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Artificial intelligence in learning and development: a systematic literature review

Parag Bhatt (School of Petroleum Management, Pandit Deendayal Energy University, Gandhinagar, India)
Ashutosh Muduli (School of Petroleum Management, Pandit Deendayal Energy University, Gandhinagar, India)

European Journal of Training and Development

ISSN: 2046-9012

Article publication date: 16 May 2022

Issue publication date: 14 August 2023




The presented research explored artificial intelligence (AI) application in the learning and development (L&D) function. Although a few studies reported AI and the people management processes, a systematic and structured study that evaluates the integration of AI with L&D focusing on scope, adoption and affecting factors is mainly absent. This study aims to explore L&D-related AI innovations, AI’s role in L&D processes, advantages of AI adoption and factors leading to effective AI-based learning following the analyse, design, develop, implement and evaluate approach.


The presented research has adopted a systematic literature review method to critically analyse, synthesise and map the extant research by identifying the broad themes involved. The review approach includes determining a time horizon, database selection, article selection and article classification. Databases from Emerald, Sage, Francis and Taylor, etc. were used, and the 81 research articles published between 1996 and 2022 were identified for analysis.


The result shows that AI innovations such as natural language processing, artificial neural networks, interactive voice response and text to speech, speech to text, technology-enhanced learning and robots can improve L&D process efficiency. One can achieve this by facilitating the articulation of learning module, identifying learners through face recognition and speech recognition systems, completing course work, etc. Further, the result also shows that AI can be adopted in evaluating learning aptitude, testing learners’ memory, tracking learning progress, measuring learning effectiveness, helping learners identify mistakes and suggesting corrections. Finally, L&D professionals can use AI to facilitate a quicker, more accurate and cheaper learning process, suitable for a large learning audience at a time, flexible, efficient, convenient and less expensive for learners.


In the absence of any systematic research on AI in L&D function, the result of this study may provide useful insights to researchers and practitioners.



Bhatt, P. and Muduli, A. (2023), "Artificial intelligence in learning and development: a systematic literature review", European Journal of Training and Development, Vol. 47 No. 7/8, pp. 677-694.



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