Index

Cutting Edge Research Methods in Hospitality and Tourism

ISBN: 978-1-80455-064-9, eISBN: 978-1-80455-063-2

Publication date: 25 January 2023

This content is currently only available as a PDF

Citation

(2023), "Index", Okumus, F., Rasoolimanesh, S.M. and Jahani, S. (Ed.) Cutting Edge Research Methods in Hospitality and Tourism, Emerald Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. 201-208. https://doi.org/10.1108/978-1-80455-063-220231013

Publisher

:

Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2023 Fevzi Okumus, S. Mostafa Rasoolimanesh, and Shiva Jahani


INDEX

Absolute fit indices
, 16

Adjusted Goodness of Fit Index (AGFI)
, 16

AEHTD
, 109–110, 112

Akaike information criterion (AIC)
, 62

Analytical netnography
, 175

Association of Tourism Businesses in Douro and Trás-os-Montes (AETUR)
, 110, 112

Attitude
, 7, 123, 189

Augmented Dickey–Fuller unit root test (ADF unit root test)
, 78

Autonetnography
, 175

Autoregressive distributed lag model (ARDL model)
, 57

Average variance extracted (AVE)
, 16, 36

Bayesian information criterion
, 62

Betweenness centrality
, 109–110

Bibliometric analysis
, 96

Bonacich’s Centrality
, 108

Booking process
, 131

Boolean algebra
, 3, 143–144, 160

Bottleneck table
, 166

Calibration of fuzzy sets
, 140–141

Causal combinations
, 3, 139, 141–142, 144–146

Causal inference
, 54, 138

modeling
, 2, 60, 65

Causality
, 3, 54, 138, 150, 158

conventional
, 158

Granger-type
, 65

necessity logic
, 161–162

simultaneous
, 59

Ceiling envelopment (CE)
, 162

Ceiling regression (CR)
, 163

Central actors
, 108–109

Centrality, analysis of
, 108

Chi-square (χ2)
, 16

Citation network
, 100

Clickthrough rates (CTRs)
, 166

Closeness centrality
, 110

Clustering
, 64–65

Clustering coefficient (CC)
, 112–113

main properties and metrics used in SNA
, 116–118

Coefficient interpretation
, 63–64

Cognitive dimension
, 40

Cointegration analysis
, 57

Collaboration
, 100

Community
, 176

Community attachment (CAC)
, 146

Comparative Fit Index (CFI)
, 16

Composite measurement
, 10–11

Composite outer models
, 22

Configurations
, 141

Confirmatory composite analysis (CCA)
, 22

Confirmatory factor analysis
, 13

Consistency
, 145

Continuous variables
, 32

“Continuous” fuzzy set
, 139

Conventional correlational techniques
, 137

Conventional quantile regression
, 78

Conventional validity
, 139

Convergent validity
, 139

Covariance-based structural equation modeling (CB-SEM)
, 1, 6–8, 30, 197

guidelines for applying
, 13–17

PLS-SEM and
, 8–13

Coverage
, 142, 145

Craft shops
, 72

Crisp-set QCA (csQCA)
, 138

Critical ratio (CR)
, 34

Critical success factors (CSFs)
, 167

Cross-cultural differences
, 183, 187

Cross-cultural investigation
, 3

Cross-cultural netnographic study
, 187–191

Cross-cultural similarities
, 190

Cross-cultural studies
, 183

Cross-sectional data
, 54

Cross-sectional econometric models
, 58

Cross-sectional models
, 2, 54–56

Cross-validation approach
, 62

Cultural attitude (CAT)
, 146

Culture
, 176–177

Curio
, 72

Curse of dimensionality
, 78

Cutting-edge research methods
, 1, 200

Data analysis
, 107, 164–166

bottleneck table
, 166

CC
, 112–113

ceiling line techniques
, 164–165

density
, 111

distance
, 111–112

evaluating NCA parameters
, 165–166

maximum flow
, 112

network connectivity and cohesion
, 111

position of individual actors
, 108–109

structure of Douro’s innovation network
, 107–108

visual inspection
, 164

Data collection
, 164, 199

experiences and implications from
, 126

process
, 181

tracking mobility
, 126–130

Decision-making process
, 168, 174

Degree centrality
, 109

actors with highest betweenness
, 109–110

Degrees of freedom (df)
, 16

Density
, 111

Destination choice analysis
, 53

Destination marketing organizations (DMOs)
, 166

Difference-in-differences (DID)
, 60

Digital embodiment
, 176

Digital netnography
, 175

Discriminant validity
, 139

Distance
, 111–112

Douro network
, 109

Douro region
, 113

Douro’s innovation network

main metrics computed for Douro tourism innovation network
, 108

structure of
, 107–108

Ecologic validity
, 125, 131

Econometric analysis in hospitality and tourism management

basic econometric models
, 54–59

causal inference modeling
, 60

coefficient interpretation
, 63–64

endogeneity
, 59

estimation of standard errors
, 64

major application issues
, 61

major topics in econometrics
, 59

multi-equation modeling
, 59–60

non-linear effect
, 62–63

sample selection/clustering/outliers
, 64–65

spatial econometrics
, 60–61

variable selection
, 61–62

Econometric models
, 2, 54, 60, 87

cross-sectional models
, 54–56

panel data models
, 57–59

time-series models
, 56–57

Economic gain (EG)
, 146

Elasticities
, 63

Endogeneity
, 54, 59

Entrepreneurial self-efficacy (ESE)
, 34–35

Environmental attitude (EAT)
, 146

Epistemological approaches
, 122

Ethnographic research online
, 175

Ethnography of virtual
, 177–179

Expectations
, 189

Experiments
, 125

External stakeholders
, 1

External validity
, 125, 128

Facebook
, 186

Fellow tourism researchers
, 122

Field experiments
, 123, 125, 132–133

Fixed-effects estimators (FE estimators)
, 58

Foreign direct investment
, 72

Foreign earnings
, 72

Formative measurement
, 10–11

Formative outer models
, 21–22

Free disposal hull (FDH)
, 163

Freeman’s approach
, 110

Fuzzy package
, 144

Fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA)
, 160

Fuzzy sets
, 139

calibration of
, 140–141

Fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (fsQCA)
, 1, 3, 138–140, 197

application of
, 138

calibration of fuzzy sets
, 140–141

crisp vs. fuzzy sets
, 140

illustrative example
, 146–148

literature review
, 139–144

Logical AND, Logical OR, Logical NOT
, 143–144

results of necessity analysis for residents’ perceptions
, 148

step-by-step guideline for
, 144–145

sufficient and necessary conditions
, 142–143

sufficient configurations for residents’ perceptions
, 147

sufficient configurations for residents’ perceptions
, 149

truth tables
, 141–142

verbal description of fuzzy-set membership scores
, 141

G* Power
, 13

Gamma exponential
, 17

Generalized method of moments (GMM)
, 59

Geodesic distance
, 111

German tourists
, 130

Global positioning system (GPS)
, 122, 124

devices
, 126, 129

Goodness-of-Fit Index (GFI)
, 16

Goodness-of-fit measures
, 16

absolute fit indices
, 16

incremental fit indices
, 16

parsimony fit indices
, 16

Google Scholar platform
, 183

Group comparison method
, 30

Health-related safety perception
, 163–166

data analysis
, 164–166

data collection
, 164

formulation of necessary condition hypothesis
, 163–164

Heterotrait–monotrait ratio (HTMT ratio)
, 21

Higher-order constructs
, 13, 41

Hospitality
, 34–39

application of netnographic approach in
, 182–187

critical success factors in
, 167–168

develop SNA in hospitality studies
, 104–113

experiences and implications from data collection
, 126–130

NCA in hospitality and tourism research
, 166–169

need for broader implementation of methods
, 122–123

networks role in
, 98–99

outer results for effects and interaction models
, 37–38

reanalyze existing necessity statements in
, 166–167

and tourism researchers
, 198

tracking technologies
, 123–124

trip planning exercise
, 124–126, 130–132

two-step and orthogonalizing approaches and applications in
, 39–42

use of SNA in
, 98–104

Hotel pricing
, 53

Humanistic netnography
, 176

Hybrid method
, 43, 198

Income equality
, 73

Income inequality
, 85

Incremental fit indices
, 16

Independent variable (X)
, 32, 39–40

Indicator reliability
, 139

Individual actors

betweenness
, 109–110

closeness
, 110

degree centrality
, 109

network centralization
, 110–111

position of
, 108

Influencers
, 174–177

Information exchange
, 173

Inner models
, 22

Instagram
, 189

Institutional tourism network of Douro
, 111

Interaction
, 30, 32

effect model
, 35

Interaction/Moderation Tourism Papers
, 49–50

Internal consistency
, 139

Internal stakeholders
, 1

Internal validity
, 125

Internet
, 174–176, 178

Interviews
, 3

Inverse square root methods
, 17

Investigative research on the Internet (IRI)
, 177

Involvement (INV)
, 146

Lasso approach
, 62

Latent variables
, 7

Logarithmic transformations
, 63

Logical AND
, 143–144

Logical NOT
, 143–144

Logical OR
, 143–144

Longitudinal data (see Panel data)

Machine learning algorithms
, 62

Macroeconomic modeling of demand
, 59

Main effects model
, 35–37

Maximum likelihood estimation method (ML estimation method)
, 6

Measurement models
, 10, 13–16

Medical tourism
, 145

Metric data
, 12–13

Mixed frequency models
, 54

Mixed method approach
, 139

Mobile positioning systems
, 124

Mobility data
, 126

Moderation effect
, 30

Moderator variable (M)
, 32, 39–40

Motivation
, 169

Multi-equation modeling
, 54, 57–58

Multigroup analysis (see Group comparison method)

Multimodal social worlds
, 176

Multiple regression analysis
, 138

Multiple-criteria decision making methods
, 137

Naturalness
, 177

Necessary condition analysis (NCA)
, 1–3, 157, 197

applying NCA in hospitality and tourism research
, 166–169

illustrative example of
, 163–166

logic of NCA and components
, 162–163

necessity logic of causality
, 161–162

Necessity logic of causality
, 161–162

Netnography
, 174, 200

application of netnographic approach in hospitality and tourism research
, 182–187

approach
, 174–191

cross-cultural netnographic study on disappointing travel experiences
, 187–191

in hospitality and tourism research, application of
, 182–187

methodological advantages of
, 180–182

netnographic method
, 176–179

outline of
, 175–177

Networks
, 96, 98

centralization
, 110–111

cohesion
, 111–113

concept
, 97

connectivity
, 111–113

role in tourism and hospitality
, 97–99

Non-linear effect
, 62–63

Non-metric data
, 12–13

Nonparametric estimation
, 78–79

Nonparametric quantile regression model
, 78

Normed Chi-Square
, 16

Normed Fit Index (NFI)
, 16

Nuclear concepts
, 96–98

Offline communities
, 176

Online community
, 179, 183, 188–191

Online ethnography
, 177–179

Online interactions
, 174

Ordered logit model
, 56

Ordered probit model
, 56

Ordinary least squares (OLS)
, 54–55, 78

Orthogonalizing approaches and applications in hospitality and tourism
, 39–42

Outliers
, 64–65

Panel data
, 57

cointegration tests
, 58

models
, 2, 57–59

regression
, 58

unit root test
, 58

Parsimony fit indices
, 16

Parsimony Normed Fit Index (PNFI)
, 16

Partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM)
, 1–2, 6–8, 29, 197

algorithm
, 39

applying product term method and interpreting results
, 32–34

CB-SEM and
, 8–13

example in hospitality and tourism research
, 34–39

extending product term method in
, 39–42

guidelines for applying
, 17–22

model
, 33

path models
, 32, 40

Perceived destination image
, 7

PLSGraph
, 30

Poisson panel data model
, 58

Polynomial relations
, 62

Polynomial transformations
, 63

Portugal, practical application to tourism innovation network of Douro
, 104–113

Positivistic paradigm
, 123

Poverty
, 73

Principal component analysis (PCA)
, 73

Principal component matrix (PC matrix)
, 75

Product term method
, 40

in CB-SEM
, 31

in PLS-SEM and interpreting results
, 31–34, 39–42

step-by-step guidelines to account for continuous moderator constructs
, 44–45

Propensity score matching (PSM)
, 60

QQR estimates
, 85–86

Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA)
, 137–138, 160

Quantile on quantile approach (QQ approach)
, 2, 73, 198

data
, 75–78

descriptive statistics
, 76

empirical results
, 79

estimation
, 79–84

literature review
, 74

methodology
, 78–79

PCA results for tourism activity index
, 75

QnQ estimation
, 77

validation of
, 85–87

Quantile regression
, 55, 78, 85

Random-effects estimators (RE estimators)
, 58

Reachability
, 111

Recipes
, 138

Redundancy analysis
, 21

Reflective measurement
, 10–11

Reflective outer models, assessing
, 21

Regional tourism planning
, 103

Regression
, 56

Regression-based ordinary least squares (Regression-based OLS)
, 6

Reliability metrices
, 139

Residents’ perceptions (RP)
, 146

Risk management
, 168

Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA)
, 16

Root mean square residual covariance (RMStheta)
, 12

Safety perception
, 163–165

Sample selection
, 64–65

Scenario-based experiment
, 125

Seemingly unrelated regression equations (SURE)
, 60

Set negation (see Logical NOT)

Set union (see Logical OR)

Simultaneous causality
, 59

Simultaneous equation modeling
, 59

Small Island developing states (SIDS)
, 74

Smartphones
, 129

SmartPLS
, 30

Snowball sampling method
, 105, 130

Social network analysis (SNA)
, 1, 95, 96–98, 197

develop SNA in tourism and hospitality studies
, 104–113

existing studies and approaches
, 99–104

role of networks in tourism and hospitality
, 98–99

use of SNA in tourism and hospitality studies
, 98–99

Social networks
, 105

Social science disciplines
, 3, 138, 199

Sociograms
, 106

Sociometric analysis
, 105

Spatial dependence econometrics
, 60

Spatial Durbin model
, 61

Spatial econometric models
, 54, 60–61

Spatial error model
, 61

Spatial weighting matrix (SWM)
, 61

Standard errors, estimation of
, 64

Standard evaluation criteria for structural models
, 17

Standardized Root Mean Residual (SRMR)
, 12, 16

Stata software
, 144

Stochastic frontier analysis (SFA)
, 56

Structural equation modeling (SEM)
, 1, 5, 160, 197

additional considerations
, 13

advantages of
, 6

aim of analysis
, 10

CB-SEM
, 6

choosing between CB-SEM and PLS-SEM
, 8

data distribution
, 11

goodness-of-fit
, 12

guidelines for applying CB-SEM
, 13–17

guidelines for applying PLS-SEM
, 17–22

guidelines for choosing SEM method
, 9

measurement of constructs
, 10–11

metric vs. non-metric data
, 12–13

model complexity
, 12

moderation/interaction effects in
, 30

philosophy of measurement
, 8–10

PLS-SEM
, 6

sample size
, 11

secondary or archival data
, 11–12

single-item constructs
, 12

statistical power
, 12

two types of
, 7–8

usage
, 6

Structural model
, 16

Sufficiency
, 142

language
, 158

Sufficient configurations
, 145

raw results for sufficient configurations for residents’ perceptions
, 153–154

Surveys
, 3, 180

Sustainability
, 168

Symmetric approach
, 138

Synthetic control method (SCM)
, 60

Tax revenues
, 72

Theoretical econometrics
, 54

Theory confirmation
, 10

Theory development
, 10

Time-invariant variables
, 58

Time-series

data
, 57

models
, 2, 56–57

Top 10 countries
, 76

Topology
, 97

Tourism
, 72, 75

activity index
, 73, 76

communities
, 74

demand modeling
, 53

develop SNA in
, 106–115

expansion
, 72

mobility
, 123

networks role in
, 98–99

sector
, 72

tourism-led growth
, 53

two-step and orthogonalizing approaches and applications in
, 39–42

use of SNA in
, 98–104

Tourism growth
, 72, 85

income inequality on
, 85

Tourism innovation network of Douro, Portugal
, 104

computing data
, 105–106

data analysis
, 107

defining population, sampling, and collecting data
, 105

Tourism research
, 34–39, 122

experiences and implications from data collection
, 126–130

need for broader implementation of methods
, 122–123

tracking technologies
, 123–124

trip planning exercise
, 124–126, 130–132

Tourist behavior
, 123

Tracking experiments
, 123

Tracking mobility
, 3, 126–130

Tracking technologies
, 122–124

Transnational companies (TNCs)
, 72

Travel intention
, 163

data analysis
, 164–166

data collection
, 164

formulation of necessary condition hypothesis
, 163–164

Trip planning exercise
, 124–126, 130–132

booking exercise
, 132

Truth tables
, 141–142

Tucker Lewis Index (TLI)
, 16

Turkey’s international tourism
, 83

Two-stage approach
, 41

Two-stage least squares
, 59

Two-step approach
, 40

and applications in hospitality and tourism
, 39–42

UCINET
, 105

Unit root test
, 57

University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro (UTAD)
, 108

UNU-WIDER
, 75

Validity in tourism research
, 122

Variable selection
, 61–62

Variance inflation factor (VIF)
, 17

Vector autoregressive model (VAR model)
, 60

“Waiting time” management
, 167

Word-of-mouth approach
, 174

World Income Inequality Database (SWIID)
, 75

World Tourism Organization (WTO)
, 72, 75

XL-STAT software
, 30