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Article
Publication date: 27 October 2022

Hyondong Kim and Youngsang Kim

This study elaborates on the process through which gender-diverse boards of directors increase representation of females in management positions. This study draws on the…

Abstract

Purpose

This study elaborates on the process through which gender-diverse boards of directors increase representation of females in management positions. This study draws on the gender spillover effect to examine whether gender diversity on boards of directors significantly influences the number of women promoted to managerial positions. The authors also employ implicit quota theory to examine the interaction effects of female board directors and their related strategies to target female customers as a source of female talent on the promotion numbers of female managers.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors draw from female manager panel data surveyed and gathered by the Korean Women Development Institute (KWDI), a Korean government-sponsored research institution, for the period 2008–2014. The total sample, comprising 5 biannual waves, includes 906 Korean companies across four wage rates. The authors apply zero-inflated negative binomial regression analyses to examine the effects of gender diversity on board director positions and its interactions with strategies targeting female markets on the number of female managerial promotions.

Findings

The authors find that gender diversity on boards of directors is positively related to the number of female managers promoted. Furthermore, in corporations where gender is not relevant to firms' strategy and decision-making, broader gender diversity increases the number of female managers promoted at lower- but not higher-level positions.

Originality/value

The current study demonstrates the complex role of gender diversity in board director positions in initiating and promoting the career development of female managers. On the one hand, gender diversity in board director positions has spillover effects on women's representation in management positions. On the other hand, female board directors impede the career progress of senior female managers to maintain their status in quotas when the female market is not critical to firms' competitiveness. Therefore, it is crucial to integrate two different concepts about gender diversity—the gender spillover effect and implicit quota theory—that elaborate on the effects of gender diversity in board director positions on female manager promotion numbers.

Details

Baltic Journal of Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5265

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 September 2022

Yan Tu, Lixin Jiang, Lirong Long and Linlin Wang

Leader secure-base support, consisting of leader availability, noninterference and encouragement of growth, has important implications for stimulating employee…

Abstract

Purpose

Leader secure-base support, consisting of leader availability, noninterference and encouragement of growth, has important implications for stimulating employee proactivity. This study is aimed at examining whether, why and when leader secure-base support may motivate employees to engage in approach job crafting behavior. Drawing upon regulatory focus theory, we propose leader secure-base support is positively associated with employee approach job crafting via employee state promotion focus. Based on cue consistency theory, we further examine the moderating role of organizational learning culture in the associations of leader secure-base support with employee state promotion focus and subsequent approach job crafting.

Design/methodology/approach

Two-wave data were collected from 281 Chinese workers. Path analyses with Mplus 7 were conducted to test the hypotheses.

Findings

As predicted, we found that leader secure-base support was positively related to employee state promotion focus and, in turn, facilitated employee approach job crafting. Moreover, organizational learning culture accentuated the impact of leader secure-base support on employee job crafting process.

Originality/value

This study is the first to examine the influence of leader secure-base support on employee job crafting. It also identifies a boundary condition for such an influence.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 27 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 September 2022

Xiaofen Jiang, Gao Guangkuo and Yang Xuezheng

This paper considers the brand awareness and anchor influence on consumers' live-streaming purchases, and explores the existence of “free-riding” behavior, the comparison…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper considers the brand awareness and anchor influence on consumers' live-streaming purchases, and explores the existence of “free-riding” behavior, the comparison of brand promotion effect and active live-streaming effect and the optimal strategic combination between the brand and the anchor. The authors investigate the evolutionary stabilization strategies of the bounded rational brand and anchor, and explore the conditions for the realization of the optimal strategy. Management suggestions for the development of live streaming commerce can be provided in this paper.

Design/methodology/approach

Two significant models are used in this paper. The Stackelberg model is used to study the “free-riding” behavior, the comparison of brand promotion effect and active live-streaming effect and the optimal strategic combination between the brand and the anchor. Using evolutionary game theory to get the evolutionary stable equilibrium strategies and analyze the binary equilibrium strategy of the bounded rational brand and anchor. In addition, relevant simulation analysis is conducted using realistic data to verify the conclusions and for further analysis, making the conclusions of the paper have realistic significance.

Findings

The study shows that “free-riding” behavior exists and the positive effect of brand promotion is greater than that of active live-streaming. The brand and the anchor take active actions as the optimal strategy. As the sensitivity coefficient of consumers to live-streaming effort and the sensitivity coefficient of consumers to brand promotion change, various evolutionary stabilization strategies will appear. When the two sensitivity coefficients are below a certain threshold, the game sides will reach the optimal strategic combination to obtain the maximum benefits. When they rise above this threshold, it is counterproductive instead. The system achieves the optimal strategic combination when the difference factor between effort cost and promotion cost must be higher than a certain value, but when it takes the smallest possible value, the game sides tend to take active actions. This study can provide management suggestions for the sustainable development of the live-streaming model.

Research limitations/implications

This paper shows that under certain conditions, the brand and the anchor can evolve into the optimal strategy to maximize the profits of both parties, which has certain practical significance for the prosperous development of live streaming commerce. In future research, the authors will consider the regulatory role of the government and construct a more realistic game model to provide constructive suggestions for the sustainable prosperity of live streaming commerce. Meanwhile, there are also games between multiple brands and multiple anchors, as well as games among brands-anchors-the live streaming platforms, and the authors will conduct more in-depth research in the future.

Originality/value

So far, the co-impact of anchor influence and brand awareness has not been considered simultaneously in published articles. This paper provides theoretical guidance for the behavioral choices of the brand and the anchor under the live streaming commerce, which is conducive to the prosperous development of live streaming commerce.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1999

Adrian Booth and Angela Burford

Mental health promotion is a relatively new, evolving and very exciting area of public health. The challenge for mental health promotion in Australia is ‘weaving its many…

126

Abstract

Mental health promotion is a relatively new, evolving and very exciting area of public health. The challenge for mental health promotion in Australia is ‘weaving its many threads’ through the various areas of mental health policy, programs and service delivery.

Details

Journal of Public Mental Health, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5729

Article
Publication date: 1 August 1999

Erica Wimbush

Training in research and evaluation skills is a frequently expressed need among health promotion practitioners. Research conducted in Scotland among health promotion

978

Abstract

Training in research and evaluation skills is a frequently expressed need among health promotion practitioners. Research conducted in Scotland among health promotion specialists and their managers showed that training in research on its own would be an insufficient response. In this paper, it is argued that there is a need to develop a broader strategy which seeks to strengthen research capacity within health promotion practice settings, rather than simply offering training to improve practitioners’ research skills. This will help to improve the quality of research conducted in practice settings and contribute to building an evidence base for health promotion. A broader professional development strategy for health promotion research in Scotland is proposed which utilizes a range of learning routes and delivery mechanisms. This will be backed up by the establishment of a broad strategic research partnership which brings together practitioners, researchers and policy‐makers so as to develop a better understanding of what evaluation evidence is needed and who is contributing what.

Details

Health Education, vol. 99 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-4283

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1988

Steven W. Hartley and James Cross

Expenditures for sales promotion activities have increased dramatically during the past decade. Along with this added emphasis, however, have come some undesirable…

2473

Abstract

Expenditures for sales promotion activities have increased dramatically during the past decade. Along with this added emphasis, however, have come some undesirable effects. This article considers some of the key issues that influence sales promotion decisions. It describes current sales promotion activities, identifies some of the negative consequences of these activities, introduces a cost‐benefit philosophy for sales promotion decisions, and proposes a specific method for making those decisions.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Article
Publication date: 1 January 2000

Andrew Tannahill

This paper identifies seven points in favour of integrating mental health promotion and general health promotion strategies: mental, physical and social aspects of health…

Abstract

This paper identifies seven points in favour of integrating mental health promotion and general health promotion strategies: mental, physical and social aspects of health are inextricably inter‐linked; mental health is all too easily overlooked in thought and deed; life circumstances affect mental, social and physical health; mental, social and physical health have intertwined and shared roots; we need concerted action on these intertwined and shared roots; even topic‐specific action needs to be co‐ordinated and the promotion of mental health is a foundation for the promotion of general health. Attention is then focused on how such integration can be achieved, with reference to the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion and the ‘arenas’ approach to programmes. The paper concludes by widening out the notion of integration to that of health promotion as an integral part of our collective way of life, advocating the idea of ‘a healthy mind in a healthy body in a healthy society’.

Details

Journal of Public Mental Health, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5729

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1984

Donald W. Cowell

States that, owing to major change in the field of marketing in the past 20 years, there has been an increase in the use of sales promotion. Proposes that managers in…

Abstract

States that, owing to major change in the field of marketing in the past 20 years, there has been an increase in the use of sales promotion. Proposes that managers in local authorities, who are responsible for the marketing of recreation and leisure services should understand the role that astute use of sales promotion can play in their marketing campaigns. Examines the meaning of sales promotion and gives a list of commonly used promotions given by local government. Reveals that careful planning, execution and evaluation of sales promotion can make it a useful tool for the recreation and leisure service manager.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 18 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 August 2009

Miguel I. Gómez and Vithala R. Rao

Trade promotions are manufacturer incentives directed to retailers rather than to consumers, aiming at influencing retailer's sales, prices and merchandising practices…

1835

Abstract

Purpose

Trade promotions are manufacturer incentives directed to retailers rather than to consumers, aiming at influencing retailer's sales, prices and merchandising practices. Although they are a growing element in the promotional mix of food manufacturers worldwide, trade promotions often raise concerns about their impacts on performance and coordination in the food supply chain, which in turn affect retail food prices. This paper aims to measure the influence of market power on the outcomes of trade promotions negotiated between food manufacturers and supermarkets.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper employs Rangan's conceptual model to develop hypotheses about the links between three dimensions of market power (size, brand and institutional power) and trade promotion budgets and their allocation between discount‐ and performance‐based types. The paper employs trade promotion data collected from 36 supermarkets in the USA to statistically test these links.

Findings

The results suggest that brand, size, and institutional power of food manufacturers and retailers affect trade promotion budgets and their allocation among discount‐ and performance‐based types. Food manufacturers have relatively more control over their trade promotion budgets whereas retailers may have more influence on the allocation decisions.

Originality/value

The findings can help food manufacturers and retailers identify institutional, brand and size variables that may help them leverage trade promotion negotiations. The results are relevant to policymakers, in particular for the study of antitrust and performance issues in the food distribution system.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 111 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 1988

Ellen R. Foxman, Patriya S. Tansuhaj and John K. Wong

Sales promotion is an important element of marketing communication strategy which accounts for more promotional expenditures than advertising in some countries. However…

1412

Abstract

Sales promotion is an important element of marketing communication strategy which accounts for more promotional expenditures than advertising in some countries. However, sales promotion has been generally ignored by researchers. This article briefly reviews the criteria used in the US to evaluate sales promotions and these criteria are found inadequate to guide the formulation of sales promotion internationally. Environmental sensitivity factors are identified which are overlooked in domestic sales promotions and an audit approach to planning and evaluating cross‐national sales promotion strategy is presented.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 5 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

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