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Article
Publication date: 13 November 2009

Ilias Livanos, Çagri Yalkin and Imanol Nuñez

The purpose of this paper is to examine the factors affecting the labour market status of females in Greece and the UK respectively and also attempts to explore what…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the factors affecting the labour market status of females in Greece and the UK respectively and also attempts to explore what accounts for the differences in the employment status between males and females. In particular, the study seeks to assess whether these differences can be explained by employees' endowments or by discrimination in the labour market.

Design/methodology/approach

Labour Force Survey (LFS) data are used to examine the impact of observable characteristics on female labour market participation, unemployment, and self‐employment through the use of logit models. An extension of the Oaxaca‐Blinder decomposition technique is used to estimate the gender employment discrimination gap.

Findings

Clear evidence of gender differences was found in both countries, although differences are substantially larger in the case of Greece. Evidence of female employment discrimination was also found in both labour markets.

Originality/value

The paper explores the factors affecting the labour market situation of females and, for the first time, assesses the level of gender employment discrimination in Greece and the UK analysing the differences between the unemployment rates of males and females.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 30 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article
Publication date: 15 February 2016

Joanna Poon and Michael Brownlow

The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether gender has an impact on real estate and built environment graduates’ employment outcomes, employment patterns and other…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether gender has an impact on real estate and built environment graduates’ employment outcomes, employment patterns and other important employment related issues, such as pay, role, contract type and employment opportunity in different states of a country.

Design/methodology/approach

The data used in this paper has been collected from the Australian Graduate Survey (AGS). Data from the years 2010-2012 was combined into a single data set. Dimensionality reduction was used to prepare the data set for the courses listed in AGS data, in order to develop the simplified classifications for real estate and built environment courses which are used to conduct further analysis in this paper. Dimensionality reduction was also used to prepare data set for the further analysis of the employment outcomes and patterns for real estate graduates. Descriptive and statistical analysis methods were used to identify the impact of gender on the employment outcomes, employment patterns and other important employment related issues, such as pay, role, contract type and location of job, for real estate graduates in Australia. This paper also benchmarks the employment result of real estate graduates to built environment graduates.

Findings

Recent male built environment graduates in Australia are more likely to gain full-time employment than females. The dominant role for recent female built environment graduates in Australia is a secretarial or administrative role while for the male it is a professional or technical role. Male real estate and built environment graduates are more likely to have a higher level of salary. Gender also has an impact on the contract type. Male built environment graduates are more likely to be employed on a permanent contract. On the other hand, gender has no impact on gaining employment in different states, such as New South Wales and Queensland, in Australia. The finding of this paper reinforces the view of previous literature, which is that male graduates have a more favourable employment outcomes and on better employment terms. The finding also shows that graduate employment outcomes for real estate and built environment graduates in Australia are similar to that in other countries, such as the UK, where equivalent studies have been published.

Originality/value

This is pioneering research that investigates the impact of gender on employment outcomes, employment patterns and other employment related issues for real estate graduates and built environment graduates in Australia.

Details

Property Management, vol. 34 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-7472

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Article
Publication date: 11 September 2009

Luisa Rosti and Francesco Chelli

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the gender impact of tertiary education on the probability of entering and remaining in self‐employment.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the gender impact of tertiary education on the probability of entering and remaining in self‐employment.

Design/methodology/approach

A data set on labour market flows produced by the Italian National Statistical Office is exploited by interviewing about 62,000 graduate and non‐graduate individuals in transition between five labour market states: dependent workers; self‐employed workers; unemployed persons; and non‐active persons. From these data, an average ten‐year transition matrix (1993‐2003) is constructed and the flows between labour market conditions by applying Markovian analysis are investigated.

Findings

The data show that education significantly increases the probability of entering self‐employment for both male and female graduates, but it also significantly increases the transition from self‐employment to dependent employment for female graduates, thereby increasing the percentage of female graduates in paid employment and reducing the percentage of women in entrepreneurial activities. It is argued that the disappointment provoked by the gender wage gap in paid employment may induce some female graduates with low‐entrepreneurial ability to set‐up on their own, but once in self‐employment they have lower survival rates than both men in self‐employment and women in paid employment. Thus, what is observed overall is that education widens the gender gap between self‐employed workers and employees for individuals persisting in the same working condition.

Originality/value

The data are enabled to shift the focus of the relationship between education and entrepreneurship from the probability of being self‐employed to the probability of entering and surviving in this condition.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 51 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

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Article
Publication date: 2 May 2017

Yu-Cheng Lai and Santanu Sarkar

The purpose of this paper is to examine the differences in the effects of gender equality legislation on employment outcomes among female and male workers in industries…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the differences in the effects of gender equality legislation on employment outcomes among female and male workers in industries with different intensity of foreign investment (namely, foreign direct investment (FDI)-intensive industries and non–FDI–intensive industries). The specific employment outcomes that were studied to compare the effects of the legislation are the working hours, employment opportunities, and wages of female and male workers in Taiwan.

Design/methodology/approach

Using data from the annual Manpower Utilization Survey, the authors applied a differences-in-differences-in-differences estimation method to test the effect of gender equality legislation on employment outcomes. By using multinomial logit, the authors measured the effect of the legislation on employment opportunities. To correct for simultaneity and selectivity problems/biases, the authors adopted Heckman two-stage selection procedures. Likewise, the authors used weighted least squares to solve heteroskedasticity in the wage and working hour equations. Further, the instrumental variable (IV) method was used to correct for simultaneity bias in the equation on working hour. The authors applied three stages estimation method following Killingsworth’s (1983) approach to measure the effect of the legislation on wages and working hours.

Findings

The authors found the restrictions enforced by the gender equality legislation (namely the Gender Equal Employment Act (GEEA), enacted in 2002) in Taiwan to have made certain impact on the workers’ working conditions in FDI-intensive industries. The major finding indicated that in a country like Taiwan, where the legislature tried tilling the perpetual gender gap in its labour market, by passing a law to counter inequality, could finally narrow the gender gap in wages among workers in the FDI-intensive industries. Although initially after the enactment of the GEEA (between 2002 and 2004), the gender gap in part-timers’ wages has widened, yet over a period of time the gap in their wages too has narrowed down, particularly during 2005-2006. The legislation, however, could not improve the job opportunities for full-time female workers’ in FDI-intensive industries. Besides, post 2002, the female workers were found to have worked for shorter hours than male workers, which according to us, could be largely attributed to the enforcement of the GEEA.

Practical implications

An in-depth analysis of the labour market effects of gender equality legislation should be useful to policymakers, especially those interested in understanding the impact of legislative measures and policy reforms on labour market and employment outcomes across industry types. If enforcement of a gender equality legislation has succeeded in reducing the gender gap more in one set of industries than the others (e.g. foreign owned instead of domestic industries), as the authors noticed in this study, then the same should have a bearing on revamping of future enactment and enforcement too.

Originality/value

Current study findings would not only provide the broad lessons to the policymakers in Taiwan, but the results that have emerged from a country case study could be referred by other growing economies who are enthusiastic about improving female workers’ working conditions through legislative reforms.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 38 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article
Publication date: 26 July 2013

Linzi J. Kemp

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the progress in the United Arab Emirates towards achievement of Millennium Development Goal (3), “gender equality”, by the

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the progress in the United Arab Emirates towards achievement of Millennium Development Goal (3), “gender equality”, by the target date of 2015.

Design/methodology/approach

Demographic, social, and labor force statistics are collected from United Arab Emirates' government reports, the World Economic Forum, and UNESCO. Analysis is conducted to investigate current trends of gender equality in education and employment.

Findings

Results for the education of women have been at a consistently high level for some years. Two themes are found for such progress: a government strategy to increase women's access to education; societal acceptance of educated women. Gender equality in employment is slow due to three themes: study choice dictates employment potential; recruitment within a narrow range of occupations; employment more likely within public sector employment. The future of gender equality in the United Arab Emirates will continue to be more positive for women in education than for employment.

Research limitations/implications

A limitation is the paucity of academic study about gender equality in education and employment in the United Arab Emirates. Reliability and validity of the study is somewhat limited by unverified, non‐specific, and older data on education and employment.

Practical implications

Improved strategies to increase study choice are required to enlarge the scope of women's careers. Management of the talent pool of educated females can increase women's share of paid employment in the future.

Social implications

A faster rate of change is required towards societal acceptance of women in employment to match female educational attainment.

Originality/value

The research is important for two reasons relevant for achievement of MDG (3) by 2015. Remarkable progress has been made on gender equality in education, and awareness is raised on limitations in the future for the employment of women.

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1990

Eileen Drew

The subject of part‐time work is one which has become increasingly important in industrialised economies where it accounts for a substantial and growing proportion of…

Abstract

The subject of part‐time work is one which has become increasingly important in industrialised economies where it accounts for a substantial and growing proportion of total employment. It is estimated that in 1970, average annual hours worked per employee amounted to only 60% of those for 1870. Two major factors are attributed to explaining the underlying trend towards a reduction in working time: (a) the increase in the number of voluntary part‐time employees and (b) the decrease in average annual number of days worked per employee (Kok and de Neubourg, 1986). The authors noted that the growth rate of part‐time employment in many countries was greater than the corresponding rate of growth in full‐time employment.

Details

Equal Opportunities International, vol. 9 no. 3/4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0261-0159

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Article
Publication date: 9 January 2019

Juan Antonio Campos Soria and Luis Robles Teigeiro

The purpose of this study was to estimate the capacity of the predominant activity of the Hotel and Restaurant (H&R) sector to create female employment in European Union…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to estimate the capacity of the predominant activity of the Hotel and Restaurant (H&R) sector to create female employment in European Union (EU) countries.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology used was conducted in two stages. First, a branch employment multiplier was calculated using the Leontief input-output tables (IOTs), which show the direct and indirect capacity of the activity to generate female employment. Second, a regression model was estimated to explain the determinants of the female employment multiplier in the H&R sector. It should be noted that the reliability and simplicity of the proposed model allows countries without IOTs, but with gender-disaggregated labor statistics, to easily estimate their own female employment multiplier.

Findings

The results show that the job-creation capacity of the H&R sector significantly varies across the EU countries, especially in relation to the female employment multiplier. Although international differences in gender wage gaps help to explain such multipliers, institutional factors and feminization rate also play a key role.

Research limitations/implications

The results may contribute to improving the actions of member states to stimulate the sustainable development of the tourism sector.

Originality/value

Based on previous literature, the finding that higher tourism expenditure may result in increases in tourism employment gives rise to another set of interesting questions. The most fundamental of these may concern the nature of the economic underpinnings of the growth of female employment. This paper contributes to this issue by conducting a specific analysis across EU countries using a homogenous and comparable methodology.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 31 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2003

Magda Kandil and Jeffrey G. Woods

Using unpublished time‐series data for three specific age/gender groups, we first determine the percentage of female employment to total employment for nine sectors of the…

Abstract

Using unpublished time‐series data for three specific age/gender groups, we first determine the percentage of female employment to total employment for nine sectors of the U.S. economy. Second, we estimate the cyclical change in hours of employment for each age/gender group within each sector. Third, we estimate the cyclical behavior of the nominal wage for each sectoral gender group. The paper’s evidence does not support, in general, a more cyclical response of female hours worked in the service‐producing sectors that are dominated by women. We find partial evidence that hours worked by men are more cyclical compared with hours worked by women in the male‐dominated goods‐producing sectors. Given the evidence of no pronounced difference in the cyclical behavior of hours and wages for men and women, the business cycle is gender‐neutral.That is, the elastic female labor supply is washed out over the business cycle across major sectors of the U.S. Economy. Observational evidence suggests supply‐side and structural factors in the economy have attenuated the business cycle, especially in the service‐producing sectors.

Details

Equal Opportunities International, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0261-0159

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Article
Publication date: 2 August 2019

Sandhya Mahapatro

The purpose of this paper is to examine whether the choice of employment sector for women is driven by the structure of the labour market or determined by the household…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine whether the choice of employment sector for women is driven by the structure of the labour market or determined by the household socioeconomic condition.

Design/methodology/approach

Data for the study were drawn from the National Sample Survey 68th round (2011–2012). The sector of employment was assessed through females’ participation as an unpaid labour, employer/own account worker, informal wage worker, formal wage worker and unemployed. A multinomial logit model was used to examine the factors that determine the sector of employment.

Findings

Although education increases formal employment among women, most of them are unemployed or entering into informal employment. It indicates that the labour market has not been able to integrate educated women into formal employment.

Research limitations/implications

Increase in female education accompanied by a slow growth of employment creates the challenge to accommodate the educated and skilled women in formal employment.

Originality/value

This study examines the factors determining the sectoral participation of employment to assess the responses of the current labour market for the females, especially educated females who have not been adequately addressed. The findings of the study have significant implications for formulating appropriate labour market policies for the educated female labour force.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 46 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Book part
Publication date: 2 September 2020

Nurgül Emine Barin, Sabriye Kundak and Vildan Saba Cenikli

IntroductionFemale employment and policies are an important aspect of growth and development. Inadequate utilisation of female labour force within the national economy…

Abstract

IntroductionFemale employment and policies are an important aspect of growth and development. Inadequate utilisation of female labour force within the national economy reflects in economic and social indicators especially in developing countries. Women’s self-development, active participation in labour markets, and social and economic opportunities are the main factors in the development of countries. This study attempts to research the effects of female work force participation in the member countries of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) on economic growth in time period between 2004 and 2016. The countries were selected among the countries that have high and middle human development index according to Human Development Report in 2017.

Purpose – In this chapter, it is aimed to support the employment of female labour force and to show its share in development and growth in the member countries of the OIC. The aspect differs from similar studies to address the issue in term of Islamic countries.

Methodology – While analysing the impact of female employment on growth, the panel data analysis method and fixed and random effect model were used.

Findings – It has been found that female employment has a positive impact on economic growth for the selected OIC countries.

Details

Contemporary Issues in Business Economics and Finance
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-604-4

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