Adoption of integrated MOS based pseudo-resistor (PR) structures instead of using off-chip passive poly resistors for analog circuits in complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology (CMOS) is an area-efficient way for realizing larger time constants. However, issue of common-mode voltage shifting and excess dependency on the process and temperature variations introduce nonlinearity in such structures. So there is dire need to not only closely look for the origin of the problem with the help of a thorough mathematical analysis but also suggest the most suitable PR structure for the purpose catering broadly to biomedical analog circuit applications.
In this work, incremental resistance (IR) expressions and IR range for balanced PR (BPR) structures operating in the subthreshold region have been closely analyzed for broader range of process-voltage-temperature variations. All the post-layout simulations have been obtained using BSIM3V3 device models in 0.18 µm standard CMOS process.
The obtained results show that the pertinent problem of common-mode voltage shifting in such PR structures is completely resolved in scaled gate linearization and bulk-driven quasi-floating gate (BDQFG) BPR structures. Among all BPR structures, BDQFG BPR remarkably shows constant IR value of 1 TΩ over −1 V to 1 V voltage swing for wider process and temperature variations.
Various balanced PR design techniques reported in this work will help the research community in implementing larger time constants for analog-mixed signal circuits.
The PR design techniques presented in the present piece of work is expected to be used in developing tunable and accurate biomedical prosthetics.
The BPR structures thoroughly analyzed and reported in this work may be useful in the design of analog circuits specifically for applications such as neural signal recording, cardiac electrical impedance tomography and other low-frequency biomedical applications.
The authors thank the anonymous reviewers for their valuable feedback which has helped in further enhancing the quality of the manuscript and making it more impactful.
Sharma, K., Pathania, A., Madan, J., Pandey, R. and Sharma, R. (2021), "Process voltage temperature analysis of MOS based balanced pseudo-resistors for biomedical analog circuit applications", Circuit World, Vol. ahead-of-print No. ahead-of-print. https://doi.org/10.1108/CW-08-2020-0213
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