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The effects of microcrystalline cellulose on the flammability and thermal behaviours of flame retarded natural fibre epoxy composite

Pooria Khalili (New Materials Research Institute, University of Nottingham, Ningbo, Zhejiang, China)
Xiao Ling Liu (New Materials Research Institute, University of Nottingham, Ningbo, Zhejiang, China)
Kim Yeow Tshai (Department of Mechanical, Materials and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Nottingham, Semenyih, Selangor, Malaysia)
Ing Kong (Department of Engineering, La Trobe University College of Science Health and Engineering - Bendigo Campus, Bendigo, Victoria, Australia)
Chris Rudd (Department of Mechanical, Materials and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Nottingham, Ningbo, Zhejiang, China)
Xiao Su Yi (Department of Mechanical, Materials and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Nottingham, Ningbo, Zhejiang, China)

World Journal of Engineering

ISSN: 1708-5284

Article publication date: 30 May 2019

Issue publication date: 14 June 2019

153

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to fabricate and characterize the natural fibre (NF) reinforced epoxy composites containing flame retardants (FRs) and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) in terms of flammability, thermal properties and dynamic mechanical performances.

Design/methodology/approach

The FRs used in this study were ammonium polyphosphate and alumina trihydrate.

Findings

The results demonstrated that the addition of MCC particles into the flame retardant composite (control) further enhanced the self-extinguishing properties of composites, in particular, the burn length. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that the mass residue improved with every addition of MCC particles at 700 °C. For instance, the residual weight enhanced from 28.4 Wt.% to 33 Wt.% for the control and the composite with 7 Wt.% MCCs, respectively. As obtained from the dynamic mechanical analysis, the glass transition temperature of composites increased upon increasing inclusion of MCC particles. For example, this parameter was 77.1 °C and 86.8 °C for the control and composite loaded with 7 Wt.% MCC, respectively.

Originality/value

Thus, the combination of MCC and FR had been proved to be a promising flame retardant system for NF reinforced epoxy.

Keywords

Acknowledgements

This work was supported in part by the Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation (MOSTI) Malaysia under Grant 03-02-12-SF0212 as well as the Faculty of Engineering at University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus.

Citation

Khalili, P., Liu, X.L., Tshai, K.Y., Kong, I., Rudd, C. and Yi, X.S. (2019), "The effects of microcrystalline cellulose on the flammability and thermal behaviours of flame retarded natural fibre epoxy composite", World Journal of Engineering, Vol. 16 No. 3, pp. 363-367. https://doi.org/10.1108/WJE-08-2018-0291

Publisher

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Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2019, Emerald Publishing Limited

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