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Book part
Publication date: 30 November 2020

Aisha K. Gill and Aviah Sarah Day

In May 2012, nine men from the Rochdale area of Manchester were found guilty of sexually exploiting a number of underage girls. Reporting on the trial, the media focussed…

Abstract

In May 2012, nine men from the Rochdale area of Manchester were found guilty of sexually exploiting a number of underage girls. Reporting on the trial, the media focussed on the fact that eight of the nine men were of Pakistani origin, while the girls were all white. It also framed similar cases in Preston, Rotherham, Derby, Shropshire, Oxford, Telford and Middlesbrough as ethnically motivated, thus creating a moral panic centred on South Asian grooming gangs preying on white girls. Despite the lack of evidence that the abuse perpetrated by some Asian men is distinct from male violence against women generally, the media focus on the grooming gang cases has constructed a narrative in which South Asian men pose a unique sexual threat to white girls. This process of ‘othering’ South Asian men in terms of abusive behaviour masks the fact that in the United Kingdom, the majority of sexual and physical abuse is perpetrated by white men; it simultaneously marginalises the sexual and domestic violence experienced by black and minority ethnic women. Indeed, the sexual abuse of South Asian women and girls is invisibilised within this binary discourse, despite growing concerns and evidence that the men who groomed the young girls in the aforementioned cases had also perpetrated domestic and sexual violence in their homes against their wives/partners. Through discourse analysis of newspaper coverage of these cases for the period 2012‒2018, this paper examines the British media's portrayal of South Asian men – particularly Pakistani men – in relation to child-grooming offences and explores the conditions under which ‘South Asian men’ have been constructed as ‘folk devils’. It also highlights the comparatively limited newspaper coverage of the abuse experiences and perspectives of Asian women and girls from the same communities to emphasise that violence against women and girls remains an ongoing problem across the nation.

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Gendered Domestic Violence and Abuse in Popular Culture
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-781-7

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Article
Publication date: 16 March 2020

Ivy Hammond, Sarah Godoy, Mikaela Kelly and Eraka Bath

The available research on specialized interventions for youth experiencing commercial sexual exploitation almost exclusively focuses on the impact and efficacy related to…

Abstract

Purpose

The available research on specialized interventions for youth experiencing commercial sexual exploitation almost exclusively focuses on the impact and efficacy related to cisgender girls, despite the inclusion of youth who identify as transgender in these programs. This paper aims to present a case study on the experience of a transgender adolescent girl who experienced commercial sexual exploitation and provides a narrative of the multifarious challenges she faced while involved in institutional systems of care.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper conducted an in-depth case review of all records on “Jade,” a white adolescent transgender girl who experienced commercial sexual exploitation, from a specialty court program in the juvenile justice system between 2012 and 2016. Her experiences throughout childhood exemplify many of the unique challenges that transgender girls and young women with histories of exploitation or trafficking may encounter within service delivery and socioecological systems. This paper applied concepts adapted from the gender minority stress theoretical model to understand how minority gender identity can shape the experiences and outcomes of the youth impacted by commercial sexual exploitation.

Findings

Jade’s narrative underscores the interplay of gender-based sexual violence, heteronormative structural barriers, transphobia and their intersectional impact on her experience while receiving specialized care. The intersectional hardships she experienced likely contributed to adverse biopsychosocial outcomes, including high rates of medical and behavioral health diagnoses and expectations of further rejection.

Originality/value

This paper highlights the extraordinary challenges and barriers faced by an often under-recognized and overlooked subset of the youth impacted by commercial sexual exploitation, who may receive services that do not account for their unique needs related to gender expression and identity. This paper exemplifies how internalized stigma along with expectations of further rejection and victimization have implications for clinical and multidisciplinary intervention settings. Jade’s case underscores the need for improved access to supportive services for youth with minority gender identities, including peer community-building opportunities. Finally, this paper identifies a critical gap in US legislation and social policy. This gap contributes to the structural harms faced by transgender and gender-nonconforming youth receiving services during or following experiences of commercial sexual exploitation.

Details

International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4902

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Article
Publication date: 19 December 2019

Glenn Michael Miles, Olivia Blase, Katie Clark, Rachel J. Ding and Theresa Geyer

Although some research has been done with entertainment workers in KTV bars, little has been done to gain a qualitative understanding of the vulnerabilities of masseuse…

Abstract

Purpose

Although some research has been done with entertainment workers in KTV bars, little has been done to gain a qualitative understanding of the vulnerabilities of masseuse women. This is due to a prevalent focus on girls under 18 years, thereby excluding most masseuses. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 98 female participants completed an interview answering both open and closed questions concerning relationships, stigma and discrimination and personal sexual abuse among other topics.

Findings

This study finds that many women working in the massage parlor industry are vulnerable to various threats, including sexual exploitation and abuse. Dependency structures within the massage parlor as well as with their families seem to play a key role in the life situations that can be positive as well as negative, and in some cases both.

Social implications

The findings provide a baseline evaluation of the vulnerable conditions of the massage industry for women in Cambodia. Specifically, that stigma, discrimination, physical and sexual abuse, as well as a lack of access to education are all vulnerabilities not commonly covered, especially with adult women working in the entertainment industry. This research has been adapted from the original transcript “Strive, No Matter What” (Miles et al., 2014).

Originality/value

The paper seeks to understand the reality of life and vulnerabilities as perceived by Phnom Penh’s female masseuses in the lower-priced massage parlors which is largely unknown.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 40 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Article
Publication date: 11 May 2010

Mario Vinković

The purpose of this paper is to explore the correlation between trafficking in children and child labour in Europe. The paper focuses on the scope of these issues and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the correlation between trafficking in children and child labour in Europe. The paper focuses on the scope of these issues and specific feature of child trafficking as the cause of the worst forms of child labour. Child labour and trafficking constitutes not only violations of children's rights, but also acts of transnational organised crime through which criminal groups acquire considerable amounts of money. The paper also identifies the shortcomings of the International Labour Organisation (ILO) and European Union (EU) regulations.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on available statistical data, the paper seeks to identify the worst forms of child labour, in particular, the sexual exploitation of children as a consequence of child trafficking, and define the implications of child trafficking for the European Common Market.

Findings

The trafficking of children expressis verbis should be identified as a cause of the worst forms of child labour, in particular of sexual exploitation of children. Coherent activity of EU member state authorities, cooperation in the field of internal affairs and criminal matters, and development of effective supranational criminal law framework must become a priority of a society oriented towards the highest standards of protection of children's rights as a separate human rights category. The paper critically comments on the problems of relevant definitions contained in the ILO Convention No. 182.

Originality/value

The EU went the furthest with its activities; its supranational character proved to be much more effective in developing but also using the existing international instruments as compared to slow and passive child protection mechanisms within other international entities, ILO in particular.

Details

Journal of Money Laundering Control, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-5201

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Article
Publication date: 25 August 2020

Jarrett D. Davis and Glenn Michael Miles

The purpose of this research is to understand the vulnerabilities of male youth in the sex trade in Manila, Philippines. Using purposive and a modified respondent-driven…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to understand the vulnerabilities of male youth in the sex trade in Manila, Philippines. Using purposive and a modified respondent-driven sampling methodology, interviews were conducted with 51 young males working as masseurs in the Metro Manila area exploring a wide range of their experiences and vulnerabilities throughout the work including physical, sexual and emotional violence. The mixed method, mostly qualitative research is based on similar surveys conducted throughout the South and South Asia regions.

Design/methodology/approach

Research on sexual exploitation of boys and men has largely focused on sexual health and prevention of HIV (Human Rights Watch Philippines, 2004). This research uniquely focuses on a broader range of vulnerabilities for males in the sex trade.

Findings

Qualitative discussions reveal instances of forced sex that can take a variety of forms, including physical force and/or violence or coercion involving bribes, verbal abuse or other forms of pressure to provide sexual services. Data also demonstrate stigma and discrimination outside of sex work. This study provides a qualitative assessment of the broader male-to-male sex industry within the Metro-Manila area, including escort services and both direct and indirect male sex work.

Originality/value

For observers, who consider male sexual abuse to be free of violence or discrimination, this provides evidence to the contrary and considerations for organizations that are able to provide funding to support their needs. Education of those involved in addressing the prevention of sexual exploitation should include gendered differences.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 41 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Article
Publication date: 28 January 2020

Glenn Miles, Theresa Geyer, Rachel Ding, Olivia Blasé and Katie Clark

Although some research has been done with entertainment workers in KTV bars, little has been done to gain a qualitative understanding of the vulnerabilities of masseuse…

Abstract

Purpose

Although some research has been done with entertainment workers in KTV bars, little has been done to gain a qualitative understanding of the vulnerabilities of masseuse women. This is due to a prevalent focus on girls under 18 years, thereby excluding most masseuses. The purpose of this paper is to understand the reality of life as perceived by Phnom Penh’s female masseuses in the lower-priced massage parlors is therefore largely unknown.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 98 female participants completed an interview answering both open and closed questions concerning relationships, stigma and discrimination and personal sexual abuse among other topics.

Findings

This study finds that many women working in the massage parlor industry are vulnerable to various threats, including sexual exploitation and abuse. Dependency structures within the massage parlor as well as with their families seem to play a key role in the life situations that can be positive as well as negative, and in some cases both.

Research limitations/implications

This is not a prevalence study so all figures are tentative. The women were deeply concerned that they might be stigmatized further so they may not have revealed the extent of their challenges.

Practical implications

More research and work with this vulnerable group is vital. They should be recognized as a vulnerable group who have rights.

Social implications

The findings provide a baseline evaluation of the vulnerable conditions of the massage industry for women in Cambodia. Specifically, that stigma, discrimination, physical and sexual abuse, as well as a lack of access to education are all vulnerabilities not commonly covered, especially with adult women working in the entertainment industry.

Originality/value

Understanding the reality of life as perceived by Phnom Penh’s female masseuses in the lower-priced massage parlors is therefore largely unknown so a study of this kind is necessary.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 40 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Article
Publication date: 9 January 2007

Kadriye Bakirci

The International Labour Organisation (ILO) adopted a new Convention concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour…

Abstract

Purpose

The International Labour Organisation (ILO) adopted a new Convention concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour (No. 182) in 1999. The aim of this paper is to analyse the United Nations (UN), ILO, Council of Europe (COE) instruments related to child exploitation and discuss whether child pornography and prostitution are economic crime or work that should be regulated.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper compares the definitions of child pornography and prostitution and child labour in the UN, ILO, COE instruments.

Findings

Although child labour does not imply child prostitution and pornography, the Convention No. 182 Article 3 includes child prostitution and pornography in the term “child labour” and identifies child pornography and prostitution as among the worst forms of child labour. The paper concludes that, no matter what role the children have in participating in the sexual activities, they should be viewed as victims and witnesses. They should not be viewed as “sex workers” or “child labourers”. The view that sexual exploitation of children is a kind of labour might be seen to legitimise it in some countries and might cause more trauma for children.

Originality/value

This paper argues that the ILO should have either considered child pornography and prostitution as a kind of modern slavery in a separate paragraph in the C. 182 or introduced a separate instrument to combat against child sexual exploitation.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

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Article
Publication date: 24 October 2018

Kristin Elizabeth Klimley, Alexis Carpinteri, Brandy Benson, Vincent B. Van Hasselt and Ryan A. Black

The commercialized sexual exploitation of children (CSEC), specifically child trafficking, prostitution, pornography, and enticement, has become a burgeoning topic over…

Abstract

Purpose

The commercialized sexual exploitation of children (CSEC), specifically child trafficking, prostitution, pornography, and enticement, has become a burgeoning topic over the past several decades. The purpose of this paper is to determine the characteristics of those victims who were at risk for sex trafficking, prostitution, pornography, and traveling/enticement.

Design/methodology/approach

This observational, survey design includes a records review of 18 victims who were identified by the FBI Miami Field Office. Case illustrations are provided for a more in-depth analysis of CSEC victims.

Findings

The results of this paper indicated that hands-on sexual abuse and child prostitution were the most common CSEC offenses that victims experienced. Additionally, Caucasian females, between 13 and 18 years of age, were often victimized. Victims more frequently experienced web forms of sexual abuse and engaged in risky sexual behaviors outside of the victimization. Further, the majority of victims in the sample came from a low socioeconomic background and lived in a single-parent home.

Practical implications

The current results, combined with prior research, may aid law enforcement, mental health, and medical professionals in understanding potential characteristics correlated with various forms of CSEC offenses.

Originality/value

To the authors’ knowledge, this is one of the first descriptive studies involving case illustrations of CSEC victims.

Details

Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 20 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-8794

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Article
Publication date: 19 March 2018

Alexandros Paraskevas and Maureen Brookes

This paper aims to identify and analyse the hotel sector’s vulnerabilities that human traffickers exploit to use hotels as conduits for trafficking in human beings (THB).

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to identify and analyse the hotel sector’s vulnerabilities that human traffickers exploit to use hotels as conduits for trafficking in human beings (THB).

Design/methodology/approach

Using the Method for the Assessment of the Vulnerability of Sectors framework of sector vulnerability analysis, the study adopted a qualitative approach using environmental scanning and semi-structured key stakeholder interviews in three European countries: UK, Finland and Romania.

Findings

The study identifies the types of THB occurring within the industry and the specific macro-, meso- and micro-level factors that increase hotel vulnerability to trafficking for sexual exploitation, labour exploitation or both.

Research limitations/implications

Given the sensitivity of the topic, the number of interviewees is limited as is the generalisability of the findings.

Practical implications

The framework developed serves as a practical tool for independent or chain-affiliated hotels to use to assess their vulnerability to human trafficking for both sexual and labour exploitation.

Social implications

The framework will assist hotel professionals to assess their vulnerability to human trafficking and identify specific and proactive measures to combat this crime within their business.

Originality/value

This is the first study to empirically explore human trafficking in the hotel sector and to apply an integrated theoretical lens to examine macro-, meso- and micro-level sector vulnerabilities to a crime. It contributes to the authors’ understanding of why hotels are vulnerable to human trafficking for both sexual and labour exploitation.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 30 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Book part
Publication date: 1 January 2014

This chapter is about child labour as slavery in modern and modernizing societies in an era of rapid globalization.For the most part, child slavery in modern societies is…

Abstract

This chapter is about child labour as slavery in modern and modernizing societies in an era of rapid globalization.

For the most part, child slavery in modern societies is hidden from view and cloaked in social customs, this being convenient for economic exploitation purposes.

The aim of this chapter is to bring children's ‘modern slavery’ out of the shadows, and thereby to help clarify and shape relevant social discourse and theory, social policies and practices, slavery-related legislation and instruments at all levels, and above all children's everyday lives, relationships and experiences.

The main focus is on issues surrounding (i) the concept of ‘slavery’; (ii) the types of slavery in the world today; (iii) and ‘child labour’ as a type, or basis, of slavery.

There is an in-depth examination of the implications of the notion of ‘slavery’ within international law for child labour, and especially that performed through schooling.

According to one influential approach, ‘slavery’ is a state marked by the loss of free will where a person is forced through violence or the threat of violence to give up the ability to sell freely his or her own labour power. If so, then hundreds of millions of children in modern and modernizing societies qualify as slaves by virtue of the labour they are forced – compulsorily and statutorily required – to perform within schools, whereby they, their labour and their labour power are controlled and exploited for economic purposes.

Under globalization, such enslavement has almost reached global saturation point.

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