Index

Asia-Pacific Contemporary Finance and Development

ISBN: 978-1-78973-274-0, eISBN: 978-1-78973-273-3

ISSN: 1571-0386

Publication date: 19 June 2019

This content is currently only available as a PDF

Citation

(2019), "Index", Asia-Pacific Contemporary Finance and Development (International Symposia in Economic Theory and Econometrics, Vol. 26), Emerald Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. 311-323. https://doi.org/10.1108/S1571-038620190000026015

Publisher

:

Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2019 Emerald Publishing Limited


INDEX

Accounting

accounting-based measures
, 244

measures
, 215–216

practices and procedures
, 124

principles
, 304–305

Accounting and Auditing Organization of Islamic Financial Institution (AAOIFI)
, 197

Advertising expenditure ratio
, 126

Agency

COD
, 118, 119, 120, 131

COE
, 118, 119

cost
, 196–197

theory
, 118, 119–121

Aggregate financial resources
, 149

Aggressive working capital

financing policy
, 40, 42, 43, 47

investment policy
, 40, 41, 42–43, 46–47

Agricultural area
, 59

American’s Most Admired Companies (AMAC)
, 243–244, 247, 250–251

Asia Pacific region
, 2, 17

Asia Pacific trade network
, 2–3, 9, 16, 17

aggregate network indices
, 10

analysis
, 9–18

average weighted degree for
, 12

countries in
, 9

graph density for
, 12

percentage of exports share among TPP nations
, 15

share
, 13

total number of edges
, 11

TPP and non-TPP countries
, 14

Attraction of private Russian investments
, 158, 160

Augmented Dickey–Fuller test (ADF test)
, 30, 32–33, 34

Autonomous factors
, 78, 81–82, 83

Bank of Japan (BOJ)
, 27–28, 29, 36

Bankruptcy
, 288–289

of institution
, 288–289

probability
, 90

Basis swap
, 30

cross-currency
, 28, 29

dollar–yen
, 28

rate
, 29, 31–32

Beta (equity market)
, 300

Betweenness centrality
, 6–7

BI rate
, 200, 204

Bilateral aggregate banking network
, 3–4

Bond rating
, 199

Book to market ratio
, 126

Bovespa index
, 297

Brazilian IBOVESPA Stock Exchange
, 298

Business
, 208

categories
, 99

managers
, 266

services
, 54

Capital asset ratio (CAR)
, 170

Capital structure
, 101, 104–105

theories
, 199–200

Cause-and-effect association
, 237

Central Asia, financial development of

agreements on cooperation with Russia
, 156

economic implications
, 146–155

economic system development
, 142

literature review
, 143–144

methodology
, 144–146

recommendations for attracting additional financial resources
, 155–160

Central place theory
, 54

Centrality measures

aggregate
, 2

inclusion of
, 3

for individual nodes
, 21, 22–24, 25–26

Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy (CMIE)
, 212–213

Centre for Responsive Politics (CRP)
, 242–243

CFA
, 238–239

China, financial development of
, 144

cooperation for Central Asia and
, 142

economic implications
, 146–155

economic system development
, 142

literature review
, 143–144

methodology
, 144–146

recommendations for attracting additional financial resources
, 155–160

China’s Insurance Yearbook
, 98–99, 102–104

Chinese Household Income Project (CHIP)
, 266–267, 270–271

Chinese property and casualty industry
, 98–99, 104–105

risk management
, 90

variables role in
, 91

Cointegration test
, 31–32, 33–34, 35, 36

Community organization
, 242

Comparative fit index (CFI)
, 45–46

Competition

business environment
, 239

intensity in industry
, 96–97

Compustat Industry Segment database
, 209

Concentrated ownership
, 118, 119–120

Conditional probability distribution, qth quantile of
, 296

Conservative working capital

financing policy
, 42

investment policy
, 40, 42

Consumption propensity and entrepreneurship
, 273–276

connection
, 279–281

data
, 270–271

financial constraint
, 276–278

literature review
, 267–269

methodologies and empirical findings
, 272–281

risk preference
, 272–273

Consumption-to-income ratio
, 268, 272, 276

Conventional CPA models
, 236

Convergence of interests
, 119, 123

Convexity of tax functions
, 91–92

Corporate diversification
, 208

conceptual development and research hypotheses
, 209–213

control variables
, 216

curvilinear measurement and firm’s performance
, 216

descriptive statistics
, 217–218

EI
, 218–222

implications
, 229–230

measurement of degree of diversification
, 214–215

measurement of firm’s performance
, 215–216

measurement of type of corporate diversification
, 214

methods and measures
, 213–217

model specification for
, 216–217

related diversification
, 222–226

strategy
, 218

studies on developed countries
, 209

studies on developing countries
, 210–213

unrelated
, 226–229

Corporate diversification types
, 214, 217, 218

Corporate financial performance (CFP)
, 236, 245

CPA effect on
, 240–241

hypothesized relationships
, 240

interaction effect between CPA and CSR on
, 241–242

interactive effect of CSR and CPA on
, 251–253

measurement
, 244

Corporate governance (CG)
, 166, 169, 177

hypothesis
, 167–168

indicators
, 172

Corporate political activities (CPAs)
, 236, 237–238

CPA–CFP relationship
, 238–239, 248–251

CSR
, 239

effect on CFP
, 240–241

empirical model, methodology, and data
, 242–247

empirical results
, 248–253

future research
, 258

implications for theory and literature
, 254–257

effect of interaction between CPA and CSR on CFP
, 241–242

managerial and policy implications
, 257–258

research hypotheses
, 239–242

robustness test
, 253–254

Corporate social responsibility (CSR)
, 236, 239

CFP measurement
, 244

control variables
, 245

correlation
, 249

CPA measurement
, 242–243

CPA–CFP relationship
, 248–251

CSR measurement
, 243–244

data and sample period
, 247

descriptive statistics
, 248

econometric methodology
, 246–247

empirical model
, 245–246

empirical results
, 248–253

interaction effect between CPA and CSR on CFP
, 241–242, 251–253

measurement
, 243–244

Corporate variables
, 288, 299–300, 301

Cost of debt (COD)
, 118, 124–125

FGLS regression
, 131

insider-ownership and
, 120–121

pairwise correlation of
, 129

Cost of equity (COE)
, 118, 125, 130–131

FGLS regression on
, 132

insider-ownership and
, 121–122

pairwise correlation of
, 130

CoVaR methodology
, 290, 292, 295–297

Covered interest parity (CIP)
, 28, 29

Credit

constraint
, 269

risk model
, 29

Crisis
, 288

dummies
, 301–303

econometric of financial factors in
, 110

shock
, 177

Critical success factors (CSFs)
, 70, 71, 78

analysis
, 82–83

ISM
, 77

literature review
, 71–78

managerial implications of research
, 84

MICMA analysis
, 78

MIMAC analysis of CSF
, 81–82

prioritization and modeling of CSFs using ISM
, 79–81

research methodology
, 78–82

retailing management
, 71–73

for Thai retailers
, 73–77

Cross-currency basis swaps
, 28, 29

Curvilinear

behavior
, 210

corporate diversification model
, 216

effect
, 209

measurement of diversification
, 216

DataStream information
, 242–243

Debt
, 120

debt-based sukuk
, 197

financing
, 118

holder
, 118

long-term
, 42

short-term
, 42

Degree centrality
, 5

Degree of diversification measurement
, 214–215, 230

Dependent factors
, 78, 81–82, 83

Dependent variable
, 57–58

COD
, 124–125

COE
, 125

firm performance
, 125

Descriptive statistics
, 68, 172–175, 217–218, 248

corporate diversification type
, 217

degree of corporate diversification
, 218

number of firms by type of industry
, 217

of research variables
, 200–201, 202

ROA, Tobin-Q, and corporate diversification strategy
, 218

Direction of Trade Statistics (DOTS)
, 2–3, 9–10, 16

Distressed insurance premium (DIP)
, 291, 292

Diversification
, 214

See also Corporate diversification

Diversion economic region
, 99

Dollar–yen basis swaps
, 28

Driving factors
, 83

Dutch dairy industry
, 242

Dynamic CSR–CFP relationship
, 250–251

Dynamic graph
, 14–15, 16, 18

Dynamic OLS method
, 33–34

Dynamic panel

data system GMM estimation
, 246

model
, 218, 237

E-commerce system
, 157, 160

Earning(s)

growth
, 200–202

per share
, 125

Econometric analysis
, 99–102, 246–247

Economic

additional financial resources for development of countries
, 149–155

crisis
, 216, 304

forecasters
, 266

implications
, 146–155

integration
, 149–151

performance
, 237

system
, 142, 288

Economic growth (EG)
, 142, 145, 266

Electronic marketing
, 157

Empirical measure

for firm volatility
, 170

for RT
, 170–171

for stock market informational efficiency
, 171–172

Entrenchment hypothesis
, 123–124

Entrepreneurial

dynamism
, 266

process
, 268

Entropy index (EI)
, 213, 215, 217–229, 220–221

Entropy measurement
, 214–215

Equity return volatility (ERV)
, 300

Equity-based return
, 122

ERM
, 97–98

Estimation technique
, 127, 296–297

European car manufacturers
, 241

European-Asian integration
, 153

Feasible generalized least square regression (FGLS regression)
, 127

on COD
, 131

on COE
, 132

on firm performance
, 133

Federal program implementation
, 242–243

Financial covenants
, 121

Financial crisis
, 10–11, 188, 213, 288

Financial development through cooperation with Russia

economic implications
, 146–155

literature review
, 143–144

methodology
, 144–146

Financial executives
, 40

Financial institutions
, 295–296

in Latin America
, 294

non-US financial institutions
, 28

state-owned
, 305–306

Financial resources
, 142, 152

China and countries of Central Asia
, 146, 147, 149–155

for development
, 142, 145

evaluation
, 146

of modern economic systems
, 143

non-borrowed
, 142

optimization
, 149

recommendations for attracting additional
, 155–160

Financial resources for development (FRD)
, 145

Financial resources for development of countries
, 149–155

Financial system
, 288

Financial variables
, 298

Financing policy
, 44–45

Firm performance
, 125

FGLS regression on
, 133

insider-ownership and
, 123–124

pairwise correlation of
, 130

Firm volatility

alternative measure
, 186

empirical measure for
, 170

Firms
, 91–92, 97, 105

age
, 177, 201–202

characteristics
, 196–197, 199–200

financial performance
, 208, 209, 213, 216–217, 222

hedging
, 107–108

incentive
, 95

insiders
, 121

liquidity risk
, 166

manager
, 97

number
, 96

number by type of industry
, 217

performance
, 215–216, 218–229

production function
, 56

size
, 92–93, 126, 177

Fisher-type test
, 127–133

COD, FGLS regression on
, 131

COD, pairwise correlation of
, 129

COE, FGLS regression on
, 132

COE, pairwise correlation of
, 130

descriptive statistics
, 128

FGLS regression on firm performance
, 133

firm performance, pairwise correlation of
, 130

Fixed-effect model
, 100–102, 248–249

Fixed-effects framework
, 175

Foreign economic policy
, 154

Foreign exchange (FX)
, 28

swap market
, 28

Fortune AMAC
, 247

Free cash flow
, 120, 245, 249–250

Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedastic (GARCH)
, 170

GARCH(1,1)
, 175–177

Generalized method of moments (GMM)
, 218, 246

model
, 237, 248–249

German car manufacturers
, 241

Gharar

risk
, 199

uncertainty
, 202–204

Global Climate Coalition (GCC)
, 252–253

Global clustering coefficient
, 7

Global financial crisis (2008)
, 111, 142, 300

Global interbank
, 28

Global price delay measures
, 171

Global resource markets
, 151

Globalization
, 142

Goodness-of-fit index (GFI)
, 45–46

Government-related units
, 266–267, 268–269

Governmental membership
, 236

Graph theory
, 3

Great Financial Crisis
, 290

Great Financial Depression (2008Q4-2010Q2)
, 293, 303

Greenbelt area
, 59

Gross domestic product (GDP)
, 145

Group
, 101

firms
, 104

learning process
, 77–78

Haram
, 199

Hausman test
, 102, 111

HEDGE variable
, 101–104

Hedging
, 93

level in industry
, 95

Herfindahl geographic index
, 94–95

Herfindahl index
, 94–95, 105

Household’s consumption propensity
, 270–271

IBOVESPAReturn
, 298

Ijarah sukuk
, 196–197, 198, 199–200, 201–202

In-degree
, 5

In-system connection
, 266–267, 279–280

Incremental fit index (IFI)
, 45–46

Independent variable

control variables
, 126

insider-ownership
, 126

in study
, 44–45

Index of sustainable development (IS)
, 146

Indirect utility

curve
, 56, 57

function
, 56

Individual

demographic characteristics
, 272

entrepreneurial engagement
, 266

Indonesia

Sharia economic activities in
, 196

Sukuk issuance in
, 196–197

Sukuk market in
, 196

Indonesia Stock Exchange working capital investment policy
, 46–47

Industry

industry 4.0
, 159

shares
, 64–65

Inflation
, 204

Information efficiency (IE)
, 177

Information hypothesis
, 168

Infrastructure variable (CtrIm)
, 217

Insider-ownership (INS)
, 120, 126, 128–130

and COD
, 120–121

and COE
, 121–122

dependent variable
, 124–125

estimation technique
, 127

and firm performance
, 123–124

Fisher-type test
, 127–133

impact on firm performance
, 118–119

independent variable
, 126

literature review and hypotheses development
, 119–124

samples and variables
, 124

Institutional investors
, 28

Instrument variable approach
, 276

Intangibles
, 126, 127

Integrated financial system
, 288

Internal and external borrowings of economic system (SB)
, 145

Internal and external investments (IE investments)
, 145

International Monetary Fund (IMF)
, 2–3

Interpretive structural modeling (ISM)
, 70–71, 77

CSFs of Thai retailers
, 82

prioritization and modeling of CSFs using
, 79–81

Intra-firm production
, 225–226

Inventory storage
, 40

“Iron rice bowl”
, 280

Islamic joint venture bonds (IJV bonds). See Partnership-based sukuk

Istishna sukuk
, 197

Japanese Government Bonds (JGBs)
, 27–28

markets
, 29

yield
, 30, 31–32

“Just-in-time” approach
, 157

Kazakhstan (foreign economic activities)
, 144

Korea
, 54

local attributes and composition of areas
, 64–65

local public goods
, 54

quality of business and residential environment
, 56–63

Kwiatkowski–Phillips–Schmidt–Shin test (KPSS test)
, 30, 32–33, 34, 35

Kyrgyzstan (foreign economic activities)
, 144

Land rent
, 55–56

Latin American banking industry, systemic risk in

corporate variables
, 299–300

measures of systemic risk
, 291–292

methodology
, 295–298

model specifications and empirical results
, 300–306

sample of analysis
, 293–295

Law of Insurance
, 91

Leverage
, 93–94, 101, 104, 111, 126, 201–202, 299

Linkage factors
, 78, 81–82, 83

Liquidity spread (LiqSpread)
, 297

Lobbying Disclosure Act (1995)
, 242–243

Local clustering coefficient
, 7–8

Long-tailed insurance price
, 98

Macroeconomic condition
, 200

Macroprudential policy
, 292

Malaysian

corporations
, 208

firms
, 208, 210

Malaysian Accounting Standards Board (MASB)
, 213

Malaysian Institute of Accountants (MIA)
, 213

Management area
, 59

Managerial implication
, 257–258

Managerial ownership
, 118–119, 121

Marginal effects of consumption propensity
, 274

Marginal expected shortfall (MES)
, 291–292

Market To Book Value (MBV)
, 126, 300

Market(ing)
, 208

activities
, 257–258

channel
, 76

imperfection factors
, 91

leaders
, 94

market-based indicators
, 244

market-based measure
, 215–216

participants
, 289

share
, 94, 101, 105

value
, 40, 41, 43, 45, 47, 48, 200, 304–305

Matrice d’Impacts croises-multiplication appliqúe à un classement analysis (MICMA analysis)
, 78

analysis of each CSF
, 81–82

Maturity mismatch (MM)
, 288, 289

Maysir (gambling)
, 202–204

Merchandise management
, 75

Merton distance-to-default (DD)
, 167, 170–171, 192–193

Micro-level data
, 270

Model-based measures for RT
, 167

Moderation effect
, 253

Modern economic theory
, 142

Modern graph theory
, 4

Modigliani and Miller theory
, 199–200

Mongolia (foreign economic activities)
, 144

Mudharabah sukuk
, 196–198, 199–200, 201–202

Mukharabah sukuk
, 197

Multi-channel retailer
, 76

Multiple business lines model
, 98

Multiple regression dependence
, 146

Murabahah sukuk
, 197

Musaqah sukuk
, 197

Musyarakah sukuk
, 197

Muzaraah sukuk
, 197

National Bureau of Statistics (NBS)
, 270

Natural environment conservation area
, 59

Network(s)
, 2

analysis of Asia Pacific trade network
, 9–18

composition
, 9

evolution
, 2

modularity
, 8–9

relation to literature
, 3–4

structures
, 3–4

theoretical background
, 4–9

Node degree for weighted node
, 6

Non-borrowed financial resources
, 142

Non-compliance to sharia law
, 199

Non-diversified firms
, 209

Non-governmental organizations
, 242

Non-life insurance business
, 91

Non-market

activities
, 236, 254–258

strategy
, 237–238

Non-stationary time series
, 31

Non-tradable sukuk
, 197

Non-traditional monetary policy

data
, 29–30

descriptive statistics of data for analysis
, 31

methodology
, 30–32

movement of three series
, 30

results
, 32–34

See also Working capital policy

Norm fit index (NFI)
, 45–46

North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
, 2

Observatory of Economic Complexity (2018)
, 144

Occupation and Employment Statistics
, 57–58

Ohlson and Juettner-Nauroth model
, 125

Optimal compensation contracts
, 97–98

Ordinary least squares (OLS)
, 31, 246–247

Organization’s behavioral theory
, 240

Out-degree
, 5

Outside-system connection
, 266–267, 279–280

Overinvestment
, 118, 120

Pair-wise analyses
, 32, 33

Pairwise correlation

of COD
, 129

of COE
, 130

of firm performance
, 130

Pakistani Stock Exchange (PSE)
, 118–119

Panel regression

before, during, and post-crises periods
, 188–189

model
, 169

moderation indicators
, 177–188

results of risk-taking on volatility
, 175–177, 179, 181–182

Paradox volatility
, 304

Partnership-based sukuk
, 197

Path length and strength of network
, 5–6

Pecking order theory
, 196–197, 199–200

Performance

firm
, 216, 218–229

performance-dependent variable
, 253–254

pricing
, 121

Policy

financing
, 44–45

implication
, 257–258

selection
, 40

Political action committees (PACs)
, 236, 241, 242–243

Pool time series data
, 99

Pooled OLS regression model
, 99

Population shares
, 64

Portfolio design
, 166

Price–earnings–growth ratio technique
, 125

Pricing
, 74–75, 78

call option pricing formula
, 192–193

credit risk model for
, 29

performance
, 121

Principle of duration
, 159

Principle of full involvement
, 159

Principle of mutual profit
, 159

Probability level analysis
, 45–46

Probability of default (PDs)
, 291

Probit model
, 272

Product type
, 98

Profit maximization
, 56

Profitability
, 40, 43, 44, 45, 126, 201–202

Prudential equity asset ratio
, 292

Public policy-makers
, 254–257, 266

Public–private partnership system
, 158

Quadratic model
, 123–124

Quality of business environment
, 54–55, 56–63

indices
, 60–61

preferred locations
, 61–63

theoretic model
, 56–57

Quality of residential environment
, 56–63

indices
, 60–61

preferred locations
, 61–63

theoretic model
, 56–57

Quality-adjusted average wage and rent estimation
, 57–60

Quantile regression
, 296–297, 298

Quantitative data
, 45–46

Random-effect model
, 99, 102

Rate of socioeconomic development (RED)
, 145

Reachability matrix development
, 77, 79–80

Region-specific amenities
, 55

Regression model
, 55, 58–59, 201–204, 251, 274, 280

See also Panel regression

Reinsurance
, 90, 91–92

demand
, 93–94, 104

premium
, 91

ROA and
, 93

tax-exempt policy and
, 92

Related corporate diversification
, 211

Related diversification
, 216–217, 222–226

Resource dependence theory
, 123–124

Retailing management
, 71–73

convenience stores
, 72

department stores
, 71–72

discount stores and superstores
, 73

specialty stores
, 73

supermarkets
, 72–73

See also Strategic risk management

Return on assets (ROA)
, 43, 45, 93, 101, 104, 125, 130, 170, 216–217, 218–229, 238, 245–246, 254

Return on equity (ROE)
, 244, 255, 256, 257

Riba (usury)
, 196, 199, 202–204

Risk preference
, 272–273, 274, 278

Risk-coping strategies
, 267–268

Risk-taking (RT)
, 165–166

average
, 175, 176

effect on company performance
, 165–166

effect on volatility
, 167

empirical measure for
, 170–171

empirical results
, 175–189

hypothesis developments
, 167–169

methodology
, 169–175

and multitude of firm’s performance measures
, 166

propensity
, 266

Riskier institutions contribute to lower stock return volatility
, 167

with better CG
, 168

with increasing information efficiency
, 168

with larger firm size
, 168

Robustness test
, 253–254

Root mean square residual (RMR)
, 45–46

Rumelt diversification category
, 214

Russia, financial development through cooperation with

cooperation for Central Asia and China
, 142

economic implications
, 146–155

economic system development
, 142

literature review
, 143–144

methodology
, 144–146

recommendations for attracting additional financial resources
, 155–160

Salam sukuk
, 197

SARA bonds. See Ijarah sukuk

Sharia compliance
, 196–197, 201

Sharia economic activities in Indonesia
, 196

Sharia Supervisory Board (SSB)
, 196–197, 199, 202–204

“Sink”
, 5

Social network analysis
, 3

Socioeconomic development
, 142, 143, 149–151

China and countries of Central Asia
, 143, 147, 148, 153

evaluation
, 146

of modern economic systems
, 143, 145–146

strategic course of
, 154

“Soft money”
, 238–239

Sovereign debt crisis (2010Q3-2012Q4)
, 293, 303

Specialty stores
, 73

Spillover effects of money market turbulence
, 28

Squared entropy index (SEI)
, 217, 219

Standard deviation (SD)
, 172–173

Standard Industrial Classification code (SIC code)
, 214

Standard operating procedures (SOPs)
, 240–241

State revenues (SR)
, 145

State Sharia Bonds (SBSN)
, 196

See also Japanese Government Bonds (JGBs)

Static OLS
, 248–249

Stock Exchange of Thailand
, 41, 45, 46–47

Stock market informational efficiency
, 171–172

Stock return volatility
, 166, 167–168

See also Firm volatility

Store(s)

convenience
, 72

department
, 71–72

design and display
, 75–76

discount
, 73

location
, 74

specialty
, 73

Strategic risk management
, 90

assets display
, 104

using Chinese database
, 90–91

Chinese property and casualty industry
, 104–105

data
, 98–99

diversification
, 94–95

econometric analysis
, 99–102

econometric geographic
, 107–108

econometric of business line
, 106

econometric of financial factors in crisis
, 110

econometric of industry Herfindal business line
, 109

econometric of industry Herfindal region
, 108

financial distress and leverage
, 93–94

firm size
, 92–93

intensity of competition in industry
, 96–97

level of hedging in industry
, 95

literature review
, 91–98

market share
, 94

number of firms
, 96

product type
, 98

ROA
, 93

salary position in industry
, 97–98

statistics of variables
, 101

taxes
, 91–92

variables of interest
, 100

Strong board hypothesis
, 167, 168–169, 177

Structural self-interaction matrix (SSIM)
, 77

Subprime crisis (2007Q3-2008Q3)
, 293, 294–295, 301–303

Subworking capital policy
, 40

See also Working capital policy

Sukuk
, 196

descriptive statistics of research variables
, 200–201

determinants of Sukuk issuance type
, 199–200

issuance in Indonesia
, 196–197

market
, 196

regression
, 201–204

research methods
, 200

risk
, 199

Sukuk-specific characteristics
, 196–197, 199

theoretical framework and hypothesis development
, 197–200

variable definitions and measurement
, 201

Supply chain management distribution networks
, 211, 212

Swap markets
, 28

System GMM method
, 218, 222, 246–247

Systemic expected shortfall (SES)
, 291–292

Systemically important financial institutions (SIFIs)
, 289

Tajikistan, foreign economic activities in
, 144

Tax
, 90, 91–92, 101, 104, 110, 158, 266

Tehran Stock Exchange
, 42–43

Thai retail business modernization
, 71

Thai retailers, CSFs for
, 73–77

communication mix
, 76–77

customer service
, 74

location
, 74

marketing channel
, 76

merchandise management
, 75

pricing
, 74–75

store design and display
, 75–76

Thai retailing
, 70, 72

Tobin-Q
, 43, 45, 125, 215–217, 218–229

Total firm
, 216–217

Tradable sukuk
, 197

Trade agreements
, 2

Trade area
, 74

Trade diversification
, 294

Trade networks
, 9

See also Asia Pacific trade network

Traditional finance theory
, 165–166

Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP)
, 2, 14–15

Transformation process
, 2, 4

Transnational cooperation development
, 158–159

Turkmenistan, foreign economic activities in
, 144

24-hour convenience store concept
, 72

Two-step system GMM estimator
, 248–249

Unit cost curve
, 56, 57

Unit root test
, 30, 32–33

Unrelated corporate diversification
, 211–212, 226–229

Unrelated diversification firm
, 211, 214, 216–217

US Climate Action Partnership
, 252–253

US financial services industry
, 212–213

Uzbekistan, foreign economic activities in
, 144

Value
, 74–75

creation
, 119

market
, 200

value-based measurement
, 244

Value-at-risk (VaR)
, 288, 289–290, 295–297, 304

Variance equation
, 170

Variance inflation factor (VIF)
, 248

Variance minimization hedging strategy
, 96–97

Visual merchandizing
, 75–76

Visualization techniques
, 2, 16

Volatility
, 126, 127

index
, 297

stock return
, 166, 167–168

Volcker rule
, 28

Voluntary disclosure
, 122–123

Wage

estimating quality-adjusted average
, 56–63

estimation
, 55

theoretical model
, 55–56

unemployment risk
, 55

Wakalah sukuk
, 197

Working capital policy
, 40, 41, 43

analysis and results
, 46–48

conceptual framework
, 44

financing policy
, 40, 41, 42, 43

investment policy
, 40, 41, 42–43

literature review and hypotheses
, 41–44

research methodology
, 44–46

sample and data
, 45–46

variables
, 44–45

See also Non-traditional monetary policy

World Business Council for Sustainable Development
, 239, 252–253

Yield

JGB
, 28, 29, 31

profits for firms
, 211

in Sukuk
, 199, 202

Z score
, 167, 170, 175–177

Zoning
, 59