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Article
Publication date: 12 October 2020

Rick T. Wilson

The purpose of this research is to understand how brand-building is used to lend credibility to investor information and to differentiate countries competing for foreign…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to understand how brand-building is used to lend credibility to investor information and to differentiate countries competing for foreign investment. Brand signals, such as slogans and logos, are frequently used by governments and their investment promotion agencies to enhance the presentation of information to potential investors interested in acquiring or establishing a business within their country. Yet, little is known about how governments use brand building to foster professionalism and convey their expertise in international expansion assistance and differentiate themselves from one another in an investment promotion context.

Design/methodology/approach

This research content analyzes the slogans and logos found in 55 months of print advertising and on the websites of 181 countries engaged in investment-seeking activities.

Findings

The research finds that slogans and logos are frequently used across both samples, but slogan use is greater in print advertising than on the Web, which is likely because of the greater effort required to develop an advertising campaign than to maintain a website. Regardless of medium, logo use is greater than slogan use. In the sample, slogans tended to be generic or undifferentiated and do not appear to facilitate brand credibility. However, logos were better designed than slogans and incorporated more territorial and cultural symbols and elements of expertise.

Originality/value

This study provides for a deeper understanding of investment promotion, especially, as it relates to brand building both on the Web and in print advertising. It also extends the author’s understanding of brand building within a specialized area of business-to-business organizational buying. From a managerial perspective, the research highlights the need for differentiated slogans and for logos using territorial and cultural symbols to better assist governments with appearing more professional, conveying expertise and differentiating their country from potential rivals.

Details

Journal of Place Management and Development, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8335

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 4 September 2020

Lluis Mas, Paul Bolls, Emma Rodero, Miguel Barreda-Ángeles and Ashley Churchill

The purpose of this study is to determine how sonic logo’s acoustic features (intensity, pitch and pace) based on melodic tunes with no voice orient the response of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to determine how sonic logo’s acoustic features (intensity, pitch and pace) based on melodic tunes with no voice orient the response of consumers, attract attention, elicit levels of pleasantness and calmness and transmit brand personality traits.

Design/methodology/approach

A within-subject experimental factorial design is applied to measure emotional arousal (indexed as electrodermal activity) and enhancement on perceptual processing (indexed as heart rate), as well as self-reported factors, namely, calmness/excitement, pleasantness and brand personality scales.

Findings

Results show a significant increase on electrodermal activity associated with fast-paced sonic logos and a decrease in heart rate in slow-paced long sonic logos. Also, fade-up, pitch-ascending fast sonic logos are defined as more exciting and descending-pitch sonic logos as more pleasant.

Research limitations/implications

The use of sonic logos with no voice does limit its implications. Besides, the use of three variables simultaneously with 18 versions of sonic logos in a laboratory setting may have driven participants to fatigue; hence, findings should be cautiously applied.

Practical implications

First, sonic logos are best processed in a fade-up form. Second, fast pace is recommended to orient response, whereas slow pace is recommended to transmit calmness. Practitioners may opt for fast-paced sonic logos if the design is new or played in a noisy environment and opt for slow-paced sonic logos in already highly recognized sound designs.

Originality/value

To the best of authors’ knowledge, this study is the first to combine psychophysiological measures and self-reported scales in a laboratory experiment on how sonic logo’s acoustic features orient response, transmit emotions and personality traits.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 30 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article
Publication date: 23 May 2019

Abhishek Pathak, Carlos Velasco and Gemma Anne Calvert

With trade amounting to more than US$400bn, counterfeiting is already affecting many successful brands. Often, consumers are deceived into buying fake products due to the…

Abstract

Purpose

With trade amounting to more than US$400bn, counterfeiting is already affecting many successful brands. Often, consumers are deceived into buying fake products due to the visual similarity between fake and original brand logos. This paper aims to explore the varying forms of fraudulent imitation of original brand logotypes (operationalized at the level of logotype transposition), which can aid in the detection of a counterfeit brand.

Design/methodology/approach

Across two studies, this research tested how well consumers can differentiate counterfeit from original logos of well-known brands both explicitly and implicitly. Seven popular brand logos were altered to create different levels of visual dissimilarity and participants were required to discriminate the logos as fake or genuine.

Findings

Results demonstrate that although consumers can explicitly discriminate fake logos with a high degree of accuracy, the same is not true under conditions in which logos are presented very briefly (tapping participants’ implicit or automatic logo recognition capabilities), except when the first and last letters of the logotype are substituted.

Originality/value

A large body of research on counterfeit trade focuses on the individual or cross-cultural differences behind the prevalence of counterfeit trade. There is limited research exploring the ability of a consumer to correctly identify a fake logo, based on its varying similarity with the original logotype; this paper addresses this gap. Given that many of the purchase decisions are often made automatically, identifying key implicit differentiators that can help a consumer recognize a fake logo should be informative to both practitioners and academics.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 28 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2008

Tom Robinson and Lois Bauman

This study looks at the visibility of logos during the televised broadcast of the 2006 Winter Olympic Games in Turin, and television viewers' perceptions, recall and…

Abstract

This study looks at the visibility of logos during the televised broadcast of the 2006 Winter Olympic Games in Turin, and television viewers' perceptions, recall and recognition of those logos. The results indicate that the number of brands and logos perceived was far greater than actually existed, bringing into question the effectiveness of the Olympics' 'clean venue' policy.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2012

Andrey G. Mikhailitchenko, Dennis H. Tootelian and Galina N. Mikhailitchenko

The study extends the research on visual imagery in advertising to sports marketing. The results suggest that excessive on-shirt advertising is wasteful for sponsorships…

Abstract

The study extends the research on visual imagery in advertising to sports marketing. The results suggest that excessive on-shirt advertising is wasteful for sponsorships and harmful for team image. However, a strategy of moderate advertising increases the brand recall rate and does not harm the team's image. From a managerial perspective, this study highlights the risks of excessive use of sponsor logos and provides a framework for determining the optimal level of on-shirt advertising for professional teams.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 5 March 2018

Ke Zhong, Haizhong Wang and Caiyun Zhang

The purpose of this paper is to test the brand elongation effect which is defined as the impacts of the aspect ratio of logo on consumers’ temporal property assessment and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to test the brand elongation effect which is defined as the impacts of the aspect ratio of logo on consumers’ temporal property assessment and brand evaluation.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper provides a theory with experiments.

Findings

The brand elongation effect that strip-shaped logos can make consumers perceive temporal property longer than square-shaped logos has been testified with three pairs fictional logos and one pair real-life one. The valence of temporal property moderates the effect on evaluation of temporal property. The perceived temporal length mediated the shape effect on brand evaluation only when the temporal property is important (vs unimportant) for the product.

Research limitations/implications

This study only deals with the elongation effect of logos’ aspect ratio, without discussing the impact of color, angle/roundness or other graphic properties of logos on consumer attitudes.

Practical implications

This study not only provides empirical supports to update brand logos but also further illustrates that some subtle properties of logos can result in influences that are both significant and substantial.

Originality/value

This research enriches the literature of branding and metaphorical cognition. The findings of this study provide direct implications for brand managers to design logos and manage multi-shape brand logos.

Details

Nankai Business Review International, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8749

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Article
Publication date: 25 March 2019

Anna Torres, Joana César Machado, Leonor Vacas de Carvalho, Michel van de Velden and Patrício Costa

This paper aims to investigate the commonalities and asymmetries between consumer responses to different types of natural designs across countries.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the commonalities and asymmetries between consumer responses to different types of natural designs across countries.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were gathered through a survey in three European countries ranking differently in what concerns Hofstede’s (1981) uncertainty avoidance dimension (UAD). Respondents can vary strongly in the way they interpret and use rating scales, exhibiting a variety of response styles. In the analysis of consumers’ preferences for logo design, this article apply constrained dual scaling (CDS) to account for response styles in categorical data.

Findings

Results demonstrate the broad appeal of natural logo designs, suggesting that design preferences are similar within countries with different cultural orientations. However, findings indicate that cultural dimensions influence how consumers respond to different types of natural logo designs. Indeed, the positive effects of organic designs are even more salient in countries with higher UAD. Thus, when managers prepare to launch their brands in countries that exhibit more discomfort with uncertainty, they should consider incorporating organic visual identity elements into their logos to achieve the maximum positive affect.

Originality/value

Companies invest extensive time, research and money in generating, promoting and modifying their logos. This paper provides important implications for international brand managers aiming to build a consistent and favorable brand image. From a methodological perspective, the results come from the analysis of clean data – that is, data after applying CDS, which increases the validity of the cross-country comparison.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 28 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article
Publication date: 10 May 2013

Catherine Gerrard, Meike Janssen, Laurence Smith, Ulrich Hamm and Susanne Padel

The purpose of this paper is to consider whether UK consumers recognise and trust organic certification logos and whether the presence of these logos on a product…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to consider whether UK consumers recognise and trust organic certification logos and whether the presence of these logos on a product increases consumer willingness to pay for that product.

Design/methodology/approach

To ascertain the reaction of UK consumers to organic certification logos commonly used in the UK, this study makes use of three methods: focus groups, a consumer survey and a willingness to pay experiment (choice experiment).

Findings

These three approaches reveal that UK consumers associate certain benefits with organic foods but are generally unaware of how the industry is regulated. With regards to trust of the logo, the standards they think underlie the logo and the inspection system that they think is associated with the logo, UK consumers rate the Soil Association and Organic Farmers and Growers logos more highly than the EU logo or products labelled with just the word “organic”. They appear willing to pay a premium for the additional assurance that these two logos provide, suggesting that where they are recognised, certification logos are valued.

Originality/value

To the authors' knowledge, no previous studies exist on whether UK consumers recognise and trust different organic certification logos. These findings show that where such logos are recognised they can help to give some assurance to the UK consumer and this is reflected in a willingness to pay a premium for foods labelled with the Soil Association and Organic Farmers and Growers certification logos, as opposed to no logo or the (less well known) EU logo.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 115 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 27 August 2019

Roman Konopka, Malcolm John Wright, Mark Avis and Pamela M. Feetham

There are substantive disagreements about whether encouraging deliberative thinking increases consumer preference in low-involvement product categories. The authors draw…

Abstract

Purpose

There are substantive disagreements about whether encouraging deliberative thinking increases consumer preference in low-involvement product categories. The authors draw on dual-process theory to add rare experimental evidence to this debate. They also investigate whether the effect of deliberative thinking increases with familiarity of the stimuli, as different theories of memory yield different predictions on this point. Finally, they provide evidence on whether the effectiveness of the Fairtrade logo arises more from mere exposure or attention to the ethical claim.

Design/methodology/approach

The context for the research is the use of ethical logos in packaged coffee, as this provides a realistic setting for the desired experimental manipulations. The fieldwork consists of two sets of trade-off experiments – rankings based conjoint analysis (n = 360) and best-worst scaling with a balanced incomplete block design (n = 1,628). Deliberative thinking is manipulated in three ways: by varying logos between visual (Type 1 processing) and lexical (Type 2 processing) treatments, by post hoc classification of time taken, and by imposing either time constraints (Type 1) or cognitive load (Type 2) on the completion of the task. Familiarity is manipulated by varying logos between the Fairtrade and a fictional Exchange Ethics logo.

Findings

Consumers do have higher preferences in the deliberative treatment conditions; thinking more results in an 18 per cent increase (Cohen’s d = 0.25) in the preference for choices that display an ethical cobranded logo. Surprisingly, the impact of deliberation is not greater for the more familiar Fairtrade logo than the fictional Exchange Ethics logo. This result is inconsistent with strength-based theories of memory, as these predict that deliberation will have a greater effect for more familiar stimuli. However, it is consistent with newer theories of memory that acknowledge familiarity can lead to activation confusion, reducing retrieval of pre-existing knowledge into working memory. The research also shows that the Fairtrade logo has substantial utility to consumers, and that this is approximately 59 per cent due to the ethical claim and 41 per cent due to the familiarity of the logo.

Research limitations/implications

In field conditions, attempts to manipulate deliberation may not be effective or may simply result in reduced attention. Also, the costs of increasing deliberation may outweigh the benefits obtained.

Practical implications

The research confirms the heuristic value of the Fairtrade logo and shows that the effectiveness of ethical logos may increase with additional deliberation by shoppers.

Originality/value

There is relatively little work in marketing that applies dual-process theories to investigate consumer behaviour. The present study extends the use of dual-process theories in marketing, demonstrates a new method to investigate the effect of deliberation on brand choice and shows how deliberation magnifies the effect of endorsing logos, including unfamiliar logos.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 53 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 9 November 2015

Bo van Grinsven and Enny Das

This paper aims to develop an experimental paradigm to assess effects of degrees of logo change on logo processing speed to provide rigid tests of the effects of…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to develop an experimental paradigm to assess effects of degrees of logo change on logo processing speed to provide rigid tests of the effects of objectified degrees of logo changes and to understand how degrees of logo change interact with consumer and market conditions.

Design/methodology/approach

Experiment 1 (N = 120) used a 3 (degree of change: no vs small vs substantial change) unifactorial between-subjects design to develop the experimental paradigm for the effects of degrees of logo change. Experiment 2 (N = 148) examined effects of brand consciousness and exposure in a 3 (degree of change: original vs small vs substantial change) × 2 (exposure: 1 vs 3 exposures) between-subjects design with brand consciousness as a continuous moderator to extend the paradigm to a more naturalistic marketing communication setting.

Findings

Substantial logo changes harmed processing speed of highly brand conscious consumers in particular. Furthermore, substantial logo changes decreased processing speed, which was compensated by repeated exposure to the redesigned brand logo.

Practical implications

The findings suggest that brand consciousness creates a tunnel vision, which impairs openness to changes in brand image. Furthermore, the findings imply that brand logos can be (substantially) changed without hurting logo processing speed: only a few exposures are needed to neutralize these effects.

Originality/value

This is the first study that provides rigid tests of objectified degrees of logo changes, extended to a more naturalistic marketing communication setting, by examining brand consciousness and exposure effects.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 49 no. 11/12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

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