Cutting Edge Research Methods in Hospitality and Tourism

ISBN: 978-1-80455-064-9, eISBN: 978-1-80455-063-2

Publication date: 25 January 2023


(2023), "Prelims", Okumus, F., Rasoolimanesh, S.M. and Jahani, S. (Ed.) Cutting Edge Research Methods in Hospitality and Tourism, Emerald Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. i-xiv.



Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2023 Fevzi Okumus, S. Mostafa Rasoolimanesh, and Shiva Jahani

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Cutting Edge Research Methods in Hospitality and Tourism

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Cutting Edge Research Methods in Hospitality and Tourism



University of Central Florida, USA


Taylor’s University, Malaysia



University of Central Florida, USA

United Kingdom – North America – Japan – India – Malaysia – China

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Emerald Publishing Limited

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First edition 2023

Editorial matter and selection © 2023 Fevzi Okumus, S. Mostafa Rasoolimanesh, and Shiva Jahani.

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ISBN: 978-1-80455-063-2 (Online)

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List of Figures and Tables vii
About the Contributors ix
Chapter 1: Introduction
S. Mostafa Rasoolimanesh, Shiva Jahani and Fevzi Okumus 1
Chapter 2: Which SEM to Use and What to Report? A Comparison of CB-SEM and PLS-SEM
Ahmet Usakli and S. Mostafa Rasoolimanesh 5
Chapter 3: Using PLS-SEM to Test for the Moderation Effects of Continuous Variables in Hospitality and Tourism Studies
Guy Assaker and Peter O’Connor 29
Chapter 4: Econometric Analysis in Hospitality and Tourism Management
Yang Yang, Graziano Abrate and Chunrong Ai 53
Chapter 5: Tourism Growth, Income Inequality and the Dependence Between Their Quantiles: Evidence from Quantile on Quantile Approach
Syed Ali Raza, Nida Shah, Ronald Ravinesh Kumar and Md. Samsul Alam 71
Chapter 6: Network Analysis in Tourism and Hospitality: A Comprehensive Review
Filipa Brandão, Zélia Breda and Carlos Costa 95
Chapter 7: “Why Not Study What Tourists Actually Do, Instead of Asking Them What They Think They Do?” A Call for More Experiments in Tourism and Hospitality Research
Malin Zillinger 121
Chapter 8: Guideline for Application of Fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (fsQCA) in Tourism and Hospitality Studies
S. Mostafa Rasoolimanesh, Naser Valaei and Sajad Rezaei 137
Chapter 9: Application of Necessary Condition Analysis (NCA) in Hospitality and Tourism Research
Wangoo Lee, Jan Dul and Zsofia Toth 157
Chapter 10: Netnography and Its Potential for Studies in Tourism and hospitality
Irina Valerie Gewinner 173
Chapter 11: Conclusions
Shiva Jahani, Fevzi Okumus and S. Mostafa Rasoolimanesh 197
Index 201

List of Figures and Tables


Fig. 3.1. Illustrative Example of a Continuous Interaction Model in PLS-SEM, Which Consists of an Independent Construct (X), a Moderator Construct (M), an Interaction Term (X.M), and a Dependent Construct (Y). 33
Fig. 3.2. Inner Results of the Main Effects Model (Model 1). 35
Fig. 3.3. Inner Results of the Interaction Model (Model 2). 36
Fig. 5.1. The QnQ Estimates of China and France 80
Fig. 5.2. The QnQ Estimates of Italy and Spain 81
Fig. 5.3. The QnQ Estimates of Germany and Mexico 82
Fig. 5.4. The QnQ Estimates of Turkey and Russia 83
Fig. 5.5. The QnQ Estimates of the UK and the USA 84
Fig. 5.6. The Comparison of QQR and QR Estimates of China and France 85
Fig. 5.7. The Comparison of QQR and QR Estimates of Italy and Spain 86
Fig. 5.8. The Comparison of QQR and QR Estimates of Germany and Mexico 87
Fig. 5.9. The Comparison of QQR and QR Estimates of Turkey and Russia 88
Fig. 5.10. The Comparison of QQR and QR Estimates of the UK and the USA 89
Fig. 6.1. Number of Publications Per Year 99
Fig. 6.2. Citations Per Source Network 100
Fig. 6.3. Co-authorship Network. (a) Number of Documents. (b) Citations 101
Fig. 6.4. Citation and Co-citation Networks. (a) Citation Network. (b) Co-citation Network 102
Fig. 6.5. Co-occurrence Network by Index Keywords 103
Fig. 6.6. Matrix from the UCINET Software 106
Fig. 6.7. Example of a Sociogram 106
Fig. 6.8. Tourism Innovation Network of Douro 107
Fig. 6.9. Regional Network of Tourism Innovation of Douro 112
Fig. 7.1. GPS Device with Two Buttons 127
Fig. 7.2. Smartphone with Application 128
Fig. 8.1. XY Plot – Distribution of Cases for Sufficient Condition X 143
Fig. 9.1. A Scatterplot Example with Regression and NCA Ceiling Lines 162
Fig. 9.2. Conceptual Model. +NC+ Means the Presence or a high (+) Level of Cause X Is a Necessary Condition for the Presence or a High (+) Level of Outcome Y 164
Fig. 9.3. Graphical Representation (i.e., Scatterplot) with CE-FDH and CR-FDH Ceiling Lines, and OLS Regression Line 165
Fig. 10.1. Stages of Netnographic Research 178
Fig. 10.2. Word Cloud of Most Memorable Disappointing Cities 189


Table 2.1. Guidelines for Choosing SEM Method. 9
Table 2.2. Guidelines for Applying CB-SEM. 14
Table 2.3. Guidelines for Applying PLS-SEM. 18
Table 3.1. Outer Results for Both the Main Effects and Interaction Models. 37
Table 3.2. Step-by-Step Guidelines to Account for Continuous Moderator Constructs (Testing Continuous Moderation Effect) in PLS-SEM Under Different Scenarios, Assuming One Independent Construct (X), One Moderator Construct (M), and a Dependent Construct (Y). 44
Table 5.1. PCA Results for Tourism Activity Index 75
Table 5.2. Descriptive Statistics 76
Table 5.3. QnQ Estimation 77
Table 6.1. Summary of Main Metrics Computed for the Douro Tourism Innovation Network 108
Table 6.2. Actors with the Highest Betweenness 109
Table 6.3. Main Properties and Metrics Used in SNA 114
Table 7.1. Recommendations for Implementation: Tracking Technologies 129
Table 7.2. Recommendations for Implementation: Booking Exercise 132
Table 8.1. Crisp Versus Fuzzy Sets 140
Table 8.2. Verbal Description of Fuzzy-set Membership Scores 141
Table 8.3. Sufficient Configurations for Residents’ Perceptions 147
Table 8.4. Results of Necessity Analysis for Residents’ Perceptions 148
Table 8.5. Sufficient Configurations for Residents’ Perceptions 149
Table 9.1. Examples of Necessary Condition Statements in Hospitality and Tourism Research 159
Table 9.2. NCA Parameters 165
Table 9.3. Bottleneck Table (Actual Values) 166
Table 10.1. Studies in Hospitality and Tourism Addressing Cross-cultural Issues Using Netnography/IRI 184

About the Contributors

Graziano Abrate is an Associate Professor of Management in the Department of Economics and Business at University of Piemonte Orientale, Italy. His research interests include pricing and revenue management, demand estimation, environmental and economic sustainability and efficiency analysis, with a particular focus on the tourism and hospitality industry. His work has been published in several international journals. He currently serves as a member of the editorial board of the following journals: Journal of Travel Research, Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research and Tourism Economics.

Chunrong Ai is Professor of Economics and Presidential Chair Professor in the School of Management and Economics, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shenzhen. He is the Director of the Social and Behavioral Big Data Lab at The Shenzhen Research Institute of Big Data and Associate Director of Shenzhen Institute of Data Economy. Before that, he was Professor of Economics and Florida Term Professor at the University of Florida. His primary research interests are in the area of econometrics, empirical industrial organization, empirical finance and Chinese economy. Recently, he focused on the interdisciplinary research between data science and behavioral big data.

Md. Samsul Alam is currently working as an Associate Professor (Research) and Faculty Lead for Knowledge Exchange Framework in the Faculty of Business & Law, De Montfort University. He is a leading expert with experience in creating real-world impact around his research areas: financial economics, green finance, tourism finance, business sustainability and corporate governance. His research has received an amazing response across academic and general public forums.

Guy Assaker is presently serving as the Assistant Dean and Associate Professor of Hospitality and Marketing at the Adnan Kassar School of Business at Lebanese American University. He holds a PhD in Decision Science and Quantitative Methods from ESSEC Business School in France and a professional certification in hotel industry analytics from the American Hotel and Lodging Educational Institute in the USA. He has published more than 40 papers in major international refereed journals over the past years, with his research focusing on the use of advanced multivariate statistical methods and structural equation modeling to model various hospitality and tourism subjects.

Filipa Brandão holds a PhD in Tourism and a Master’s degree in Tourism Management and Development from the University of Aveiro. She is an Assistant Professor at the Department of Economics, Management, Industrial Engineering and Tourism of the University of Aveiro and is Vice Director of the Master in Tourism Management and Planning. She is a Full Researcher at GOVCOPP – Research Unit in Governance, Competitiveness and Public Policy – University of Aveiro and Associate Editor of the Journal of Tourism & Development (SCOPUS). She authored books, book chapters and articles published in international journals. She has integrated several research and consultancy projects in Tourism and Leisure and has organized national and international scientific events. Her research interests and scientific production focus on innovation in tourism, regional development, tourism networks, social network analysis, planning and management of tourist destinations and urban tourism.

Zélia Breda holds a PhD in Tourism, a MA in Chinese Studies (Business and International Relations) and a BSc in Tourism Management and Planning from the University of Aveiro, where she is Assistant Professor, at the Department of Economics, Management, Industrial Engineering and Tourism, holding the position of Director of the Master’s in Tourism Management and Planning. She is a senior member of the Research Unit “Governance, Competitiveness and Public Policies” of the University of Aveiro, a founding member of the Observatory of China and a Senior Consultant of Idtour, a tourism R&D spin-off company. She is also a member of the editorial, scientific and review boards of a few academic international peer-reviewed journals, as well as a member of the organizing and scientific committees of international tourism conferences. She has also been taking part in several research projects in the tourism field, both as a member of the team and as a consultant. Her research interests are tourism development, networks, China’s outbound tourism, gender and tourism and internationalization of the tourism economy.

Carlos Costa is Full Professor and Head of the Department (School) of Economics, Management, Industrial Engineering and Tourism of the University of Aveiro, and Tourism Expert at the European Commission. He is Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Tourism & Development (SCOPUS), and Senior Advisor of the Tourism Review (SCOPUS), Journal of Destination Marketing Management (SCOPUS) and Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management (SCOPUS). He holds a PhD and MSc in Tourism Management (University of Surrey, UK), and a BSc in Urban and Regional Planning (University of Aveiro, Portugal). He is the leader of the PhD Tourism Program of the University of Aveiro and is also the head of the Tourism Research Centre of the University of Aveiro (included in Governance, Competitiveness and Public Policies Research Unit). He is also Scientific Coordinator of “idtour-unique solutions” – a tourism start-up company (private sector) based at the University, responsible for the transference of knowledge and innovation to the tourism sector. He is involved in a number of national and international tourism projects. He also works as Consultant for Portugal’s National Agency of Accreditation, National Foundation for Science and Technology and for the Cyprus Agency of Quality Assurance and Accreditation in Higher Education.

Jan Dul a Professor of Technology and Human Factors at the Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University, the Netherlands. He has a background in the technical, the medical and the social sciences and he is author of more than 200 academic publications. He is the Founder of Necessary Condition Analysis and wrote articles about the method in Organizational Research Methods and Sociological Methods & Research, as well as two books Conduction Necessary Condition Analysis (Sage Publications) and Advances in Necessary Condition Analysis (online book

Irina Valerie Gewinner is a Postdoctoral Researcher at the Institute of Sociology, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Germany. Her research interests include social inequalities in education and labor market; skilled migration, mobility and tourism; and cultural and gender studies. Her recent publications are “Understanding patterns of economic insecurity for post-Soviet migrant women in Europe” (Frontiers in Sociology), “Gendered and diversified? Leadership in global hospitality and tourism academia” (International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management) as well as “Women in tourism in Muslim contexts: The impact of cultural background on customer behaviour” (Women in Tourism in Asian Muslim Countries, Springer).

Shiva Jahani is a Data Scientist and tourism and hospitality scholar. She leverages her data science expertise as a Statistician and Graduate Faculty in the College of Community Innovation and Education at the University of Central Florida as well as a Research Fellow at Orblytics LLC – an international data science and scholarly writing firm. She applies her tourism and hospitality expertise as the Associate Editor of the Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Insights. She has served as an Invited Board Member and Researcher of the World Academy for the Future of Women. She has published over 20 articles in refereed journals as well as several methodological white papers on a variety of topics. Her research includes invited collaborations on funded projects from such funders as: (a) FEMA, (b) NSF and (c) FDA.S.

Wangoo Lee is a PhD student at Fox School of Business, Temple University, PA, USA. He is a member of the Necessary Condition Analysis (NCA) development team and has published earliest NCA papers in hospitality/tourism-related journals. His research interests include service consumer experience and behavior, hospitality human–technology interaction, gamified hospitality services and tourist pro-environmental behavior. He has published academic papers in international journals such as Current Issues in Tourism, Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Journal of Destination Marketing and Management, and Leisure Sciences.

S. Mostafa Rasoolimanesh is an Associate Professor and Director of Centre for Research and Innovation in Tourism, in Taylor’s University, Malaysia. His research interest areas contain sustainable tourism, heritage tourism, community participation, residents’ perceptions and urban sustainability. Moreover, he has used advanced quantitative analysis such as partial least squares – structural equation modeling in most of his papers. He has published widely in high impact journals. He is an editorial team and board member of several reputed tourism and hospitality journals.

Fevzi Okumus is the CFHLA Preeminent Chair Professor within the Hospitality Services Department at the University of Central Florida’s Rosen College of Hospitality Management. He has over 160 refereed journal articles, 3 books, 12 book chapters and 90 conferenced presentations and reports. As of August 1, 2021, his publications have received over 13,300 citations and he has an h-index of 55. He has chaired/co-chaired and served on numerous PhD dissertation and master thesis committees. He is the Editor-in-Chief of the International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management (IF: 6.514) and the Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Insights. He has received numerous prestigious research awards and recognitions.

Peter O’Connor is Professor of Strategic Management at University of South Australia Business School. His primary research, teaching and consulting interests focus on the use of technology in online retailing and marketing. Prior to joining the UniSA, he founded the Chair in Digital Disruption, sponsored by BNP Paribas, at Essec Business School in France. He taught, and held a number of senior administrative positions, at Essec for over 25 years, serving as both Director of MBA Programs and Dean of Academic Programs at various stages. In addition, he has regularly taught executive education seminars at London Business School; held visiting positions at both the Johnson Graduate Business School and the School of Hotel Administration at Cornell University; as well as worked in a variety of positions in industry in both Europe and the USA. In 2015, he launched Essec’s first MOOC on hotel distribution with Coursera, which currently has over 15,000 active learners.

Ronald Ravinesh Kumar is Associate Professor in the School of Accounting, Finance and Economics at the University of the South Pacific. He teaches international finance, investment analysis and financial risk management. His research interests include tourism economics and development finance in small island economies. His publications have appeared in journals like Applied Economics, Tourism Economics, Tourism Analysis, Tourism Management, Tourism Management Perspectives, Journal of Pension Economics and Finance and others.

Syed Ali Raza is a Full Professor of Finance at Iqra University Karachi, Pakistan. He received his PhD degree in Finance from the Northern University of Malaysia. He is Director of Academics, Chairperson of Department of Accounting and Finance, member of Academic Council, member Board of Advance Studies and Research and member Doctoral Committee for Business Administration at Iqra University. Also, he has many international research publications in well-reputed impact factor journals like Tourism Management, Energy Economics, Energy Policy, The Energy Journal, Economic Modelling, Social Indicators Research, Resources Policy, Current Issues in Tourism, Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Quality and Quantity, International Migration, Total Quality Management, and Business Excellence, Journal of Business Economics and Management, Studies in Higher Education, Journal of Educational Computing Research, and others. His research work has been cited more than 4,500 times.

Sajad Rezaei currently works at Worcester Business School, University of Worcester. Previously, he worked as a Lecturer/Researcher at Universität Hamburg and Lecturer at Taylor’s University dual award programs with the Bristol Business School, University of the West of England. His recent research has been published in refereed journals such as Computers in Human Behavior, Journal of Business Research, Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, Marketing Intelligence & Planning, Journal of Internet Commerce, Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, The International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research and International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, among other scholarly outlets. His research direction has extended from his background in BSc Business Administration, MBA dissertation and PhD. theses with two key research themes including e-commerce and implicit cognition approach. He serves as a reviewer for several refereed journals such as Journal.

Nida Shah is working as an Assistant Manager Research and Visiting Faculty at Iqra University Karachi, Pakistan. She received her MBA degree in Finance from Iqra University Karachi. She has many international research publications in well-reputed impact factor journals. Her area of research work includes economics, finance and behavioral sciences.

Zsofia Toth is an Associate Professor of Marketing and Management. Beforehand she worked at the University of Nottingham and she obtained her PhD from the Manchester Business School, University of Manchester. Her research focuses on the development of buyer–supplier relationships and networks with special regard to customer/supplier attractiveness, social capital, tension management as well as digital service innovation. She has published in the International Journal of Operations and Production Management, Annals of Tourism Research and Journal of Business Research and Industrial Marketing Management, and serves as member of the editorial and review boards of the latter two journals.

Ahmet Usakli is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Tourism Administration at Bogazici University, Turkey. He holds a Master’s degree in Hotel Administration from the University of Nevada Las Vegas (USA) and a Doctorate in Tourism Management from Gazi University (Turkey). His research interests revolve around consumer behavior in travel and tourism, destination marketing and management and statistical and methodological aspects of hospitality and tourism research.

Naser Valaei is Senior Lecturer in Digital Marketing at Liverpool Business School, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, UK and MBA supervisor in Digital Marketing at University of the West of Scotland, London, UK. Previously, he was Postdoctoral Researcher in Digital Marketing at KEDGE Business School, Bordeaux, France and Assistant Professor in Marketing at Department of Marketing, Sunway University Business School, Malaysia. His research has been published in several journals such as Journal of Business Research, Computers in Human Behavior, Information Technology & People, Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, Industrial Management & Data Systems, Journal of Retailing & Consumer Services, Journal of Enterprise Information Management, Marketing Intelligence & Planning, Business Process Management Journal, the International Review of Retail, Distribution, and Consumer Research, among others. He is an Associate Editor of the Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Administration and sits at the editorial board of Journal of Promotion Management. He also serves as a reviewer to several refereed journals such as Journal of Business Research, Technovation, Information Technology & People and Tourism Management.

Yang Yang is a tenured Associate Professor in the Department of Tourism and Hospitality Management at Temple University. Also, he serves as the Executive Director of the U.S.-Asia Center for Tourism and Hospitality Research. He got PhD in Geography, Master of Statistics and MA in Economics from the University of Florida. His major research interests lie in tourism demand analysis, regional tourism growth, as well as hotel financial and real estate analysis. With a productive publication record, he was appointed as the Associate Editor of Annals of Tourism Research and the Corresponding Editor of the International Journal of Hospitality Management. At the same time, he has accumulated abundant industrial experience from various consulting projects.

Malin Zillinger, as a human geographer, is interested in several aspects related to the empirical study of tourism, and to the impact that the choice of methods has on what we know about tourist behaviour. Discussions on the importance of method choice, and the epistemological reasoning behind such choices, have been a major focus since she published her thesis in 2007. The main argument for the need of such a discussion is that decent methods enable us to enlarge our knowledge on the entire field of tourism, not least as a part of social science. She is teaching methods on bachelor and master level, and dedicated to the development of pedagogic teaching approaches.