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Article
Publication date: 14 January 2022

Eldrede T. Kahiya and Caitlin Warwood

The purpose of this study is to organize and assess knowledge on the capabilities pertinent to the early internationalization of born globals (BGs) and international new…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to organize and assess knowledge on the capabilities pertinent to the early internationalization of born globals (BGs) and international new ventures (INVs).

Design/methodology/approach

A systematic approach is used to search, code, organize and synthesize 155 peer-reviewed journal articles on capabilities and early internationalization.

Findings

The study delimits eight operational and five dynamic capabilities. The synthesis links capabilities to three antecedents (i.e. firm specific factors, managerial socio cognitive attributes and market factors) and three outcomes (i.e. precocity, survival and performance). While 7 of the 12 linkages identified are well-established, relationships involving market factors, survival and dynamic capabilities are sparsely researched.

Research limitations/implications

The authors know more about the effects of firm specific factors and managerial socio cognitive attributes on operational and dynamic capabilities than we do the influence of market factors on either group of capabilities. Likewise, the authors know more about the influence of operational and dynamic capabilities on performance than we do their impact on precocity or survival.

Practical implications

As the pandemic has shown, businesses with adaptable capabilities (e.g. shifting from a brick and mortar to an online/omnichannel approach or micro-breweries competent to switch from manufacturing beer to hand sanitizer) have increased their chance of survival while helping society cope.

Originality/value

This to the authors’ knowledge is the first study to provide a comprehensive review of literature on the nebulous concept of capabilities, in the context of the burgeoning research stream on early internationalization.

Details

Review of International Business and Strategy, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-6014

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Article
Publication date: 10 January 2022

Yaa Serwaa-Akoto Amoah, Fidella Nga Huong Tiew and Ching Seng Yap

This study aims to explore the internationalisation paths and strategies adopted by firms from an emerging market and serves as a step towards examining the suitability of…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore the internationalisation paths and strategies adopted by firms from an emerging market and serves as a step towards examining the suitability of prevailing internationalisation theories in the context of emerging market firms.

Design/methodology/approach

This study adopted a qualitative methodology and gathered data through in-depth semi-structured interviews with 15 top managers of internationalised firms from the East Malaysian state of Sarawak. Data were analysed thematically.

Findings

The results revealed that the internationalisation strategies of firms from Sarawak can be classified under three main categories: motivations and markets, modes and measures. The constraints the firms faced were important determinants of their internationalisation strategies. The internationalisation paths and strategies of the firms were also found to exhibit both similarities to and deviations from the tenets of prevailing internationalisation theories.

Originality/value

The study contributes knowledge to the literature of both internationalisation theories and internationalisation strategies of emerging markets, in particular, it advances Fey et al.’s (2016) Five M Framework.

Details

Review of International Business and Strategy, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-6014

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Article
Publication date: 11 January 2022

Yu Xie, Francis Boadu and Hongjuan Tang

Drawing on the resource-based view, institutional logic and isomorphic pressure theories, this study constructed a theoretical model to explore the correlations between…

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing on the resource-based view, institutional logic and isomorphic pressure theories, this study constructed a theoretical model to explore the correlations between government subsidies and innovation performance. Particularly, this study aims to investigate the moderating effects of ownership types and degree of internationalization on these relationships.

Design/methodology/approach

To empirically test the relationships, the authors use panel data from high-tech manufacturing and automobile manufacturing industries in Chinese A stock listed companies for the period 2011–2015 and performed regression analysis.

Findings

Results indicate that government subsidies positively enhance enterprises’ innovation performance; there is a big gap between government subsidies’ incentive effect on innovation performance between state-owned enterprises (SOEs) and private-owned enterprises (POEs); with the improvement of internationalization, the promotion effect of government subsidies on enterprise innovation performance is strengthened; there is a three-way interaction between government subsidies, degree of internationalization and ownership types, such that in the presence of a low degree of internationalization, there is a big gap in the incentive effect of government subsidies on the innovation performance of SOEs and POEs; in the presence of a high degree of internationalization, the gap is significantly reduced.

Originality/value

This is an empirical study on the impact mechanism of ownership types and internationalization on the relationship between government subsidies and innovation performance in China. It provides valuable insights to show how internationalization can dramatically improve SOEs’ efficiency disadvantages in the allocation of government subsidies to innovation activities.

Details

Chinese Management Studies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-614X

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Article
Publication date: 18 September 2009

Felix Maringe

Although internationalisation has become a key strategic element of universities across the world, there is little empirical evidence suggesting the nature and extent of…

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Abstract

Purpose

Although internationalisation has become a key strategic element of universities across the world, there is little empirical evidence suggesting the nature and extent of integration of internationalisation into the strategic mission of individual institutions. Little is also known about challenges faced by institutions in their quest to integrate internationalisation into their broad strategic choices. This paper aims to address these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

An exploratory study is conducted in six universities in the UK selected from the Russell pre‐1992 group, the post‐1994 group and former colleges of higher education (HE). The study has three distinct but interrelated aims: how internationalisation is conceptualised in the study institutions; the available evidence for its structural integration into the university services and understanding the perceived challenges institutions face in the quest to integrate the idea as a broad strategic element of those institutions.

Findings

There exist a range of distinct barriers working against the full integration of the concept into the institutional cultures. These include: conceptual and structural deficiencies in the organisation of institutional internationalisation; over emphasis on human exchange initiatives over cultural integration efforts and increasing undercurrents of feelings among staff and students of local neglect at the expense of global attention.

Originality/value

The paper creates a sound basis for a more broad‐based study across the HE sector. Specifically, the paper suggests that the increasing cultural diversity in UK HE brought about in part by internationalisation and also by general human migration occasions new thinking and practices in organisational and management terms to address the needs of the “mosaic or cultural melting pot” phenomena characterising the increasingly multicultural HE learning environments.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 23 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2005

Graham Elkin, Faiyaz Devjee and John Farnsworth

Purpose – There are few means of measuring whether universities have effective international programmes or policies in response to increasing globalisation. The purpose of…

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3397

Abstract

Purpose – There are few means of measuring whether universities have effective international programmes or policies in response to increasing globalisation. The purpose of this paper is to report on the development and testing of a model for measuring the internationalisation of universities and to assist with the strategic planning of interationalisation. Design/methodology/approach – The 11‐dimension model was developed as a result of a literature search and interviews with academic and non‐academic university staff. The model was trialled with a range of New Zealand and overseas universities. Findings – The model received widespread support as a useful way of conceptualising and visualising the internationalisation of universities. Measurement of internationalisation was demonstrated. The model was useful for the facilitation of the planning of investment in the various dimensions that make up internationalisation. The “star” model displayed both the current and ideal levels of internationalisation in visual form for an institution. It can be used to make systematic decisions about future institutional activity resource investment. Research limitations/implications – The testing is limited and will need to be extended to other countries, types of universities, faculties, departments and programmes. Originality/value – The model is useful to those who manage the intenationalisation of univerities, clarifying the concept and making systematic action to increase internationalisation possible.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 19 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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Article
Publication date: 28 March 2008

Graham Elkin, John Farnsworth and Andrew Templer

The paper's aims is o explore the relationship between having a complete strategic focus and the extent of the internationalisation of university business schools and the…

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3689

Abstract

Purpose

The paper's aims is o explore the relationship between having a complete strategic focus and the extent of the internationalisation of university business schools and the level of desire for the future internationalisation and to further validate the model of internationalisation.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected for business schools and business facilities using the Elkin, Devjee model of internationalisation concerning the current and desired levels of internationalisation of the business schools. In addition schools were asked six key questions about strategic focus.

Findings

It was observed that those schools with complete strategic focus had higher levels of current internationalisation and greater aspirations for even higher levels of internationalisation than schools without a complete strategic focus. It was also found that there may be a connection between research intensity and internationalisation.

Research limitations/implications

Future samples would be better to clearly separate whole universities and business schools and the role and status of respondents.

Practical limitations

In order to be successful in internationalisation institutes need to develop a complete strategic focus.

Originality/value

The use of the model of internationalisation was further validated and the model was used for the first time in conjunction with strategic focus to illustrate strategy in practice.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 22 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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Article
Publication date: 22 December 2021

Rui Martins, Luis Farinha and Joao J. Ferreira

This study aims to systematize and analyze the internationalization of companies in an attempt to identify the main themes explored in the literature – What does the…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to systematize and analyze the internationalization of companies in an attempt to identify the main themes explored in the literature – What does the current state of the art tell us about the stimuli and barriers, failures and resilience in the internationalization of companies is what the authors set out to answer with this research.

Design/methodology/approach

This study offers a systematic review based on the bibliometric mapping techniques of 218 articles collected from the Web of Science database between 1996 and 2021.

Findings

Furthermore, contributing to literature by the logic of stimuli, barriers failure in internationalization companies. The main conclusion is that, from the analysis, the authors can see that the scientific production in this field of knowledge has intensified in recent years, but the centrality and the search density undergo major changes.

Originality/value

The main research contributions enable a better understanding of the involvement of failure and resilience in companies re-internationalization and suggestions for future studies in this field.

Details

Review of International Business and Strategy, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-6014

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Article
Publication date: 31 December 2021

Michela Floris, Michela Marongiu, Cinzia Dessi and Angela Dettori

This study investigates the relationship between Total Quality Management (TQM) and internationalization in small family firms, focusing on the role that the dimensions of…

Abstract

Purpose

This study investigates the relationship between Total Quality Management (TQM) and internationalization in small family firms, focusing on the role that the dimensions of TQM may have as strategic resources to implement successful internationalization strategies.

Design/methodology/approach

Building on the Resource-Based View (RBV), the study is based on a single case study, and data were gathered through in-depth interviews with the family owner-manager.

Findings

Findings show that small family businesses that aim to operate in international markets have to invest constant attention toward TQM by developing strategies able to achieve excellence. More in detail, for small and medium family firms, TQM represents a driver to internationalize. Therefore, family-owned managers sustain that internationalization success depends on the increasing attention exhibited toward the following dimensions of quality, specifically on three main pillars: relationships, professionalization and long-term vision, which appear to be strategic resources in international markets. An interpretive model is proposed with a set of propositions.

Research limitations/implications

Scholarly implications are threefold. First, findings contribute to the RBV theory by introducing the long-term vision as a strategic resource able to activate a loop between TQM and internationalization success. Second, results contribute to TQM literature, highlighting that it represents a driver to internationalize, and following a long-term perspective, its enhancement is stimulated by internationalization. Third, findings contribute to family business studies, underlining the relevance done of owners on professionalization as a strategic resource to ensure excellence and obtain success in overseas markets. The main drawback refers to the fact that results stemmed from one single case study. Further studies could deepen the analysis on multiple cases.

Practical implications

The proposed case study represents a best practice and can stimulate other entrepreneurs and consultants to invest in TQM to thrive internationalization strategies.

Originality/value

The current study, elucidating that TQM is the driver to stimulate family business internationalization, proposes an interpretive model to study TQM and internationalization in small and medium family firms.

Details

Journal of Family Business Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2043-6238

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 1 December 2021

Gustavo Menoncin de Carvalho Pereira and Mario Henrique Ogasavara

The singularity of being the first Chinese manufacturer of drug-eluting stents to arrive in Brazil and the country being selected as the company's first experience outside…

Abstract

Purpose

The singularity of being the first Chinese manufacturer of drug-eluting stents to arrive in Brazil and the country being selected as the company's first experience outside its home country motivated the interest in the study of this case, vis-à-vis with the characteristic of internationalization medical device companies according to the Uppsala model. Considering this context, the following research question was outlined: “How did Microport internationalize before the distribution of its stents product in Brazil?” The aim of the study is to investigate Microport's internationalization process for the distribution of its drug-eluting stents in Brazil.

Design/methodology/approach

Exploratory research under the qualitative method was adopted. It chose the single case study as a procedure for data collection, as it is a revealing, exemplary subject that offers opportunities for access to unusual research. The company MicroPort was chosen because in the period when Chinese medical device companies were focused on gaining market share in China, MicroPort began its international expansion, choosing Brazil as the first country to have its own subsidiary. It consists in the case of the internationalization of a high-tech EMNE in an emerging country that has institutional and cultural differences.

Findings

Taking advantage of new technology in highly internationalized environments favors its insertion; the internationalization of medical technology can expand according to the Uppsala Model, which does not explain internationalization, but rather its evolution. Cultural and behavioral issues reinforce that the development of the market for medical devices depends on local perspectives and values. The formation of an ecosystem in the local market for internationalization is observed. One implication of the study is that MicroPort's experience and the application of the Uppsala model for international expansion can serve as an important learning experience for Brazilian multinational companies.

Research limitations/implications

Empirical analysis carried out in the context of a single company. Although the results can be used as lessons learned from the application of the Uppsala model for international expansion of EMNE in an emerging market, caution should be exercised when generalizing its findings. Future studies could carry out comparative cases considering other emerging multinational companies, from the same sector or even from different industries, investing in other emerging markets. There is a limitation of the fact that the case studied does not explore the concepts of the later stages of the Uppsala model.

Practical implications

High-tech EMNEs internationalizing in other markets need to adopt aggressive strategies. The need to adopt different strategies for supply chain operations according to the specificities of the markets in which they operate. Important contributions to the Uppsala model, with regard to the process of passing stages, learning and networking. The findings of this study have similarities to the process described as a sequence of distinct phases of activities.

Social implications

A local top management team is essential to deal with institutional issues of government agencies when EMNE is internationalized in a culturally distant market. When there are major institutional differences between the country of origin and the host country, the autonomy in the management of the foreign subsidiary positively influences the acceleration of the internationalization process of companies in the high-tech sector. When there are major institutional differences between the country of origin and the country of destination, the use of local social networks positively influences the acceleration of the internationalization process of companies in the high-technology sector.

Originality/value

Regardless of these limitations, the study provided an exciting case of internationalization of a Chinese company in Brazil operating in a high-tech medical sector. The challenges for the internationalization of EMNEs continue, which makes it opportune for future studies to include more research in this area. The propositions suggested in the study may be the first step.

Details

RAUSP Management Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2531-0488

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Article
Publication date: 22 November 2021

Ge Ren and Ping Zeng

Drawing on the gender self-schema theory, upper echelons theory and the literature on international business, this study aims to examine the impact of board gender…

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing on the gender self-schema theory, upper echelons theory and the literature on international business, this study aims to examine the impact of board gender diversity on firms' internationalization speed.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, secondary data of 886 listed Chinese manufacturing firms from 2009 to 2018 are studied using the ordinary least squares regression model as the baseline method, an instrumental variable method is adopted for endogeneity control and both fixed and random effect models are adopted for the robustness test.

Findings

Board gender diversity reduces firms' internationalization speed, and the negative effect between board gender diversity and internationalization speed is stronger when the average age of female directors is older and weaker when female directors have international experience or financial background.

Practical implications

First, Chinese firms need to increase or decrease board gender diversity to match the board to firms' internationalization strategy. Increasing board gender diversity may be a more appropriate choice for firms that are expanding rapidly internationally, and vice versa. Second, when introducing female directors to international firms, it is essential to address other characteristics of these directors beyond their gender.

Originality/value

First, the authors contribute to the literature on board gender diversity using Chinese manufacturing firms as our research sample, which provides new insights into the economic consequences of increasing the number of female directors. Second, this research contributes to the literature on firms' internationalization speed. Third, the authors capture in more detail the economic consequences of increasing board gender diversity in the context of China.

Details

Baltic Journal of Management, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5265

Keywords

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