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How food retailing changed in Turkey: spread of self-service technologies

Ipek Kazancoglu (Department of Business Administration, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Ege Üniversitesi, Izmir, Turkey)
Emel Kursunluoglu Yarimoglu (Department of Business Administration, Faculty of Business, Yaşar Üniversitesi, Izmir, Turkey)

British Food Journal

ISSN: 0007-070X

Article publication date: 5 February 2018




The purpose of this paper is to predict customers’ intentions to use self-checkouts based on the technology acceptance model (TAM).


The questionnaire consisted of constructs taken from the existing literature such as perceived ease of use (PEU), perceived usefulness (PU), behavioral intentions, technology anxiety (TA), perceived risk (PR), need for interaction (NI), and situational factors (SF). Before preparing the questionnaire, the focus group studies were organized to gain deeper insights regarding customers’ views about self-checkouts. Based on the results of the focus groups, some items in the constructs were adapted, and the questionnaire was generated. The field study was conducted via face-to-face survey with 500 customers chosen by stratified random sampling. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling were used to validate the relationships hypothesized in the conceptual model among constructs.


Out of the 16 hypotheses, 10 were found to be significant. The hypotheses related to the effects of PR, PEU, PU, intentions, while the effects of NI on PU and intentions; the effects of SF on intentions were not accepted in the study. According to the findings, PEU, PU, and TA affected intentions whereas PR, NI, and SF did not.

Research limitations/implications

There were some limitations related to demographics, attitudes, SF, and actual usage of self-checkouts.

Practical implications

To avoid queues, retailers should install a sufficient number of user-friendly and simple interfaced self-checkouts with well-trained employees to encourage usage and reduce the perceived risk and anxiety.


The main contribution of this study was that the effects of different constructs were measured on Turkish customers’ intentions to use self-checkouts, which could be used in formulating marketing strategies as well as considering future research directions. The paper also provided additional insights into the effects of SF, TA, NI, and PR, all of which were added to the TAM in this study.



This paper forms part of a special section “Food retailing: from farmers’ markets to retail hybridization.”


Kazancoglu, I. and Kursunluoglu Yarimoglu, E. (2018), "How food retailing changed in Turkey: spread of self-service technologies", British Food Journal, Vol. 120 No. 2, pp. 290-308.



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