To read this content please select one of the options below:

Sense of community and perceptions of festival social impacts

Christine M. Van Winkle (Faculty of Kinesiology and Recreation Management, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada)
Kyle M. Woosnam (Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, USA)

International Journal of Event and Festival Management

ISSN: 1758-2954

Article publication date: 11 March 2014




The purpose of this paper is to examine the relation between psychological sense of community (SOC) and perceived social impacts of festival events.


SOC was measured using the four-dimensional Brief Sense of Community Scale (BSCS) and the Festival Social Impact Attitudes Scale (FSIAS) was used to measure perceived impacts. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires provided to residents of Caldwell, Texas following the annual Kolache Festival.


Results revealed a relation between two dimensions of the BSCS, needs fulfillment and influence, and the way in which impacts are perceived. Specifically, needs fulfillment was positively related to social benefits and individual benefits. Needs fulfillment was negatively related to social costs. Influence related to impacts in the same manner.

Research limitations/implications

This research provides support for a four-dimensional conceptualization of SOC and highlights the importance of examining the relation between psycho-social variables and perceptions of impact. Further research in additional settings is recommended.

Practical implications

Results suggest that individuals with greater SOC are better able to perceive festival impacts and could be mobilized by festival administrators to address festival issues. Further research in additional settings is recommended.


Empirical explorations of psychological SOC have been common in a range of community settings but have not received much attention with in the festival literature. Exploring how SOC is related to festival experiences can enhance theory development within this field of study as well as provide needed insight for festival administrators.



M. Van Winkle, C. and M. Woosnam, K. (2014), "Sense of community and perceptions of festival social impacts", International Journal of Event and Festival Management, Vol. 5 No. 1, pp. 22-38.



Emerald Group Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2014, Emerald Group Publishing Limited

Related articles