Entrepreneurship in International Marketing: Volume 25
Table of contents(19 chapters)
List of Contributors
Part I: Entrepreneurship in International Marketing
Born global firms undertake international business at or near their founding. In general, they are a type of highly international small and medium-sized enterprise. In the past two decades, born globals have emerged in substantial numbers worldwide, in conjunction with evolutionary trends in globalization and advanced information and communications technologies. In this paper, I summarize extant literature on born globals. I also address their role in the emergent field of international entrepreneurship and the linkage to national competitive advantage. Finally, I suggest numerous research directions on born globals, especially in the context of emerging markets.
Market orientation is often mentioned as a key factor for the success of domestic and international activities, but our knowledge about differences in degrees of market orientation remains limited for firms that have varying degrees of international activities. In particular, the literature is very sparse with regard to studies of newly established firms. Our study empirically explores this gap examining how different types of new ventures adopt two strategic components of market orientation – customer orientation and competitor orientation. Our empirical evidence is based on responses from CEOs of 249 Danish manufacturing firms that are categorized into four groups, depending on their degree of international operations within the first three years. We demonstrate that the most internationally oriented firms seem to be the most market oriented in general. They are significantly more competitor-oriented than domestically oriented firms, but the results regarding customer orientation are more mixed. Interestingly, we find indications that the strategic emphasis on customer orientation may be higher for firms with domestic operations than for those with limited international operations. We discuss implications for research and managers.
The aim of this study is to examine how knowledge-intensive born global firms operating in international markets develop and maintain long-term relationships with their customers that insure their continued growth beyond the initial stage of internationalization. The study adopts a case study approach, focusing on two Indian born global firms operating with the knowledge-based services sector. The study shows that getting to know the customer intimately helps firms to retain customers over long periods of time. Customer-relationship management strategy is in line with the entrepreneurial orientation of the firms under consideration.
While earlier research discussed networking and alliance strategies of born globals on a strategic level, this paper investigates and analyses the specific organizational skills that enable the firms to successfully initiate, manage and finish their R&D alliances with Multinational Enterprises (MNEs). It is discussed how the specific aspects of the alliance capability can help born globals to counteract the challenges and risks of collaborating with MNEs. A longitudinal process study of a Danish technology born global with three embedded cases of its R&D and marketing alliances with Asian MNEs is discussed. The organizational skills comprising the alliance capability are defined to be internal and external assessment skills, need detection and coupling skills, asset protection skills, project management skills, termination skills and the learning processes to build the alliance capability further. A set of propositions is developed to tie these organizational skills to alliance performance.
In this study, we examine the influence of different components of dynamic capabilities on value-based pricing and export performance. We develop a research model investigating the three component factors of dynamic capabilities, that is, adaptive capability, absorptive capability, and innovative capability, and their respective influence on value-based pricing and export performance. Furthermore, we hypothesize a relationship between value-based pricing and export performance. Building upon a sample of 172 Austrian CEOs and marketing managers, we test our hypotheses through structural equation modeling using partial least squares. The results reveal that a firm’s adaptive capability and innovative capability both positively influence value-based pricing. Furthermore, our results show that adaptive capability has a positive influence on export performance. The relationship between value-based pricing and export performance could not be supported. Hence, we conclude that a firm’s adaptive capability plays a central role in international pricing and leads to enhanced export performance.
This study examines the influence of marketing strategies on export ventures undertaken by micro and small enterprises (MSEs) established in emerging countries and in Brazil specifically. We aim to determine whether a direct relationship exists between marketing strategies and internationalization performance results and to evaluate the influence of entrepreneurial marketing (EM) on export marketing strategy (EMS) and performance. A conceptual model based on the work of Cavusgil and Zou (1994) is developed and used to analyze MSE characteristics (firm and products), EMS, EM, and export marketing performance. An empirical survey was conducted on 173 Brazilian MSEs across various sectors, and data analysis was performed using structural equation modeling. The results highlight the importance of marketing activities in shaping MSE export performance, mainly by adapting prices to targeted markets, thereby improving product competitiveness. The study also emphasizes the importance of company international competence (expertise) and EM as influencers of export performance. The study contributes to the field through its application of the EM construct, by adapting the conceptual MSE model and by filling empirical gaps knowledge. The results will guide MSE management strategies that will be critical to the Brazilian economy and to other emerging countries.
This paper aims to examine the extent to which social media competence (SMC) determines exporting companies’ actual adoption of social media applications, which eventually might impact these firms’ performance. Quantitative study where data were collected through a web-based survey addressed to Spanish exporters. SEM is employed for testing the hypotheses. SMC has an influence on the firm’s actual use of these social media applications, which in turn has an impact on the firm’s performance. However, the intention to use social media applications mediates the relationship between the firm’s SMC and its social media usage.
Part II: Miscellaneous International Marketing Issues
This study examines the conceptual domain of international marketing following substantial growth in its development. With the objective to investigate recent patterns and development in the literature this study evaluates 1,816 research articles on international marketing published between 1990 and 2012. The classification of conceptual domain has yielded 57 configurational contents under seven prime research streams. Simple meta-analysis on international marketing literature created a clear depiction of attention of contributors toward research streams and the number of contributors, and worthy sources of literature. Several directions for advancement of knowledge in international marketing, identified fields, and their implications for future research are discussed.
Although research on foreign market entry and expansion behavior has attracted significant interest in the literature, there is a general lack of research (either conceptual or empirical) on the exit behavior of international companies. To address this issue, the authors develop a conceptual framework to understand firms’ foreign exit behavior. The objective is to lay the conceptual foundation for subsequent empirical research in this area. A series of research propositions have been advanced that can guide hypothesis generation for future research.
Lately, a number of authors have applied institutional theory when discussing global marketing and emerging market specificities. It has also been argued that the institutional forces influencing a firm will differ between markets and that firms can approach them in different ways. In this paper we conduct a qualitative analysis, based upon NVIVO, of three Swedish firms as they position themselves on the Chinese and Brazilian markets. We compare the institutional context as perceived by the firms in China and Brazil and we also analyse to what extent they have a proactive or a reactive approach when managing their institutional environment, and to what extent their actions are governed by local practices and corporate practices. As a result we present a country institutional profile including a set of issue-specific factors that concern firms’ positioning on emerging markets.
The purpose of this study is to explore how the value of being global brands is experienced differently based upon foreign versus domestic origin of a brand. The conceptual framework is tested on samples from three countries – United States, India, and China. The data are analyzed using partial least squares structural equation modeling. The belief that global brands are of higher quality, more socially responsible, and deliver a sense of belongingness to a global community led to an orientation toward globally available consumption alternatives, or global consumption orientation (GCO). High GCO has been associated with preferences for global brands; however, we find that while this preference indeed extends to global brands based in foreign countries, it does not extend to global brands based in the home country. The study of global brands seldom distinguishes among types of global brands. This research examines global brands based on their foreign versus domestic origin; thus it offers a more nuanced understanding of the boundaries for the value of global brands.
The luxury brands sales in emerging markets will see rapid growth. When entering the emerging markets, luxury fashion brands always find it challenging to balance adaption with local consumer culture and standardization to maintain their global brand image. The present study attempts to examine this intriguing issue of adaptation and standardization and many other challenges for luxury brands in the emerging market by focusing on China’s luxury market. A case study on China is conducted, which consisted of reviewing academic literature and consulting trade reports, examining over 50 luxury brands’ Chinese websites, reading newspaper articles, conducting field trips to luxury retail outlets, and studying luxury brands’ advertisements in major Chinese fashion magazines. We identified five intriguing market characteristics that must be taken into account in order to succeed in this market. Specifically, we found that to perform well in China’s luxury market, luxury brands should have a good understanding of the conflicting Chinese social cultural sentiments toward luxury consumption. Luxury brands should seek a balance between standardization and adaptation and appeal to both consumers’ converging needs and their desire for products that embrace local elements. Further, given the unique consumer characteristics, luxury brands should better serve the young and economically diverse consumer base in China.
In the context of a retailer with an international supply network, this paper develops theories of (a) how both stability and strong ties in an international supply network combine to yield a resource base that enables the development of flexible relationships with suppliers, (b) how stability and relationship flexibility in the international supply network of a retail reseller may in turn be driven both by the international diversity and by the density of the retailer’s supply network in a product category, and (c) how both the international diversity and the density of a retailer’s supply network may directly affect the likelihood of a retailer developing flexible relationships with its supplier. In doing so, this paper develops and presents six hypotheses and discusses some approaches to measurement of the underlying constructs and testing the hypothesized effects.
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- Book series
- Advances in International Marketing
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- Emerald Publishing Limited
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