Tourism Through Troubled Times

ISBN: 978-1-80382-312-6, eISBN: 978-1-80382-311-9

Publication date: 23 September 2022


(2022), "Prelims", Korstanje, M.E., Seraphin, H. and Maingi, S.W. (Ed.) Tourism Through Troubled Times (Tourism Security-Safety and Post Conflict Destinations), Emerald Publishing Limited, Leeds, pp. i-xxi.



Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2022 Maximiliano E. Korstanje, Hugues Seraphin and Shem Wambugu Maingi. Published under exclusive licence by Emerald Publishing Limited

Half Title Page

Tourism Through Troubled Times


Once again I want to congratulate Dr Maximiliano Korstanje, Hugues Seraphin and Shem Maingi and the team of scholars for having given to the world a valuable academic work to help the tourism industry face its twenty-first-century emerging issues. As is typical of many of the other books written or edited by Korstanje, Seraphin & Maingi, this book offers wisdom and guidance not only for tourism scientists but also for those who work in the applied field of tourism. This newest book touches on a number of value subjects, including tourism and the digital world, some of the world's most challenging tourism destinations such as South Africa and Haiti, the impact of pandemics and especially COVID-19 on tourism. This book will be not only a window to the world of tourism but also a handbook of how to handle new crises as they emerge.

–Professor Peter Tarlow, PhD, Texas A&M University, USA

This book advances a bold perspective on tourism: while it is generally true that COVID-19 created troubles for tourism growth, what is even more true is that it merely exacerbated the troubles that were already brewing in the background; also, globally, COVID-19 activated the process of reinventing tourism in fundamentally different ways. This is an exciting opportunity for newer forms of tourism and management styles. The contributions included in this volume explore these dimensions. An excellent compendium of a very diverse set of viewpoints.

–Babu George, PhD, Professor of International Business, Christian Brothers University, USA

In this new book we are given the opportunity to scrutinise perceptions and representations of crisis faced by tourism as an industry and a system of services in the twenty-first century. Building on their previously published work, the editors of the compendium bring together an exciting array of case studies and fresh analytical propositions, helping us to reflect on what it means to live and travel in troubled times.

–Professor Rodanthi Tzanelli, PhD, Director, Mobilities Research Area, Bauman Institute, University of Leeds, UK

Series Title Page

Tourism Security-Safety and Post Conflict Destinations

Series editors: Maximiliano E. Korstanje and Hugues Seraphin

Since the turn of the century, the international rules surrounding security and safety have significantly changed, specifically within the tourism industry. In the age of globalisation, terrorism and conflict have moved beyond individual high-profile targets; instead, tourists, travellers and journalists are at risk. In response to this shift, the series invites authors and scholars to contribute to the conversation surrounding tourism security and post-conflict destinations.

The series features monographs and edited collections to create a critical platform which not only explores the dichotomies of tourism from the theory of mobilities but also provides an insightful guide for policy makers, specialists and social scientists interested in the future of tourism in a society where uncertainness, anxiety and fear prevail.

Tourism Security-Safety and Post Conflict Destinations explores research approaches and perspectives from a wide range of ideological backgrounds to discuss topics such as:

  • Studies related to comparative cross-cultural perceptions of risk and threat

  • Natural and human-caused disasters

  • Post-disaster recovery strategies in tourism and hospitality

  • Terror movies and tourism

  • Aviation safety and security

  • Crime and security issues in tourism and hospitality

  • Political instability, terrorism and tourism

  • Thana-tourism

  • War on terror and Muslim tourism

  • The effects of global warming on tourism destinations

  • Innovative quantitative/qualitative methods for the study of risk and security issues in tourism and hospitality

  • Virus outbreaks and tourism mobility

  • Disasters, trauma and tourism

  • Apocalyptic theories and tourism as a form of entertainment

Editorial Advisory Board

  • Oleg Afanasiev

  • Russian State University of Tourism, Russia

  • David Altheide

  • Arizona State University, USA

  • Ericka Amorin

  • Polytechnic Institute of Tomar, Portugal

  • Lwazi Apleni

  • University of Zululand, South Africa

  • David Baker

  • Tennessee State University, USA

  • Brian Berquist

  • University of Wisconsin at Stout, USA

  • Raoul Bianchi

  • University of West London, UK

  • Paul Brunt

  • Plymouth University, UK

  • Dimitrios Buhalis

  • Bournemouth University, UK

  • Richard Butler

  • University of Strathclyde, UK

  • Erdinc Camak

  • Breda University, Netherlands

  • Neil Carr

  • University of Otago, New Zealand

  • Anthony Clayton

  • The University of West Indies, Jamaica

  • Erik H. Cohen

  • Bar-IIan University, Israel

  • Jean Costa Henriquez

  • University of the State of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil

  • Gerry Coulter

  • Bishop's University, Canada

  • Mahmoud Eid

  • University of Ottawa, Canada

  • Elspeth Frew

  • La Trobe University, Australia

  • Alan Fyall

  • University of Central Florida, USA

  • Babu George

  • Fort Hays State University, USA

  • Vanessa G. Gowreesunkar

  • University of Africa, Toru Orua, Nigeria

  • Ulrike Gretzel

  • University of Southern California, USA

  • Tony Henthorne

  • University of Nevada, USA

  • Freya Higgins-Desbiolles

  • University of South Australia, Australia

  • Luke Howie

  • Monash University, Australia

  • Rami Isaac

  • Breda University of Applied Sciences, Netherlands

  • Stanislav Ivanov

  • Varna University of Management, Bulgaria

  • Metin Kozak

  • Dokuz Eylul University, Turkey

  • Sharad K. Kulshreshtha

  • North-Eastern Hill University, Shillong, Meghalaya, India

  • Dominic Lapointe

  • University of Quebec at Montreal, Canada

  • Duncan Light

  • Bournemouth University, UK

  • Claudio Milano

  • The Autonomous University of Barcelona, Spain

  • Cesar Augusto Oliveros

  • University of Guadalajara, Mexico

  • Daniel Olsen

  • Brigham Young University, USA

  • Andreas Papatheodorou

  • University of the Aegean, Greece

  • Alexandros Paraskevas

  • Oxford Brookes University, UK

  • Lorri Pennington Gray

  • University of Florida, USA

  • Abraham Pizam

  • University of Central Florida, USA

  • Arie Reichel

  • Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Israel

  • Claudia Seabra

  • University of Coimbra, Portugal

  • Anukrati Sharma

  • University of Kota, India

  • Richard A. Sharpley

  • University of Central Lancashire, UK

  • Jonathan Skinner

  • University of Roehampton, UK

  • Geoffrey Skoll

  • Buffalo State College, USA

  • Marta Soligo

  • University of Nevada, USA

  • Peter Tarlow

  • Texas A&M University, USA

  • Dallen Timothy

  • Arizona State University, USA

  • Marcelo Tomé de Barros

  • State University of Fluminense, Brazil

  • Diego R. Toubes

  • University of Vigo, Spain

  • Rodanthi Tzanelli

  • University of Leeds, UK

  • Ghialy Yap

  • Edith Cowan University, Australia

Title Page

Tourism Through Troubled Times: Challenges and Opportunities of the Tourism Industry in the 21st Century

Edited by

Maximiliano E. Korstanje

University of Palermo, Argentina

Hugues Seraphin

University of Winchester, UK

Shem Wambugu Maingi

Kenyatta University, Kenya

United Kingdom – North America – Japan – India – Malaysia – China

Copyright Page

Emerald Publishing Limited

Howard House, Wagon Lane, Bingley BD16 1WA, UK

First edition 2022

Editorial matter and selection © 2022 Maximiliano E. Korstanje, Hugues Seraphin and Shem Wambugu Maingi.

Individual chapters © 2022 The authors.

Published under exclusive licence by Emerald Publishing Limited.

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No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transmitted in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without either the prior written permission of the publisher or a licence permitting restricted copying issued in the UK by The Copyright Licensing Agency and in the USA by The Copyright Clearance Center. Any opinions expressed in the chapters are those of the authors. Whilst Emerald makes every effort to ensure the quality and accuracy of its content, Emerald makes no representation implied or otherwise, as to the chapters' suitability and application and disclaims any warranties, express or implied, to their use.

British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data

A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library

ISBN: 978-1-80382-312-6 (Print)

ISBN: 978-1-80382-311-9 (Online)

ISBN: 978-1-80382-313-3 (Epub)

About the Authors

Oleg E. Afanasiev holds a PhD (Dr. Sc., Full Professor) in Geography, and is Professor at the Higher School of Tourism and Hospitality, Russian State University of Tourism and Service (Moscow, Russia). He was laureate of the State Prize of Ukraine in education. Oleg is an expert in regional and domestic tourism, ecological tourism, tourism design technology, information technology in tourism, tourism infographic, toponymic territorial tourism systems, theory and practice of regional tourism, innovations in tourism and hospitality, territorial tourism marketing, the territorial tourism safety, and pedagogical technologies in tourism. He is also a participant of internships and refresher courses according to the programmes of Telemark University College ‘Education in the field of sustainable tourism in Russia’ (Norway), ‘L’Etude des meilleurs cas etrangers du developpement et promotion du tourisme interieur et receptive a l’exemple de la France’ (France), ‘Studying the tourist services quality improvement and creation of competitive tourist products abroad: the case of the Czech Republic’ (Czech Republic) and joint programmes of the UNWTO and Russian Agency for Tourism (Rostourism), programmes within the framework of the projects TEMPUS. His total scientific publications are more than 200, including monographs, study guides and textbooks and articles in international journals. He is Editor-in-Chief of scientific and practical journals such as Service and Tourism: Current Challenges and Services in Russia and Abroad. He is a member of the Advisory Board of the Editorial Board of the book series Tourism Security-Safety and Post Conflict Destinations by Emerald Publishing Ltd.

Alexandra V. Afanasieva holds a PhD in Geography, and is Associate Professor at the Higher School of Tourism and Hospitality, Russian State University of Tourism and Service (Moscow, Russia). He is Head of RSUTS Scientific Publications Department (RSUTS Publisher), Scientific Editor and Director of the All-Russian Center for Professional Tourism Education. He is the author of several retraining and advanced training programmes for experts in the field of tourism and teachers. He is a scholarship holder of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine (‘Scholarship for talented young scientists’, 2014), participant of seminars of the UNWTO and Russian Federal Agency for Tourism (Rostourism) and an expert in the field of international and regional tourism, geography of tourism, humanitarian geography, territorial marketing, intangible tourism resources and tourist legends, and technologies for organising and implementing excursion programmes. He is the author of the project on the identification and involvement of urban folklore in tourism. His total scientific publications are more than 150, including study guides and textbooks, articles in international journals etc.

María M. Carballo is a Researcher at the University Institute of Tourism and Sustainable Economic Development – TIDES (University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria). Areas of knowledge and interest include environment issues in tourism and analysing tourist preferences.

Rita R. Carballo is Professor at the University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain. Her research concentrates on tourism impacts, the critical aspects of power and control, security issues and their management and marketing implications.

Joseph Chacko Chennattuserry is the Pro Vice Chancellor and Professor at CHRIST (Deemed to be University), Bangalore, in the Department of International Studies, Political Science and History. He has his research interest in Maritime History, Tourism, Organisational Culture and Work Values in Educational Institutions and Indo-Korea Relations. Some of his recent publications are found in journals like Maritime Affairs, International Journal of Business Excellence, Journal of Leadership & Organization al Studies, among others.

J. Andres Coca-Stefaniak is Professor of Tourism, Events and Sustainability at the University of Greenwich and Deputy Leader of the Faculty of Business' Tourism Research Centre research group, co-editor of the Routledge Handbook of Tourism Cities, co-editor-in-chief of the International Journal of Tourism Cities and advisor to the China-based World Tourism Cities Federation. He has delivered expert evidence to Members of Parliament in the House of Commons and policy makers at the European Commission in Brussels on topics including the vitality and competitiveness of town centres, tourism and the role of traditional markets in revitalising town centres. Andres has 19 years of experience in securing external research funding (mostly from the European Union) with a track record of over €2.4 million of direct funding secured for projects mostly as Principal Investigator with combined budgets to date in excess of €15 million. More recently, he has led the research element of two major projects (GO TRADE and SHARE) co-funded by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF). The GO TRADE project investigated the changing role of traditional markets in revitalising the visitor economy of small and medium-sized towns in France and England. Parallel to this, the SHARE project investigated how small and medium-sized towns across Europe can benefit from smart thinking in delivering a more sustainable offer to residents and visitors alike. Andres' main areas of interest include urban tourism, smart cities and smart tourism destinations, place marketing and branding, the management and competitiveness of places (including town centres, high streets and tourism destinations) and the management of sustainability in events and tourist destinations. Prior to joining the University of Greenwich, Andres held academic positions at a number of universities in the UK. He was also founding editor-in-chief of the Journal of Town and City Management and Head of Research, Thought Leadership and International Partnerships at the Association of Town and City Management. Andres is a member of the editorial board of a number of international journals, including Sustainability, the Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, the Journal of Tourism Futures, Event Management, the Journal of Place Management and Development, Annals of Tourism Research Empirical Insights and the Journal of Urban Regeneration and Renewal. He is also a reviewer for various international academic journals, including Tourism Management, Annals of Tourism Research, Journal of Destination Management & Marketing, Journal of Tourism and Hospitality Research, Journal of Place Branding and Public Diplomacy and the Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, among others. Before going into academia, Andres worked as a mineral resources engineer for Shell International and Anglo American plc. with direct field management responsibility for up to 35 staff.

N. Elangovan is an Associate Professor in the School of Business and Management at Christ University, Bangalore, India. He also coordinates the PhD programme at the School. He was earlier the Director of the National Institute of Fashion Technology (NIFT), Kannur Campus, Kerala, India. He earned a PhD in Management Science from Anna University, Chennai, India. His research interest is in the areas of strategic information systems, entrepreneurship, consumer behaviour studies, sustainability, design and innovation. His book chapters have appeared in Research into Design for a Connected World, Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies published by Springer and Handbook of Research on Remote Work and Worker Well-Being in the Post-COVID-19 Era published by IGI Global.

Vanessa Gowreesunkar is an Associate Professor in Cultural Tourism at Anant National University in Ahmedabad, India. Her PhD cuts across three disciplines, namely Tourism Management, Communication and Marketing. With over a decade of experience in teaching, training and research, Vanessa has brought her contributions in various international universities and educational institutions. Previously, she was assuming the role of Head of Department for Hospitality and Tourism at the University of Africa.

Unathi Sonwabile Henama, PhD, is an expert in disruptive technology and has vested interest in local economic development, aviation and tourism marketing, and lectures on these themes at the Tshwane University of Technology. He has published extensively and presented papers at local and international conferences.

Cristina H. Jönsson is a Lecturer at The University of the West Indies, Barbados. Dr Jönsson has published tourism-related research extensively in peer-reviewed journals and books and sits on the editorial board of The Consortium Journal of Hospitality and Tourism. Dr Jönsson has extensive knowledge and experience from planning, development and management in the international tourism sector and has worked with both private and public sector organisations in various countries. This experience has given Dr Jönsson an excellent understanding of tourism planning and development, and related areas. While serving as a regional tourism manager in Sweden Dr Jönsson prepared and executed a tourism master plan for the municipal government, in collaboration with the government and other stakeholder groups. Dr Jönsson also worked in the tourism sector in Brazil as a regional tourism development planner. Additionally, Dr Jönsson has worked on the development of a sport tourism strategy for Barbados in collaboration with the Barbados Ministry of Tourism and various local stakeholder groups. Dr Jönsson's cultural familiarity along with mastering seven languages has been a great asset in all projects, research, and collaborations, as well as translation and interpretation.

Sotheara Kham is a graduate from the Department of Tourism, Royal University of Phnom Penh. Currently she is working in the Department of Domestic Tourism and Public Awareness, Ministry of Tourism. She has been involved in multiple research projects focusing on tourism risk and crisis management, the impacts of COVID-19 on socio-economic and food security and the impacts on informal and formal workers in micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs). Her research interests include COVID-19 pandemic, crisis management and customer behaviour.

Maximiliano E. Korstanje is editor-in-chief of the International Journal of Safety and Security in Tourism (UP Argentina) and editor-in-chief emeritus of the International Journal of Cyber Warfare and Terrorism (IGI-Global US). Besides being a senior researcher in the Department of Economics at the University of Palermo, Argentina, he is a global affiliate of the Tourism Crisis Management Institute (University of Florida, USA), Centre for Ethnicity and Racism Studies (University of Leeds), The Forge (University of Lancaster and University of Leeds, UK) and The International Society for Philosopher, hosted in Sheffield, UK. He has more than 1,200 published papers and 35 books. As author his recent works include Strategic Tools and Methods for Promoting Hospitality and Tourism Services, Virtual Traumascapes and Exploring the Roots of Dark Tourism and Research, Practices, and Innovations in Global Risk and Contingency Management by IGI Global; The Rise of Thana-Capitalism and Tourism by Routledge; Terrorism, Tourism, and the End of Hospitality in the ‘West’ by Springer Nature; The Mobilities Paradox: A Critical Analysis by Edward Elgar; Risk and Safety Challenges for Religious Tourism and Events by CABI; and Terrorism in a Global Village : How Terrorism Affects Our Daily Lives by Nova, among others. He co-edits almost 10 specialised journals and takes part in almost 30 journals associated with themes such as human rights, mobility, tourism and terrorism. Korstanje was nominated for five honorary doctorates for his contribution in the study of the effects of terrorism in tourism. In 2015, he was awarded as Visiting Research Fellow at the School of Sociology and Social Policy, University of Leeds, UK, and the University of Havana, Cuba. In 2017, he was elected as Foreign Faculty Member of AMIT, Mexican Academy for the study of tourism, which is one of the most prominent institutions dedicated to tourism research in Mexico. He had a vast experience in editorial projects working as advisory member of Elsevier, Routledge, Springer, IGI Global and Cambridge Scholar Publishing. Korstanje had visited and given seminars in many important universities worldwide. He has also recently been selected to take part in the 2018 Albert Nelson Marquis Lifetime Achievement Award, a great distinction given by Marquis Who's Who in the world.

Sofia Lachhab is a PhD candidate at the Marketing, Events and Tourism, Faculty of Business, University of Greenwich, London, UK. She holds a Master's Degree in International Tourism and Hospitality Management from Bedfordshire University, UK. Sofia previously enjoyed a career in the hotel and entertainment industry and worked with Hilton Hotels and Walt Disney World. Her research interests are in tourism crisis management and resilience. Sofia's current projects apply these concepts to the development of tourism businesses. Sofia Lachhab is a member of the UK Institute of Hospitality, UK Council for Hospitality Management Education (CHME) and a peer reviewer at an international journal of tourism.

Carmelo J. León is Director of the Institute of Tourism and Sustainable Economic Development – TIDES (University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria). Areas of knowledge and interest include tourism economics and environment.

Shem Wambugu Maingi is a Lecturer within the Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Kenyatta University. He is an African researcher on sustainable tourism development in Africa and recently co-edited a book on global tourism destination management during pandemics.

Matilda Mashapa is a Tourism Lecturer and PhD candidate at the University of Johannesburg. She holds a Master's Degree from the Vaal University of Technology. Her research interests include sustainable tourism, destination marketing and tourism technologies.

Michelle McLeod is Senior Lecturer in the Mona School of Business and Management at The UWI, Mona Campus, Jamaica. Her tourism industry experience spans over 30 years as a professional and an academic. Dr McLeod is a graduate of The UWI, the University of Surrey and Bournemouth University where she obtained a doctorate with no corrections after her Viva. Dr McLeod's three (3) co-edited books are entitled Knowledge Networks and Tourism, Tourism Management in Warm-water Island Destinations and a forthcoming co-edited book in 2022 entitled Island Tourism Sustainability and Resiliency.

Alastair M. Morrison is a Research Professor at the University of Greenwich in London, UK, and has been associated with the university since 2015. He was formerly a Distinguished Professor Emeritus at Purdue University, USA, in the School of Hospitality and Tourism Management. Professor Morrison was placed among the five most prolific contributors in the world to the academic journals in tourism and hospitality management. He has published approximately 300 academic articles and conference proceedings, as well as over 50 research monographs related to marketing and tourism. Approximately 115 of his full-length academic articles have been in SSCI-listed journals. He is the author of five books on tourism marketing and development, Marketing and Managing Tourism Destinations, 2nd edition (Routledge, 2019); The Tourism System, 8th edition (Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company, 2018); Global Marketing of China Tourism (China Architectural & Building Press, 2012); Hospitality and Travel Marketing, 4th edition (Delmar Publishers, Inc., 2010) and Tourism: Bridges across Continents (McGraw-Hill Australia, 1998). In addition to English, his books are now available in Simplified Mandarin, Traditional Mandarin, Korean, Portuguese, Greek and Slovak. He is the co-editor-in-chief of the International Journal of Tourism Cities. He also co-edited the Routledge Handbook of Tourism Cities (2020). Professor Morrison received several teaching awards and honours at Purdue University. He is a Founding Member of the Purdue University Teaching Academy, and his name has been entered in Purdue's Book of Great Teachers. He was awarded The Best Teacher Award from The Society of Professional Journalists and The Mary L. Matthews Award as the Outstanding Undergraduate Teacher in the College of Consumer and Family Sciences (CFS). Eta Sigma Delta twice selected him as the RHIT Professor of the Year. CFS chose him twice as its nominee for The Purdue University Outstanding Undergraduate Teaching Award. He was selected as one of the winners of Purdue University's Charles B. Murphy Award for Outstanding Undergraduate Teaching, Purdue University's most prestigious award for undergraduate teaching. Gamma Sigma Delta, the honour society of Agriculture, Consumer and Family Sciences, and Veterinary Medicine, honoured him with the Award of Merit for outstanding teaching at Purdue University in March 2002. In 1998, the International Society of Travel and Tourism Educators (IST&TE) selected Professor Morrison as the recipient of the Lifetime Achievement Award for his contributions to tourism education. In addition, he has been elected as a Fellow of the world's most elite organisation of tourism scholars, the International Academy for the Study of Tourism (IAST). Professor Morrison has served as the President of the International Tourism Studies Association (ITSA), Chairman of the Travel and Tourism Research Association (TTRA) – Canada Chapter, Board member of the CenStates TTRA Chapter, Vice President of the International Society of Travel and Tourism Educators (IST%TE) and Chairman of the Association of Travel Marketing Executives (ATME). He was awarded the distinction as one of the first recipients of the Certified Travel Marketing Executive (CTME) designation from ATME. He has designed and presented the Destination Marketing Planning, Travel Information and Research, International Tourism and Convention Marketing, and Communications and Technology in Destination Management courses for the International Association of Convention and Visitor Bureaus (IACVB) as part of its Certified Destination Management Executive (CDME) programme. He is the Vice-Chair of the Expert Committee of the World Tourism Cities Federation (WTCF). He is the former Associate Dean for Learning and Director of International Programs in the College of Consumer and Family Sciences (CFS) at Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, USA. CFS had 2,200 students and Professor Morrison was responsible for undergraduate and graduate education. His specific responsibilities included overseeing undergraduate student services, undergraduate instruction, curriculum planning, honours programme, international programmes and study abroad, multicultural programmes, service learning, grade appeals and other matters relating to the academic affairs of CFS.

Joseph K. Muriithi is Senior Lecturer based at the Department of Environmental Studies and Community Development, Kenyatta University, Kenya. His area of teaching and research specialisation is in community-based conservation issues with a special interest in the role of tourism in conservation and development. He has taught, researched and published on ecotourism practices and certification, natural resource governance and urban greening in Kenya. His current research pursuits are also in the area of green entrepreneurship with a special focus on urban trees growing and trade and its role in enhancing sustainable livelihoods among urban poor.

Sochea Nhem is a Tourism Researcher at the Southeast Asia Research Academy. He is working as an Eco-tourism National Consultant in Cambodia Sustainable Landscapes and Ecotourism Project under the Minister of Environment and the World Bank. His research interest includes sustainable and responsible tourism, tourism through turbulent times and visitor experience economy.

H. Sandhya has successfully completed her MPhil in Tourism and Master's in Tourism Administration (MTA) from Christ University, Bangalore, India, by securing first rank. She has industry experience of one year, having worked with one of the leading multinational tour operations company, Kuoni SOTC, Bangalore, and teaching experience of over 5 years. She has worked as Research Associate of the Major Research Project on Strategic Intervention of Destination Management Organisations in Karnataka. Her research interests include tourism marketing, destination management and destination branding. She is currently working as Academic Auditor and Deputy Academic Coordinator at Kairos Institute, Cochin, Kerala, and pursuing a PhD in Tourism from Christ University.

Tina Šegota is Senior Lecturer in Advertising and Marketing at the University of Greenwich, UK. She is a multi-award-winning academic with research and teaching experience in marketing and tourism worldwide. Tina holds a doctoral degree and a Bachelor of Communication Science in Marketing Communications from the Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Ljubljana, and has been actively working towards completion of doctoral studies in tourism at the School of Economics and Business, University of Ljubljana. Her research relates to tourism marketing and advertising, and sustainability and quality of life in tourism destinations. She has received several national and international awards, including the Emerald Literati Award, the Best Paper Awards for her publications and she was shortlisted as the Supervisor of the Year for her continuous support of students at the University of Greenwich. Dr Tina Šegota joined the University of Greenwich as a Lecturer in 2017 and was appointed Senior Lecturer in 2019. Prior to joining the University of Greenwich, she had been involved in both teaching and research at the University of Ljubljana, which followed a period working with different international brands in roles as director of marketing and PR account executive.

Hugues Seraphin is a Senior Lecturer in Event/Tourism Management Studies and Marketing. Hugues Seraphin holds a PhD from the Université de Perpignan Via Domitia (France) and joined the University of Winchester Business School in 2012. Hugues possesses a broad range of international experiences. This includes teaching in top business schools and universities in France (EM Normandie; ESC Larochelle; ESC Pau; Université de Perpignan Via Domitia, etc.). Prior to his career in academic, Hugues worked in the tourism and hospitality sector within various organisations and roles (in the Caribbean and in Europe). Hugues attained various awards for the quality of his teaching. Hugues is also a research active academic. The links below provide detailed information on his performance.

Mandla Sibisi is a dedicated Lecturer and a PhD candidate at the University of Johannesburg. His current work is understanding the role of peer-to-peer accommodation as an empowerment tool for women within less developed communities in the Global South. His research interest includes crises management, entrepreneurship, the sharing economy and local economic development.

Pinaz Tiwari is a Senior Research Fellow in the Department of Tourism and Hospitality Management in Jamia Millia Islamia, India. She is a Commerce graduate and completed her MBA in Tourism with specialisation in International Tourism Business from IITTM, Gwalior. She had been accredited with several academic excellence awards during her graduation and post-graduation. Her research interest areas are tourist behaviour, tourism marketing, destination management and tourism education. She has over 20 publications to her credit, including SCOPUS-listed and ABDC-indexed research articles and book chapters in edited books published under Routledge, Palgrave Macmillan, Springer, Edward Elgar and Emerald.

Phalesta Toussaint has an undergraduate degree in Tourism and Hospitality Management and a postgraduate degree in Tourism and Sport Management at the University of the West Indies, Barbados. He has written his MSc thesis and published a book chapter on post-pandemic digitalisation in the tourism industry. Mr Toussaint has 10 years of experience in the hotel sector and is a member of the Barbados and Hotel Tourism Association (BHTA) Romance Product Club Committee.

Bindi Varghese is currently affiliated with CHRIST (Deemed to be University), Bangalore, as an Associate Professor in the Tourism department. She is also the campus research coordinator of BGR campus, Christ University, Bangalore, and the Issue Editor of ATNA Journal of Tourism Studies which is a UGC peer reviewed journal. Along with her academic expertise, she is closely associated with several NGOs working in the field of tourism livelihood. The active research studies undertaken include: Impact Assessment Studies, Medical Tourism, Destination Management Organization and Ecological Studies.

Hildah Mumbi Wachira is a postgraduate student in Hospitality Management from the Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Kenyatta University. She holds a Bachelor's Degree in Hospitality and Tourism Management (Hons) from Kenyatta University. She currently works at The Safari Collection as a marketing officer.


Tourism is one of the most important industries, representing the third most important economic activity worldwide accounting for 10% of GDP, 30% of world employment and exported services. The international arrivals grew 4% in 2019 to 1.5 billion, after an average annual growth between 2005 and 2018 of 5% (UNWTO, 2020). The mobility of international tourists was booming with increasing ease of access through the establishment of protocols. In 2019, about 20% of countries had access to more than 170 countries without a visa with forecasts that by 2025 that percentage could approach 50% (Henley, 2022). And then, at the beginning of 2020, a pandemic disrupted this reality… The present pandemic brought a complete disruption to this crucial activity (Seabra et al., 2021). Researchers already consider Tourism B(Covid) and A(Covid).

Tourism is one of the strongest and most resilient industries. This industry overcame other disruptive events such as 9/11, the economic crash of 2008–2009 and the Arab Spring in early 2010. However, the recent crisis deployed by COVID-19 is different from any other previous calamity for several reasons: (1) it has a global geographic dimension; (2) is a real threat; (3) it affected in only two months the entire world population; (4) tourism and travel had a significant role in spreading the disease; (5) there is no forecast of normalisation with the new variants and lack of vaccination in less developed countries; (6) the global restrictions on internal and external mobility; (7) the bankruptcy of national health systems and (8) the unilateral responses of countries imposing restrictions from and to some countries. In conclusion, the markets (demand and supply) are not fully responsible for the normalisation of the sector.

According to the UNWTO the rising rates of vaccination, the easing of travel restrictions and the increased cross-border coordination and protocols would permit a soft recovery in the year 2022 (UNWTO, 2022).

And… in a time when we were hoping for the end of pandemic and go on with our normal lives… a war in the old continent arose, creating scenarios that we would like to forget.

Again, the future of tourism is uncertain showing how this huge and global industry is so dependent on stability and safety. The vulnerability of the tourism industry to the global crisis is clear, and the last disruptive events showed how researching the changes and risks affecting tourism activity is a continuous and crucial work.

This book Tourism Through Troubled Times: Emerging Issues and New Pathways for the 21st-Century Tourism edited by my dear colleagues Maximiliano Korstanje, Hugues Seraphin and Shem Maingi is an important effort in discussing the challenges that the tourist industry will have to face in a future in which the world is and will be increasingly interdependent.

The sustainability of tourist activity is the topic of discussion, wherein the effects of the pandemic that still hangs, the new market trends, the crucial importance of security measures, the growing digitalisation of tourist processes and consumption, and the response and resilience of destinations towards crises are some of the subjects included in this monography.

The UN claims that ‘Tourism is the biggest peaceful movement of people through cultural frontiers’. Continuing to reflect on the challenges that this important industry faces in such an uncertain present and future become, more than ever, fundamental. Tourism should be a movement of peace and wealth, welfare and well-being for all. However, this is only possible with stability, safety and peace, and tourism should play a central role in achieving this balance.

Claudia Seabra

University of Coimbra, Portugal


We would like to thank our families who generously donated their time during this project, as well as the Emerald staff members, above all to Niall Kennedy, Fiona Allison and David Mulvaney, and our prestigious editorial board panel. Of course, needless to say, we give our immense gratitude to the authors who have contributed their chapters to this editorial collection.


Henley & Partners Holdings, 2022 Henley & Partners Holdings . (2022). The Henley Passport Index. Obtido em March de 2022, de The Henley Passport Index. Retrieved from

Seabra et al., 2021 Seabra, C. , AlAshry, M. , Çınar, K. , Raja, I. , Reis, M. , & Sadiq, N. (2021). Restrictions' acceptance and risk perception in a COVID19 context by young generations. International Journal of Tourism Cities, 7(2), 463491. doi:10.1108/IJTC-08-2020-0165

UNWTO - United Nations World Tourism Organization, 2020 UNWTO – United Nations World Tourism Organization . (2020). Tourism highlights – 2020 edition. UNWTO, Madrid, Spain.

UNWTO - United Nations World Tourism Organization, 2022 UNWTO – United Nations World Tourism Organization . (2022). Tourism grows 4% in 2021 but remains far below pre-pandemic levels. Obtido em March de 2022, de Barometer UNWTO. Retrieved from

Tourism Through Troubled Times: Emerging Issues and New Pathways for the 21st Century Tourism
Chapter 1 A Problem Called Alterity: The Position of the ‘Other’ in HBO Saga Westworld
Chapter 2 Digital Skills and Tourism Workforce Recovery in the Post-COVID-19 Pandemic Era: Case of Small and Medium-Sized Tourism Enterprises (SMTEs) in Nairobi, Kenya
Chapter 3 A Perennial State of Crisis Management at a Tourism Destination in the Global South: The Case of South Africa
Chapter 4 Tourism, Co-Location and Networking: A Haitian Contemporary Crisis and Future Prospects
Chapter 5 Surfing in the Dark: Comparable Study Cases Between Ground Zero, US and Republica de Cromañón, Argentina
Chapter 6 The Perceptions of Anti-COVID-19 Practices, Experience, Satisfaction and Behaviour in Tourist Accommodations in Canary Islands
Chapter 7 COVID-19: An Opportunity to Theorise (Online) Teaching Practices in Tourism and Related Topics
Chapter 8 Pandemic Recovery Strategies: A Disaster Management Tourism Framework
Chapter 9 Digitalisation in Latin America and the Caribbean Hotel Sector in a Post-Pandemic Environment
Chapter 10 Sustainability Perspectives of the Wildlife Conservancy–Based Tourism Model in a Post-Pandemic Context in Kenya
Chapter 11 The Effect of COVID-19 Pandemic on Russian Tourists' Demand and Preferences
Chapter 12 Impacts and Adaptive Strategies of the Hotel Sector Amid the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Case Study of the Hotel Sector in the Siem Reap Province
Chapter 13 Crisis Management and Resilience – The Case of Small Businesses in Tourism