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Book part
Publication date: 17 November 2003

Bradley D. Childs

The results of this study indicate that a likely reason why a negative relation between estimated implicit taxes and pretax returns is empirically observed is the…

Abstract

The results of this study indicate that a likely reason why a negative relation between estimated implicit taxes and pretax returns is empirically observed is the researcher’s election to choose a zero tax rate as the benchmark state and local tax rate. Normally, an observed negative relation between estimated implicit taxes and pretax returns supports the hypothesis generated by implicit tax theory. This conclusion regarding the implicit tax hypothesis may be premature whenever the incidence of state and local income taxes contributes to this empirical finding. First, state income taxes, treated as a negative subsidy when the benchmark state and local tax rate is set at zero, will likely cause implicit taxes to be underestimated. Second, the observed relationship between estimated implicit taxes and pretax returns appears to be reversible depending upon the researcher’s election of a statutory tax rate that incorporates the selected benchmark state and local tax rate.

The present study uses a sample of 848 firms covering the years from 1989 through 1998 to show how the relation between estimated implicit taxes and pretax returns can be manipulated by the selection of the benchmark state and local tax rate. Since choosing an accurate benchmark state and local tax rate can be problematic, the present study suggests adjusting both estimated implicit taxes and pretax income by the amount of state and local income taxes incurred. The results, using the regression model making this adjustment, appear to nullify the negative bias of a zero tax rate as the benchmark state and local tax rate.

Details

Advances in Taxation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-065-4

Book part
Publication date: 29 October 2018

Yulia V. Ragulina, Leonid F. Malinovski, Yuliya A. Agunovich, Larisa A. Kapustyan and Oksana M. Zaryankina

The purpose of this chapter is to develop criteria of effectiveness of state management of the process of implementing the information economy’s optimization model…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this chapter is to develop criteria of effectiveness of state management of the process of implementing the information economy’s optimization model, determine the corresponding indicators, and offer the method of evaluation of the effectiveness of state management of the process of implementing the information economy’s optimization model.

Methodology

This research applies the methods of induction, deduction, structural and functional analysis, and graphical presentation of information.

Results

Based on the peculiarities of the information economy’s optimization model, three main criteria of the effectiveness of state management while implementing this model are distinguished: flexibility of the normative and legal provision of information economy; balance of the level and rate of development of the noosphere components; and success of the protection, usage, and preservation of information’s uniqueness. To distinguish these criteria it is offered to evaluate the effectiveness of state management of the process of implementation of the information economy’s optimization model by progressive comparison of the sum of results with the sum of limitations and costs for each direction of state management of the process of implementation of the information economy’s optimization model, related to the provision of observation of the above criteria. The author determines the indicators that conform to the offered criteria of effectiveness of state management of the process of implementation of the information economy’s optimization model systematized in connection to these criteria, and offers the formula for calculating the final indicator of the effectiveness of state management of the process of implementation of the information economy’s optimization model.

Recommendations

The offered criteria of effectiveness of state management of the process of implementing the information economy’s optimization model, the corresponding indicators, and the compiled methodology of evaluating the effectiveness of this process are recommended for usage as methodological provision of monitoring and control of implementation of the information economy’s optimization model.

Article
Publication date: 12 May 2022

G. Jason Jolley

This paper aims to estimate the economic impact of a basic income for each state in the USA.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to estimate the economic impact of a basic income for each state in the USA.

Design/methodology/approach

Building on existing pilot studies of basic income in the USA, this paper presumes a $500 per month basic income for individuals earning less than $25,000 in annual income. Using impact analysis for planning (IMPLAN) input–output modeling software, estimated increase in gross state product and employment are provided on a state-by-state basis.

Findings

A $6,000 annual basic income ($500 per month) to adult persons earning less than $25,000 annually results in an increase in gross state product (e.g. gross “regional” product in IMPLAN terminology) ranging from 0.7% (District of Columbia) to 5.7% (Florida). Likewise, this increase in household spending will create demand for employment across these states, resulting in an increase in employment from 0.9% (District of Columbia) to 5.8% (Florida).

Originality/value

To date, to the best of the author’s knowledge, this is the first state-by-state analysis of the economic impact of a basic income provision to lower-income individuals.

Details

Journal of Financial Economic Policy, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-6385

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 May 2022

Chong Li, Yuling Qu and Xinping Zhu

A novel asynchronous network-based model is proposed in this paper for the sentiment analysis of online public opinions. This new model provides a new approach to analyze…

Abstract

Purpose

A novel asynchronous network-based model is proposed in this paper for the sentiment analysis of online public opinions. This new model provides a new approach to analyze the evolution characteristics of online public opinion sentiments in complex environment.

Design/methodology/approach

Firstly, a new sentiment analysis model is proposed based on the asynchronous network theory. Then the graphical evaluation and review technique is employed and extended to design the model-based sentiment analysis algorithms. Finally, simulations and real-world case studies are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed model.

Findings

The dynamics of online public opinion sentiments are determined by both personal preferences to certain topics and the complex interactive influences of environmental factors. The application of appropriate quantitative models can improve the prediction of public opinion sentiment.

Practical implications

The proposed model-based algorithms provide simple but effective ways to explore the complex dynamics of online public opinions. Case studies highlight the role of government agencies in shaping sentiments of public opinions on social topics.

Originality/value

This paper proposes a new asynchronous network model for the dynamic sentiment analysis of online public opinions. It extends the previous static models and provides a new way to extract opinion evolution patterns in complex environment. Applications of the proposed model provide some new insights into the online public opinion management.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 May 2022

Sandeep Kumar Kujur and Diti Goswami

As a developing country, India initiated several labor measures to contain the Covid-19 pandemic. This study analyzes the impact of the Covid-19-induced comprehensive…

Abstract

Purpose

As a developing country, India initiated several labor measures to contain the Covid-19 pandemic. This study analyzes the impact of the Covid-19-induced comprehensive labor measures by Indian states on the Case Fatality Ratios and Recovery Rates. Such an analysis will provide deeper insights into the importance of labor measures during a health emergency. It will also be a reality check to the existing National Health Policy.

Design/methodology/approach

The study examines the four major aspects of labor measures on migration, social security, state-specific needs and health and human rights. The authors use these to formulate a composite labor measure index to comprehend the Covid-19-induced various labor measures. Additionally, the authors apply pooled ordinary least squares and panel random-effects models with the state-wise monthly data to examine the impact of Covid-19-induced labor measures on the severity of the pandemic.

Findings

Covid-19-induced comprehensive labor measures reduce fatalities and increase recovery rates. In particular, the measures on labor migration, state-specific needs and health and human rights adopted by the Indian states successfully reduce the Covid-19 fatalities and improve the recovery rates. However, the measures taken to address social security have been ineffective in reducing the severity of the pandemic. The study results are robust to various other specifications.

Research limitations/implications

The time period covered in this research is very brief and does not account for the qualitative impact of labor measures on the severity of the pandemic. This study specifically addresses the number of Covid-19-induced labor measures and not the resources allocated to their implementations or the number of people who benefited from the measures.

Practical implications

This study emphasizes the need for subnational comprehensive labor measures to reduce the severity of the pandemic in developing countries. The study confirms the need for effective Covid-19-induced social security measures to cope with the pandemic in India. This study also ascertains the beneficial impact of the measures on migration, state-specific needs and health and human rights.

Originality/value

The authors make a composite labor measure index that captures state-level Covid-19-induced labor measures on diverse aspects, namely migration, social security, state-specific need and health and human rights, hitherto unexplored. In addition, the authors analyze the impact of these labor measures on the severity of the pandemic.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 May 2022

Zhonglai Tian, Hongtai Cheng, Zhenjun Du, Zongbei Jiang and Yeping Wang

The purpose of this paper is to estimate the contact-consistent object poses during contact-rich manipulation tasks based only on visual sensors.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to estimate the contact-consistent object poses during contact-rich manipulation tasks based only on visual sensors.

Design/methodology/approach

The method follows a four-step procedure. Initially, the raw object poses are retrieved using the available object pose estimation method and filtered using Kalman filter with nominal model; second, a group of particles are randomly generated for each pose and evaluated the corresponding object contact state using the contact simulation software. A probability guided particle averaging method is proposed to balance the accuracy and safety issues; third, the independently estimated contact states are fused in a hidden Markov model to remove the abnormal contact state observations; finally, the object poses are refined by averaging the contact state consistent particles.

Findings

The experiments are performed to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed methods. The results show that the method can achieve smooth and accurate pose estimation results and the estimated contact states are consistent with ground truth.

Originality/value

This paper proposes a method to obtain contact-consistent poses and contact states of objects using only visual sensors. The method tries to recover the true contact state from inaccurate visual information by fusing contact simulations results and contact consistency assumptions. The method can be used to extract pose and contact information from object manipulation tasks by just observing the demonstration, which can provide a new way for the robot to learn complex manipulation tasks.

Details

Assembly Automation, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-5154

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 May 2022

Himanshu Jha

Contemporary arguments around efficient public management (PM) envisage a limited role of the state for efficiency, effectiveness and austerity. On the contrary, the PM of…

Abstract

Purpose

Contemporary arguments around efficient public management (PM) envisage a limited role of the state for efficiency, effectiveness and austerity. On the contrary, the PM of the Covid-19 pandemic shows the significant role and depth of administrative state in multi-faceted ways. In this context, the purpose of this article is to examine the administrative role of the Indian state and the extent of its “stateness” in the PM of the novel coronavirus pandemic.

Design/methodology/approach

This article is a bifocal study of both the national and a single sub-national case. Following mixed qualitative methods, this article draws on government documents, interviews and recent media reports to examine the reemergence of a strong administrative state in India in the context of PM of the pandemic. This methodology allows us to go deep into the cases and provide a robust understanding of the underlying processes within the state that throw open some compelling insights on the PM of the pandemic.

Findings

This article shows the reemergence of a strong administrative state in multiple ways. It demonstrates that state’s administrative capacity is an outcome of both ideas within the state and its rationality that shapes policy strategies and planning. Further, a combination of learning, puzzling and powering plays a critical role in pandemic management. Exploring pandemic-induced state capacity in India sheds light on the administrative state’s emergence, extent and function in an emerging developing country setting.

Research limitations/implications

One of the major challenges of this study is the evolving nature of the pandemic. In this light, the study limits its focus to the earliest stage of the pandemic. Revisiting this paper in future would provide a more comprehensive picture. Furthermore, the study is limited to the national and a single sub-national case. This research will gain from including more sub-national and cross-country comparisons to test some of the conjectures presented in this paper.

Practical implications

This article shows that the state as a conceptual variable needs to be taken seriously to understand and explain the PM strategy, especially in times of crisis. It also persuades us to better understand the political power of “ideas” within the state to explain policy outcomes and evolving PM strategies.

Originality/value

This article seeks to push the frontiers of research on state capacity and PM by exploring how social learning and puzzling come together to consolidate policy paradigms. Through the lens of PM of the current Covid-19 pandemic by the Indian state, this article reflects on the reemergence of the administrative state. It examines the long-term ramifications of such a revival for both practice and theory of state capacity and PM in a large, diverse democracy, such as India.

Details

International Journal of Public Sector Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3558

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 4 April 2022

Slobodan Tomic and Eva Heims

Reflecting on recent empirical developments as well as insights from regulatory state theory, the paper considers directions in which the regulatory state could develop in…

Abstract

Purpose

Reflecting on recent empirical developments as well as insights from regulatory state theory, the paper considers directions in which the regulatory state could develop in the post-COVID-19 era.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a de-contextualised analysis of regulatory developments drawing on the prior regulatory state literature and literature on post-crisis responses. Taking into account recent empirical developments related to the COVID-19 pandemic, the paper sets out, in a comparative context, scenarios for the future development of the regulatory state.

Findings

Predicting the direction in which the regulatory state will develop is challenging, particularly at this early stage. Yet, we provide a conceptual framework for thinking about possible futures of the regulatory state and how domestic and international factors might mediate these futures.

Originality/value

The paper provides a structured approach to the analysis of the regulatory state bringing together insights from the literature on the regulatory state, public management reform, and global regulatory shifts.

Details

Fulbright Review of Economics and Policy, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2635-0173

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 April 2022

James C. Hansen, Susan M. Murray, Sang Hyun Park and Nari Shin

This study aims to examine the effect of state-level legal risk on audit fee pricing in the USA. This study hypothesizes that auditors are more likely to charge higher…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the effect of state-level legal risk on audit fee pricing in the USA. This study hypothesizes that auditors are more likely to charge higher audit fees to clients headquartered in states with higher legal risk in terms of probability of being sued, expected size of damages allocated to the auditors and breadth of third parties able to claim damages.

Design/methodology/approach

This study hypothesizes that higher state-level legal risk leads to higher audit fees. To test this, this study estimates ordinary least squares regressions of audit fees for 56,576 company years from 2001 to 2018 with the three measures of state legal risk and other factors known to affect audit fees.

Findings

This study finds that state-level legal risk is positively associated with audit fee pricing for two of three measures. Interestingly, the third measure, breadth of third parties able to claim damages, is negatively associated with audit fees.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this paper fulfills an identified need and is the first study to comprehensively test the association between state-level differentials in legal risk and audit fees.

Details

Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 37 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 April 2022

Tanjina Sharmin and Emmanuel Laryea

This paper aims to examine the prospect for international investment disputes in the aftermath of the COVID-19 pandemic due to measures implemented by the Australian…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the prospect for international investment disputes in the aftermath of the COVID-19 pandemic due to measures implemented by the Australian government to tackle the pandemic.

Design/methodology/approach

Doctrinal research. Contains qualitative analysis.

Findings

This paper finds that claims based on the protections in the International Investment Agreements (IIAs) signed by Australia are unlikely to succeed and that Australia’s COVID-19 measures can be justified as necessary measures under the general and security exception clauses included in more recent IIAs and under customary international law.

Originality/value

In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, scholars have written papers apprehending possible claims by international investors against emergency measures adopted by host countries to face the pandemic which might also have damaged the interest of the foreign investors. The existing literature is too vague and general. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first paper that draws some specific conclusions in this regard applicable to the COVID-19 regulatory measures taken by Australia. While the existing literature projects the possibility of such investor claims, this paper argues that at least no such claim would succeed against the COVID-19 measures taken by Australia.

Details

Journal of International Trade Law and Policy, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-0024

Keywords

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