The Emerald Handbook of Public–Private Partnerships in Developing and Emerging Economies

Cover of The Emerald Handbook of Public–Private Partnerships in Developing and Emerging Economies

Perspectives on Public Policy, Entrepreneurship and Poverty

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Table of contents

(24 chapters)

Prelims

Pages i-xxxviii
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Part I Understanding PPPs in Developing and Emerging Countries

Abstract

The purpose of this chapter is to analyse Public–Private Partnerships (PPPs) in the developing and emerging economies as a multifaceted challenge from viewpoint of the 10 keys ‘for’ and ‘against’ PPPs: feasibility; planning; optimization; modernization and development; financing; project delivery; project operation; supervision; user satisfaction and accounting issues. The conceptual model and the reasons were formulated by the authors some 10 years ago, based on the literature and case-study reviews. Relevance of those reasons was verified in practice. The knowledge and critical perspective on the above-stated reasons are relevant for the implementation of PPP projects in any national economy – developed, emerging or developing, but it is quintessential for the implementation of PPPs in the economies that are at the early stage of implementation of PPPs. Although for the identification of the above-stated reasons, wide comparative literature and case-studies review was conducted, the reasons were verified in practice in Slovenia only. Slovenia is considered as one of the most advanced transition countries of Central Europe and a developed economy. This chapter can improve public policy, teaching, learning and practice of PPP implementation in developing and emerging economies. The value of this chapter is in the approach which goes beyond the usual defending or renouncing of PPPs. This chapter also clearly identifies the importance of a sincere motive for the implementation of PPPs by the government as a prerequisite for the successful implementation of PPPs.

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This chapter uses data from the World Bank’s Private Participation in Infrastructure project database, and hand-collected evidence on project performance, to examine how PPPs are applied to infrastructure development in Africa, and how well they have delivered expected benefits. It has two analytical parts: an investment trend analysis and a meta-analysis of project performance and explanatory factors. The analysis shows growth both in number and volume of PPP investments that is weaker than that observed in other developing regions, and more volatile. The performance of PPP contracts appears to be improving over time with an overall cancelation rate of 7% over the assessment period. Although PPPs have contributed to increasing infrastructure stock, they have not completely met their potential, especially with respect to increasing infrastructure access rates. The main determinants of performance include accuracy of costing and allocation of risks, consistency of macro policies with the objectives and functioning of PPPs, coherence of sector policies and plans and local capacity. Contract cancellations are mainly explained by the misalignment of outcomes with government objectives, in particular, access and investment objectives. These findings suggest that PPP application should be well planned to ensure coherence of a wide range of policies, readiness of institutions and capacity of public sector actors. This chapter contributes to closing information gaps on a relatively novel policy instrument, and provides useful evidence to support prudent policy making at the time of considerable growth in PPP application.

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Abstract

Public–Private Partnerships (PPPs) are used worldwide to reduce the infrastructure gap. Public entities encourage private sector involvement through PPPs, but the degree of such commitment is affected by several factors, related to the specific PPP project and to the institutional and economic environment in the host country. The purpose of this chapter is to perform an empirical analysis of the determinants of the degree of private sector participation in PPPs in developing and emerging countries. This chapter explores fractional response models to explain the degree of private participation in PPPs using data from 2000 to 2014, obtained from the World Bank’s PPI database. The results suggest that the type of project is a key determinant of the degree of private sector involvement. Favourable fiscal conditions and the existence of explicit support from the government (direct or indirect) increase the degree of private involvement. Multilateral support reduces private participation, emphasizing a substitution effect. In the same way, private sector involvement appears as a substitute to overcome failures in countries with poor financial systems. The results are particularly important for public authorities. This chapter identifies key factors that can foster private sector involvement in PPPs. Although the expansion of PPPs is a well-accepted reality, empirical studies that explore factors that affect the degree of private sector involvement are still lacking. This chapter particularly addresses this topic.

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The goal of this chapter is to respond to the theoretical inquiries by scholars who are interested in how the public–private partnership (PPP) models adapt to China’s context where political power dictates economic strategies. We also want to provide suggestions to policy designers who aim to promote a sustainable investment environment for domestic and international investors. We review the literature that explains the upside and downside of PPP projects in contemporary China. (1) We classify the trajectory of PPP evolution into four phases, i.e., emergence, growth, recession and revival. (2) We note that private companies take a disadvantageous position in the partnership compared with governments and state-owned enterprises because of a lack of specialized legislation, unequal competition between private companies and state-owned enterprises and the opposition from the civic society. (3) We identify political risks as the most influential risks. Political risks also lead to the misallocation of other risks between public and private parties that contributes to the high failure rate of China’s PPP projects. Based on these findings, we recommend governments to draft specialized legislation, stabilize the political environment and provide favourable subsidies to local governments to limit the risks involved in PPP projects. We also advise private enterprises and state-owned enterprises to focus on negotiating over task and risk division with governments when they make decisions to participate in PPP projects. This full review of studies on PPP development in China provides reliable recommendations to scholars, governments and enterprises.

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Abstract

Partnerships with business involvement became a key trend in development cooperation since the late 1980s. Partnerships emerged as promising governance mechanism; however, governing partnerships in practice remained challenging – promise and reality seem to diverge. This chapter scrutinizes the tension between the promises of partnerships as governance arrangements and their actual governance challenges. It disentangles the complexity of governing partnerships by developing a framework based on a continuum between efficiency- and participation-orientation. This chapter identifies partnering approaches and their governance orientations based on an extensive review of literature in diverse academic fields and grey literature on the emergence and evolution of partnerships in development cooperation since the 1980s. Examples from the Dutch development cooperation provide illustrations for each partnership approach. Efficiency- and participation-orientation highlight competing governance rationales, logics and partnership characteristics. Partnership approaches that aim to embrace both perspectives have to deal with the inherent governance paradox between control and collaboration. This chapter identifies three key implications for research and practice: exploring new governance approaches and practices, adapting development agencies towards partnering and coordinating partnership approaches at international level. Understanding the tension between the promises of partnerships as governance arrangements and their actual governance challenges does not only contribute to more nuanced conceptualizations of partnering approaches for development but has also implications on how to govern partnerships for development in practice.

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Part II Making PPPs Work for the Poor

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We aim to explore to what extent and how pro-poor PPP projects engage with local communities and what the possibilities are for the communities to become genuine partners with governments, businesses and civil society organizations (CSOs). We look into three different PPP projects funded by the Dutch international cooperation that emphasize the pro-poor aspects in Africa and find patterns of how local communities are positioned in each project. The analysis of the three projects indicates that the existing pro-poor PPP projects deal with local communities as either mere beneficiaries, business partners with substantial brokering by CSOs, or those who potentially lead the projects. The difference stems from how a PPP project allows local communities to participate and balance the relationship between the project’s profit maximization and benefit-sharing for the poor. Our findings can be used to evaluate pro-poor PPP projects by reference to its local development relevance. They also show possibilities for local communities to identify their positions vis-à-vis large-scale investment projects and reflect on what pro-poor projects actually mean. The importance of PPP projects to become pro-poor and enhance its local development relevance has been widely discussed; however, the actual positionality of the poor within PPP projects remains unclear. In this chapter, we specifically look into the question of where local communities are in pro-poor PPP projects in order to suggest a new research and policy agenda.

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Abstract

This chapter examines the potential of public–private partnerships (PPPs) to contribute to the achievement of rural transformation objectives in the agriculture sector of developing countries. The chapter draws on the findings from a recent publication by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO, 2016) that analysed 70 case studies of agri-PPP projects from 15 developing countries in Africa, Latin America and Asia. A typology of four common project types was identified: (i) partnerships that aim to develop agricultural value chains; (ii) partnerships for joint agricultural research, innovation and technology transfer (ITT); (iii) partnerships for building and upgrading market infrastructure; and (iv) partnerships for the delivery of business development services (BDS) to farmers and small enterprises. Findings suggest that while positive contributions to agricultural transformation objectives exist, there remain several outstanding issues associated with the impact of agri-PPPs on poverty reduction and inclusion which still need to be addressed. Weaknesses were also identified in the governance mechanisms that support these partnerships, with limited assessment of value-for-money versus opportunity cost when considering the public benefits delivered. Interest in and support of agri-PPPs is growing in many developing countries, however, there remain many unanswered questions about the practicalities of designing and implementing such projects. The findings from this study make a contribution towards closing this knowledge gap by documenting useful insights for policy-makers on the potential benefits and limitations of agri-PPPs and differences in approach when compared to traditional PPPs.

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Abstract

The present study investigated the nature of Public–Private Partnership (PPP) in various subsectors of social and commercial infrastructure in India for better understanding of significant characteristics, attributes and factors governing the public private participation. The Indicator Analysis approach has been adopted to study a total of 119 Public–Private-partnered projects involving four qualitative and three quantitative indicators to help build a detailed profile of partnered projects in various subsectors of social and commercial infrastructure in India. The subnational government has been unravelled as the dominant form of government participation across all the subsectors of the social and commercial infrastructure in India. The infrastructure projects in the subsector of tourism have registered high average cost and time overruns. Further, Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT) mode has been identified as the most preferred PPP entry mode in the social and commercial infrastructure in the Indian economy. Since, the Indian economy comprises a large workforce, investment in social and commercial infrastructure projects through PPP mode can tap and harness the demographic dividend, which is critical for sustaining the growth of developing and emerging economies. The study provides a detailed account of qualitative and quantitative information about the nature of social and commercial infrastructure sector that shall facilitate successful implementation of the PPP projects in this soft infrastructure sector, which has a substantial bearing on the economic growth and human development in the Indian economy.

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Abstract

In Africa, the public sector is very often not able per se to deliver the resources needed to assure access to basic public goods and services. The African Development Bank (AfDB) has heavily invested in infrastructure to help overcome these long enduring bottlenecks, which have hampered economic growth in the continent. Given the AfDB’s ambitious objectives of contributing significantly to development and poverty reduction, and its continued thrust into infrastructure development through New Partnership for Africa’s Development, Africa50, and a range of collaborations to leverage resources for the continent, it is useful to consider the nature of the Bank’s involvement in Public–Private partnerships (PPPs) and identify lessons learned and recommendations for improvement. The methodology employs mixed methods, with desk reviews, staff consultations and analytical analysis of project data from 2006 to 2014 in 18 countries. Lessons and recommendations are drawn from the ‘Evaluation Results Database’, covering the period 2001–2012 from projects in 12 countries and six sectors. Overall, 64.4% of the PPP volume of the AfDB’s portfolio was allocated to lower middle-income countries, with low-income countries receiving about a quarter. The energy sector accounted for over 78% of the total PPP volume. A pragmatic account of what was done and learned from PPP implementation processes over a decade in the African continent is provided in this chapter, together with successes and failures from the AfDB’s experience, as the Bank itself and a range of other Multilateral Development Banks and donors continue to scale up infrastructure financing in Africa.

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Part III Public Policy, Public Management Practices and Entrepreneurship

Abstract

This article suggests that given the fulfilment of a number of preconditions Public–Private Partnerships (PPPs) may be attractive instruments for countries in Africa seeking to improve the quality and competitiveness of their services base, particularly the so-called infrastructure services. This article builds, in addition to a selective review of the vast literature on PPPs, on first-hand practical experience on the ground and a number of pilot projects. This methodological approach provides a non-exhaustive PPP mapping in Africa, which in turn leads to a discussion of some of the challenges and risks to PPPs in Africa. It also covers a discussion of the recent trends in the approach to improving the enabling environment upon which are based a few policy recommendations, respectively: establishing an institutional framework for PPPs; designing a realistic and efficient strategy for enabling environment improvement; and finally moving from national-level initiatives to intergovernmental initiatives. This article takes the position that a series of pitfalls and shortcomings, many of which are associated with the enabling institutional environment and the governance framework, need to be addressed if PPPs are to deliver their full potential in Africa. It is believed that the national and intergovernmental PPP initiatives could lend significant support to achieving the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development in Africa. In addition to the reviewing and discussing primarily the most recent literature on PPPs, the main value addition of our chapter brings to the literature is derived from the presentation of recent PPP cases, which draw directly from the authors own practical experience on the ground.

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Abstract

The purpose of this chapter is to critically examine the leaders of public–private partnerships (PPPs) in Pakistan through a social entrepreneurship lens. The literature on social entrepreneurship was analysed to identify traits academics say social entrepreneurs have. Data were collected from primary and secondary sources. Primary sources of information were interviews with leaders’ former colleagues. Secondary research was conducted using grey literature, independent reports, web searches and the implementation of partners’ websites. The main finding from our analysis is that social entrepreneurship is an important driver of success in PPPs. All three PPPs had a focal person who exhibited important qualities found in social entrepreneurs and in one case, the decline of a partnership was observed shortly after the resignation of the social entrepreneur. Governments seeking to enter into partnerships with private organizations should prioritize finding social entrepreneurship in the partnering organization’s culture and/or leadership. Social welfare organizations are more likely to succeed if their management includes social entrepreneurs.

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This chapter seeks to examine the legal development of Public–Private Partnerships (PPPs) in Kosovo and to assess their role in economic development in Kosovo, as well as PPPs’ function to Kosovo in achieve the Copenhagen criteria to access the European Union (EU). This chapter analyses the theoretical arguments behind PPPs as a mean of narrowing the infrastructure-financing gap and assess the evolution of PPPs’ jurisdiction on Kosovo and EU’s position on PPPs. This chapter includes a detailed critical analysis of the present legal framework on PPPs in Kosovo and a case study of Pristina International Airport. This chapter concludes that PPPs could be the only alternative that Kosovo has, till date, to achieve economic growth. Indeed, it can help the country to be closer to European standards, when it cuts out corruption from these partnerships. This chapter contributes to the debate on the use of PPPs in Kosovo for the construction of major infrastructures, although they are still in a very embryonic process. This chapter presents a comprehensive analysis of the benefits and risks that PPPs could offer to Kosovo as a newly formed state, contributing to the academic debate on PPPs in Balkan countries and providing useful tools for policy-makers in the decision-making process, providing a clear description of new PPPs legislation in Kosovo.

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Part IV Implementation and Evaluation of PPPs: Practical Considerations and Case Studies

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Public–private partnerships (PPPs) have been demonstrated to be an effective (although not universally successful) tool for the delivery of infrastructure and infrastructure-based services. For PPPs to achieve optimum results, the service outputs should be inclusive, i.e., they should be available to as wide a spectrum of society as possible, regardless of income level, gender or ethnic background. In developing countries, many PPPs are reliant upon user fees to create the revenue streams that enable private parties to provide such basic services as power, water, wastewater and transport. When these user fees act as barriers to service access (i.e., they are unaffordable to potential recipients of the service), what are the policy and contractual options which may make the services more universally accessible? This chapter examines three PPP projects from different sectors which have utilized creative mechanisms to enhance affordability and expand the user base: the Pamir Power project in eastern Tajikistan; the urban water PPP in Dakar, Senegal and the East Coast Toll Road in Tamil Nadu, India. Based upon these examples, the chapter will draw conclusions on how this experience can be more broadly applied and made a part of the PPP planning process in developing countries to achieve more affordable and sustainable growth.

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Abstract

Indicators-based framework has been developed for the sustainability assessment of infrastructure projects but this framework has limitations in quantifying the qualitative parameters. The top-down approach that utilizes principles to assess the sustainability of infrastructure projects has the ability to consider qualitative parameters. The research on the development of principles-based approach is however limited and, in fact, the study on the development of principles to assess the sustainability of public–private partnerships (PPPs) infrastructure projects is in a nascent stage. The purpose of this study is the development of an empirical framework of guiding principles that will facilitate the assessment of PPPs from sustainability perspective. The study has used a grounded theory qualitative approach by using interviews and literature as primary and secondary data sources, respectively, to develop the framework of guiding principles to achieve goals of sustainable infrastructure development through PPPs. The framework comprises 18 guiding principles, which will act as guidelines to facilitate promotion of sustainable practices throughout the life cycle of PPP project so that sustainability goals can be accomplished. The guiding principles could be used as the qualitative parameters for public and private sector to assess the sustainability of PPP infrastructure projects. This chapter presents critical insights on principle-based approach for sustainability assessment of PPP projects, which has not been the focus in the majority of earlier studies.

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The aim of the chapter is to compare Public–Private Partnership (PPP) healthcare investments in developed countries with those in emerging economies, analysing the sustainability issues of health-led growth. Healthcare PPP best practices in developed nations represent a template that catching-up economies may follow with local adaptations. A comparison starts from the UK case and then examines the Turkish experience as an ideal bridge between advanced and developing countries. Healthcare investments are a primary social infrastructure, with a deep impact on poverty alleviation. Demand for the infrastructure necessary to provide healthcare services has increased substantially in developing and emerging economies due to rapid economic growth, industrialization and urbanization, while public supply is limited by budget constraints. PPP best practices provide a global benchmark (World bank, 2015b). Integrated supply and value chains and management of viability milestone improve healthcare PPP sustainability and bankability. Different legal frameworks and funding issues are not thoroughly investigated. Careful customization and local fine-tuning of best practices require further scrutiny. Homogenization of best practices improves comparison of different projects, fostering competition and easing cross-border investments, accompanied by knowledge transfer, sharing and consequent value co-creation. Best practices improve value for money, bankability and resilience of PPP investments, with potential benefits for healthcare services and quality of life. This chapter makes an innovative and comprehensive comparison of healthcare PPP projects worldwide, looking for a common denominator of value-enhancing rules and resilient pro-growth strategies.

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This chapter is a case study on Public–Private Partnerships (PPPs) in Colombia. The choice is justified by the significant progress of the country in this field and its ambitious plans to provide infrastructure and services through PPPs in the coming years. The infrastructure deficit and the evolution and current status of PPPs in Latin America frame the theme of the chapter. The case study itself explains the adoption of the PPP model in Colombia, describes the new legal and institutional framework and presents the most relevant PPP programmes and projects. The review carried out allows us to conclude that, despite the developments in recent years, PPP schemes continue to be very concentrated in the transport sector. For the effective development of the PPP model in the country, Colombia should extend such schemes to other fields, including the provision of social infrastructure and services. It should also improve some institutional aspects and project attractiveness to investors in order to increase the private capital required to finance PPP projects that currently are in the government portfolio. This chapter offers a general perspective on Colombian PPP, gathering and analyzing information for a better understanding of the current situation and the prospects for the future.

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Public–Private Partnerships (PPPs) continue to gain increased attention from the Nigerian government. However, since PPP adoption in the country not all have attained expected outcomes. The purpose of this chapter is to explore PPP implementation practices and implications on contractual expectations of partner organizations. A qualitative approach using data collected from 23 semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders involved in a Road Partnership and in a Transport Partnership in Nigeria was employed. Documentary evidence was also collected. The institutional nature of the PPP environment; bureaucratic practices in government institutions; disruptive actions of external actors and ineffective mitigation of project risks were main challenges faced in the implementation of the Road and Transport Partnerships. This study is based on the opinions and experiences of key stakeholders on PPP implementation practices in Nigeria, and this is most appropriate to elicit data richness. Partner organizations involved in infrastructure PPPs have the obligation to ensure that they are effectively implemented. If partnerships are poorly implemented, there is no reason to expect that the partnership objectives will be achieved, and this is likely to have a negative impact on the collaborative nature of partnership working in fulfilling the contractual obligations. This study is imperative to provide an understanding of challenges inherent in achieving partnership implementation goals in a developing economy. Findings will inform practices within the PPP policy area in the Nigerian context.

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To recognize and investigate the hypotheses that opportunistic behaviour of project participants in infrastructure public–private partnerships (PPPs) changes over the project’s life cycle. Case study methodology is adopted. The first Indian highway PPP project, awarded with negative grant, is used as the case context. Opportunistic behaviour is a continuous game played by the project stakeholders. Its manifestation depends on the vulnerability of the other party at that point in time in the project life cycle and the past display of opportunism. Because the study is limited to a highway project in an emerging economy, the findings may lack generalizability for which further research is recommended. PPP is increasingly popular. Stakeholders recognize that the existing ex-ante contractual arrangements that seek to mitigate opportunism are not enough for project success. This study addresses this difficulty by providing a closer understanding of how opportunistic behaviours evolve over projects’ life cycle and what steps are necessary to negotiate. Failure to address the antecedents of opportunistic behaviour in time leads to a competition to be more opportunistic, in which the common public gets short changed. This study is an attempt to advance understanding of stakeholders’ behaviour outside the ambit of contract. The extant literature is largely silent on the timing and vulnerability of opportunistic behaviour, viewing it as a static concept. The study demonstrates the changing nature of opportunism that manifests in different forms over the projects life cycle.

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The purpose of the chapter is to develop the pragmatic logical framework for safeguarding successful Public–Private Partnership (PPP) implementations in water supply in emerging markets. The case analysis related to the research question of how efficacy of PPP implementations could be improved revealed considerable shortfalls within the current modus operandi. The research was limited to urban water utilities of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan with implications most relevant for emerging markets conditions. The proposed logical framework could improve efficacy and sustainability of PPP undertakings in water supply in developing countries. The framework is centred on the simple question: ‘What would constitute a meaningful quid pro quo within the envisioned PPP arrangement to eligible counterparts?’ The framework would necessitate properly answering many complex and uncomfortable questions of PPP arrangements, especially in terms of performance management, public accountability and underlying benefits to the parties. PPP in water utilities is a popular notion amongst governments and the international financial institutions (IFIs). PPP is commonly considered to be a tool for providing an optimal solution to chronic problems of water utilities in terms of underperformance and underinvestment. In-spite of massive efforts of modernization and institutional upgrade of the water utilities in Central Asia, success rate with PPP modalities is still rather low.

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This chapter provides an overview of the current status of renewable energy projects and identifies the key success factors of well-performing public–private partnerships (PPPs). To this end, this study analyses around 1,700 renewable projects on the World Bank’s Private Participation in Renewable Energy (PPRE) database. We then follow an inductive approach for a case review and examine a 5-MW rooftop solar PPP in Gujarat, India, that had been implemented in 2012. In spite of the rapid growth of renewable PPPs, regional disparity is distinct and most PPPs have been undertaken in Latin America and the Caribbean or a few selective countries such as China or South Africa. The case study informs that the successful PPPs may be attributed to such factors as policy coordination in multi-governance systems to attract project investments, the handling of land constraints in a project planning stage, and Green Incentive given to project participants. It offers a valuable insight into the significance of well-designed PPPs for enhanced energy access in developing countries, while accelerating the global transition to renewable-based energy supply to promote sustainable development.

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The purpose of this chapter is to analyse the procurement of public–private partnerships (PPPs) through unsolicited proposals (USPs). This chapter compares the policy framework and economic data of USPs in Brazil and Chile and provides some economic insights based on this analysis. In line with the existing literature, empirical evidence shows that non-proponents rarely win the tender for a project based on a USP. Differently from the existing literature, data analysis suggests that USPs may result on successful projects only in very specific conditions. USPs may work better in sectors where the government has developed higher in-house expertise to manage infrastructure projects. Also, USPs are more fit to projects that are clearly economically viable ex ante. However, even in these cases, USPs might generate a higher transaction cost to the government and less competitive tenders in comparison to solicited proposals. The analysis focuses on countries that have a very rich experience in USPs. Nonetheless, given the different legal and regulatory environments around the globe, it is difficult to provide a one-size fits-all USP policy. This chapter aims to provide some insights into how to manage a USP in order to improve the public policy framework of this procurement tool. This chapter contributes to the literature as it provides an economic analysis of the conditions in which the USP mechanism could result in a successful project.

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The purpose of this chapter is to discuss theory-based evaluation of public–private partnership (PPP) projects/programmes and to develop an intervention logical framework. It aims to draw attention to the need to go beyond the measurement of project/programme results to address not only the question of whether or not the project/programme worked but also the how and why questions. The study follows an interpretative methodology. It analytically discloses the mechanics of theory-based evaluation in relation to a ‘PPP theory’ and describes a theory-based analytical framework that portrays an explicit path towards ultimate impacts so as to assess, in a more systematic and integrated way, the success or failure of a PPP. Theory-based evaluation is a promising evaluation approach that would fit into the complexities of PPP projects/programmes and would expand the available toolbox of evaluators. Proper use of theory-based evaluation in PPP interventions contributes to better policy formulation and project implementation, thus leading to improved socio-economic benefits derived from PPP projects and programmes. The main contribution of the study is that it develops a ‘PPP theory’ and a related logical intervention framework drawing on theory-based approaches. Although the framework is developed for a representative sector, transport, it can easily be applied to any other PPP intervention.

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Index

Pages 605-624
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Cover of The Emerald Handbook of Public–Private Partnerships in Developing and Emerging Economies
DOI
10.1108/9781787144934
Publication date
2017-12-06
Editors
ISBN
978-1-78714-494-1