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Urban Transport and the Environment
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-08-047029-0

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1987

James Love

The issue of export instability exerts an enduring fascination for economists with an interest in the area of economic development. Over several decades a voluminous…

Abstract

The issue of export instability exerts an enduring fascination for economists with an interest in the area of economic development. Over several decades a voluminous literature has emerged embracing debates on the domestic consequences and on the causes of export instability. The purpose here is to examine these debates and an attempt is made to set out different theoretical stances, to classify and examine empirical findings, and to indicate the directions in which the debates have moved. Such a statement of a review article's purpose is, of course, incomplete without more specific delineation of the boundaries within which the general objectives are pursued. Here that delineation has three facets.

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Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2000

Yaw A. Debrah and Ian G. Smith

Presents over sixty abstracts summarising the 1999 Employment Research Unit annual conference held at the University of Cardiff. Explores the multiple impacts of…

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10414

Abstract

Presents over sixty abstracts summarising the 1999 Employment Research Unit annual conference held at the University of Cardiff. Explores the multiple impacts of globalization on work and employment in contemporary organizations. Covers the human resource management implications of organizational responses to globalization. Examines the theoretical, methodological, empirical and comparative issues pertaining to competitiveness and the management of human resources, the impact of organisational strategies and international production on the workplace, the organization of labour markets, human resource development, cultural change in organisations, trade union responses, and trans‐national corporations. Cites many case studies showing how globalization has brought a lot of opportunities together with much change both to the employee and the employer. Considers the threats to existing cultures, structures and systems.

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Management Research News, vol. 23 no. 2/3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0140-9174

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Book part
Publication date: 29 July 2010

Barbara Wejnert

Studies on trajectory and trends of democratic growth frequently dominate scholarly debates. These studies are led by two distinct points of view. On the one hand…

Abstract

Studies on trajectory and trends of democratic growth frequently dominate scholarly debates. These studies are led by two distinct points of view. On the one hand, scholars believe that the prevalence of democracy is inevitable and thus marks an era of prosperity and of human rights. Such an era is dominated by the cultural values of independence, individuality, and freedom (Inglehart & Welzel, 2005) and leads to the end of the world's history and the end of the last man (Fukuyama, 1992; Mandelbaum, 2008). A contrasting point of view, on the other hand, is expressed by scholars who studied the crises of modern liberal democracies believing that democracies are failing and hence, the time of worldwide democratization is coming to an end (Mouffle, d’Angerville, 1994, The private life of Louise XIV. Cited in Thomas, Vagueness in law and language the concept of despotism. Oxford: Oxford University Press). This study adds to the ongoing debate by determining which of the trends prevails worldwide across the past two centuries and especially in the beginning of the 21st century. Moreover, it sheds light on existing knowledge about democratic paths and trends by suggesting that a comprehensive investigation of democratization processes requires both regional and worldwide analyses, and investigations of historical events and regional characteristic effects are more beneficial for long-term longitudinal studies.

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Democratic Paths and Trends
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-092-7

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Article
Publication date: 17 August 2020

Mmaduabuchukwu Mkpado and Ndidiamaka Sandra Mkpado

Lucrative employment in agriculture is fundamental to poverty alleviation in Africa. The paper examined employment along gender, impact of materials and proportion of…

Abstract

Purpose

Lucrative employment in agriculture is fundamental to poverty alleviation in Africa. The paper examined employment along gender, impact of materials and proportion of female employment in African agriculture.

Design/methodology/approach

Time series econometrics was employed in the framework of production function analysis involving 36 years of data.

Findings

Results show that world labour in agriculture decreased from 49.77 to 40.04% but increased from 12.43 to 16.94% in Africa. World female employment in agriculture ranged from 40.56 to 42.81% and from 40.40 to 43.02% in developing economies, but decreased from 40.39 to 36.08% in developed economies. Total agricultural labour in Africa was negatively and significantly related to agricultural gross production index number (APIN).

Research limitations/implications

Interaction of cattle stock and females employed in agriculture was positive and significant at pooled African values. Interaction of irrigation facilities and female labour was positive and significant in West Africa. Interaction of cattle stock and total labour in Southern Africa had negative relationship with APIN. Interaction of total labour and irrigation had negative relationship with APIN in Africa. Insufficient agricultural facilities in terms of cattle stock and irrigation infrastructure for the populace exist. It recommends increased investments to expand irrigated lands and livestock.

Practical implications

African governments need to use good political will to effect the needed transformation in agriculture. It is possible for agriculture to offer lucrative employment to both males and females in less developed world as in developed economies.

Originality/value

The paper noted very limited agricultural facilities in terms of cattle stock and irrigation facilities for the populace engaged in agriculture. It recommends investments to expand irrigated lands and livestock.

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African Journal of Economic and Management Studies, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-0705

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1999

STEVEN MALE and DRAGANA MITROVIC

The Large Scale Engineering (LSE) industry operates in a global market place and during recent years it has been the scene of major political and economic changes…

Abstract

The Large Scale Engineering (LSE) industry operates in a global market place and during recent years it has been the scene of major political and economic changes resulting in increasing market pressures. The paper outlines findings from Workpackage 1 of the European Union funded Esprit eLSEwise project. The eLSEwise project has an objective of contributing to improving the competitiveness of the European LSE industry. The paper focuses principally on trends in the LSE global industry market place and the challenges facing European LSE contractors in adapting to these changes. The paper outlines the research methodology; world market trends and LSE industry structure; critical success factors and enablers for LSE projects; the forces shaping the LSE industry and the necessary contractors' core competencies and competitive advantages for continued success.

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Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

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Article
Publication date: 16 June 2020

Alexey Yu. Arkhipov and Alexey N. Yeletsky

The purpose of the article is to analyze the contradictory trends in the development of the modern world economic system. The relevance of the topic is due to the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the article is to analyze the contradictory trends in the development of the modern world economic system. The relevance of the topic is due to the multifaceted and ambiguous nature of regionalization, glocalization and fragmentation tendencies formed as the most important trends in the crisis of globalism.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the classical methods of historical and functional analysis, system approach and comparative studies, the authors realized the research potential of modern methodological tools, alternative forecasting methods and comparative modeling, as well as special methods of economic globalistics and global political economy. Heuristic possibilities of the methodological–theoretical concept of glocalization of international economic relations are used.

Findings

New directions and opportunities for attaining regional and global geo-economic leadership are revealed and demonstrated. It is justified that glocalization does not lead to economic isolation in previously known historical forms but to priority realization of the interests of local economic entities included in the processes of globalization and subordinated to its patterns. Glocalization causes an increase in the role of local factors in the global development of the society, in particular of the global economy.

Originality/value

It is established that the so-called equilibrium zones (enjoying the advantages of an intermediary role in the interrelationships of large areas of the world economy, which are headed by geo-economic leaders) possess the potential for novelty in the dynamics of a globalizing economy. The article predicts the formation of a multidimensional and multilevel geo-economic multipolarity due to the reshaping of the global system of leadership in the world economy and due to the contradictory competitive relationships of its main centers.

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International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 41 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Article
Publication date: 2 October 2007

Jian Peng, Richard Li‐Hua and Sandra Moffett

The purpose of this paper is to explore challenges and opportunities in knowledge management (KM) research trends in China.

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3257

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore challenges and opportunities in knowledge management (KM) research trends in China.

Design/methodology/approach

The literature review presents the status quo of China KM research from a world‐wide perspective and China's economy today. Then the paper explains theoretical analysis of KM development and future trend in the West. The third part of literature review addresses the debate of KM practices followed by the way how KM trend is discussed in Western research. Empirical evidences from the journal literature, the web sites of consultancy companies, and in the presentation of research centres are examined. A triangulated methodology include data from two well known management database searching results for “China” and “Knowledge Management”; two KM surveys in China and other web site and journals.

Findings

The paper is an initial exploration of the KM research trends in China. The research explains the opportunities and challenges facing KM researchers and provides useful guidance for KM practice in China. In general, China has relatively newly developed KM awareness. The importance of KM, however, has not yet been fully explored in research. One the one hand, the lack of access to China practitioners, the scarceness of related comparative study and the arguable KM domain are three major reasons that lead to insufficient research in KM. On the other hand, given the rapid development of China's economy today, there are questions and phenomena with specific Chinese characters need to be examined from KM perspective. Two major challenges of China economy, i.e. reforming in the process of development, and the privatization as well as the regional difference need to be reflected in China KM research. Comparative approaches in the research are needed. Although KM is arguably undergoing fast development in recently years and China is becoming one of the important spotlights, China‐related KM research is still at its very early stage. Challenges and opportunities are presented for further research guidance.

Originality/value

This paper shows that KM research in China has its own characters if compare with the West. Future directions and opportunities for China‐related KM researches are discussed by a triangulated approach. The findings present future trends of KM research in China that help practitioner to reinforce KM practice. This paper suggests important areas that researchers need to address as new challenges and opportunities in the KM trends in China context.

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Journal of Technology Management in China, vol. 2 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8779

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Article
Publication date: 20 April 2015

Helge Fischer, Linda Heise, Matthias Heinz, Kathrin Moebius and Thomas Koehler

The purpose of this paper is to introduce methodology and findings of a trend study in the field of e-learning. The overall interest of the study was the analysis of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to introduce methodology and findings of a trend study in the field of e-learning. The overall interest of the study was the analysis of scientific e-learning discourses. What comes next in the field of academic e-learning? Which e-learning trends dominate the discourse at universities? Answering such questions is the basis for the adaptation of service strategies and IT-infrastructures within institutions of higher education.

Design/methodology/approach

Which e-learning formats dominate the current scientific discourse? To answer this question, a trend study based on a content analysis was performed. The abstracts of 427 scientific articles of leading German-speaking e-learning conferences Gesellschaft für Medien in der Wissenschaft and E-Learning-Fachtagungen der Gesellschaft für Informatik e. V. (GMW and DeLFI) – published from 2007 to 2013 – were examined. A category scheme was derived from the Horizon Report. The category scheme then was gradually expanded and adapted to the data material during the investigation.

Findings

This paper found that the detailed analysis of the frequency distribution over the seven years reflects the intensity of scientific discussion towards e-learning trends within the investigation period, and conclusions about the didactical or technical potentials of innovations can be drawn because both conferences are different in terms of their objective. The authors also classified the life stages of selected innovations based on the Gartner hype cycles, and the striking findings of the study will be formulated in the form of assumptions, which reflect the development potential of learning management, mobile learning, virtual worlds, e-portfolio, social media and Massive Open Online Courses in German Higher Education.

Research limitations/implications

Only abstracts of the selected contributions were investigated. Errors in the category allocation due to unclear terminology cannot be excluded. Organisers of the investigated conferences often define the (main) topics. This influenced the spectrum of represented topics overall, as well as the focus of individual contributions. The above-presented study was conducted at German-speaking conferences and, therefore, reflects the situation in Germany, Switzerland and Austria. No conclusions about actors or institutional relationships can be made, in contrast to the original assumptions of discourse analysis. The categorial classification of contributions does not allow any conclusions about the quality of the discourse.

Originality/value

The study shows how proceedings of scientific conferences can be used for trend studies. It became clear that discourse analytical studies can be used complementary to other methods of future studies. The advantage of this methodology lies mainly in the easy access to the text material, as conference proceedings are mostly available online. In addition, the analysis of large amounts of data (or texts) can be greatly facilitated by use of digital technologies (e.g. by automatic analysis of keyword). This paper makes an important contribution to the diffusion of digital media in higher education.

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Interactive Technology and Smart Education, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-5659

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1997

Gene R. Laczniak and Robert F. Lusch

The need for management to better anticipate the future is the urgent message currently being advocated by consultants in strategic market planning. Uses a survey of…

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1455

Abstract

The need for management to better anticipate the future is the urgent message currently being advocated by consultants in strategic market planning. Uses a survey of high‐level managers from Fortune 1,000 corporations to illustrate the advantages of cultivating a flexible mindset concerning environmental trends and their strategic marketing implications. Reviews projected developments in the economy, technology, ecology and the social/political environments that are expected to occur by 2005. Discusses appropriate marketing responses to these trends.

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Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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