in their own local communities, alongside their non-disabled peers, but this situation is not yet established in English schools.

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This chapter chronicles the evolution of Russian academic practices that are designed to support all students in one educational environment. It draws on Russia’s time-honored practices and includes the contemporary global push toward inclusive settings. This dialogue examines the theories that lay the foundation for Russia’s inclusive transformation. The method of examination for this descriptive qualitative work is a general review of historical educational legislation. The objective is to examine the barriers to inclusion as well as to provide a description of best practices and guiding principles. This historical discussion addresses the foundation of education and builds a context for educators to view the process of embracing inclusion. In this chapter, language, parental views and educational practices are all assessed to comprehend the Russian social nuances that impact change.

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This chapter describes the status of past and current special education, inclusive education, and Low-Incidence Disabilities (LID) in South Korea by introducing historical background, legal development, and current trend. Four main areas related to special education in South Korea are highlighted: the historical background and legal development of special education; current laws relating to special education; inclusive education and LID; and the future of LID support in South Korea. This chapter will provide valuable information for those who want to become more knowledgeable about the current status of special education and inclusive education for learners with LID in South Korea.

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This chapter focuses on the special education system of education in Poland since the transformation of the political system in the late 1980s. The move from segregated settings toward more integrated settings for students with low-incidence disabilities is described along with the new structure of special education identification and classroom settings. Current strategies and support for students with high-incidence disabilities in Poland who are placed in general education and special education are discussed. Ideas on how to improve the existing system are outlined and solutions are presented. Overall, the implementation of educational reforms brought about positive changes in educational settings for most students identified with special needs in Poland. Due to this emphasis on inclusion, more students with high-incidence disabilities have the chance to succeed in integrated schools with adequate support.

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About the Authors

Pages 341-350
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Index

Pages 351-357
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Cover of Including Learners with Low-Incidence Disabilities
DOI
10.1108/S1479-363620155
Publication date
2015-02-04
Book series
International Perspectives on Inclusive Education
Editor
Series copyright holder
Emerald Publishing Limited
ISBN
978-1-78441-250-0
Book series ISSN
1479-3636