This study looks at the visibility of logos during the televised broadcast of the 2006 Winter Olympic Games in Turin, and television viewers' perceptions, recall and recognition of those logos. The results indicate that the number of brands and logos perceived was far greater than actually existed, bringing into question the effectiveness of the Olympics' 'clean venue' policy.
Robinson, T. and Bauman, L. (2008), "Winning the Olympic marketing game: recall of logos on clothing, equipment and venues at the 2006 Winter Olympics", International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, Vol. 9 No. 4, pp. 48-63. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJSMS-09-04-2008-B007
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