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The purpose of this paper is to understand the gender‐related challenges of Pakistani women entrepreneurs, to explore these women's particular capacity‐building needs, and…
The purpose of this paper is to understand the gender‐related challenges of Pakistani women entrepreneurs, to explore these women's particular capacity‐building needs, and to assess the impact of capacity‐building programs on the establishment and performance of the women's enterprises.
The paper begins with a review of various theoretical contexts through which to understand women's entrepreneurship in an Islamic socio‐cultural context. From this, the paper derived two working propositions: women in Islamic Pakistan face particular barriers to becoming entrepreneurs; these barriers can be reduced by women‐only training in entrepreneurial competences. These propositions are examined in a three‐part longitudinal process: a field survey to gather information about the training needs of current and potential women entrepreneurs, the design and delivery of a women‐only training module, a follow‐up survey with participants, 18 months later. Subjects and participants were randomly selected, and segmented according to entrepreneurial factors and characteristics.
Results confirm that the barriers perceived by women entrepreneurs in Islamic Pakistan can be alleviated through women‐only training that allows participants to develop capital and competences. Greater clarity about learning outcomes desired and achieved by women entrepreneurs in an Islamic socio‐cultural context can be a basis for designing improved training and education programmes, with a view to women's economic empowerment.
For women entrepreneurs living in an Islamic society, this analysis has implications for understanding the importance and effectiveness of entrepreneurial training especially in a women‐only setting. For policy makers, it turns the spotlight on the need for creating an environment conducive to female entrepreneurship consistent with socio‐cultural structures and gender asymmetries.
There are no comparable previous data on the learning preferences and outcomes of this particular demographic group.
Women make up about half of the overall workforce, but they are still underrepresented in higher pay, leadership and senior-level positions. Literature indicated genders…
Women make up about half of the overall workforce, but they are still underrepresented in higher pay, leadership and senior-level positions. Literature indicated genders are different in information processing, values, learning styles, behaviors and leadership styles. A customized women-only training program (WOTP) has been implemented cross-disciplinary; yet, the literature has limited discussions on the principle and outcome of WOTP. The purpose of this paper is to explore the purpose, application, challenges, advantages and disadvantages of WOTP.
Social learning theory was applied to investigate the fundamental principle of WOTP.
The implication of WOTP to human resource development (HRD) discipline was discussed, and three propositions were created in this paper.
This paper is expected to contribute to adult education and HRD research and practices on promoting gender equality in the workplace and to provoke dialogue about a training strategy – WOTP.
Explores the role of women‐only training (WOT) in eliminatinggender inequality of opportunity in the organization. Reviews theliterature on the subject. Asks the…
Explores the role of women‐only training (WOT) in eliminating gender inequality of opportunity in the organization. Reviews the literature on the subject. Asks the questions: What are the symptoms of inequality? What are its causes? What are the various strategies available for equality? Where does women‐only training fit in as part of these strategies? And how successful is women‐only training as a means of eliminating inequality?
Examines the effectiveness of management development programmes forwomen to determine if these programmes are achieving the threeobjectives that they intend to serve…
Examines the effectiveness of management development programmes for women to determine if these programmes are achieving the three objectives that they intend to serve: developing knowledge and skills necessary for effective leadership; reducing negative prejudice against women; and helping women to advance into and through the ranks of management. Three types of programme are considered: single sex management training programmes, mixed‐sex management training programmes and mentoring programmes. Concludes that some programmes are making more meaningful contributions towards these objectives than others. Offers recommendations for the most appropriate use of each type of programme.
Analyses the content and methodology of personal development programmes as used within women‐only training. Although women‐only training programmes have increased over the…
Analyses the content and methodology of personal development programmes as used within women‐only training. Although women‐only training programmes have increased over the last ten to 15 years, both in the UK and in the European Community, they have developed in an ad hoc pragmatic way. Underlying assumptions have not been examined and theory has not accompanied practice. In exploring the curriculum and methodology of assertiveness and career planning training programmes, finds them limited in their capacity to make transformative change for women. Argues that they have the effect of helping women, on an individualized basis, to adapt to organizations and cultures which are not of their making. Posits that it is only by re‐examining women’s learning and making explicit the challenge to women’s subordination across their diversity, that trainers and participants can take the first steps towards transformative change.
This article assesses the impact of a specially designed management development course on the lives and careers of women working in universities as academics and…
This article assesses the impact of a specially designed management development course on the lives and careers of women working in universities as academics and administrators. The programme was designed and run by the authors and emerged from a combination of their research interests and their experience and recognition of the problems faced by women in a university setting. The course extends over two days and provides an opportunity for women to consider a variety of work‐related and personal issues, including the barriers they face and the ways in which these barriers might be overcome. These issues are considered in terms of their own personal development and of the responsibility they must take for this development. The course was assessed by both an immediate evaluation and a follow‐up questionnaire.
An Innovatory Action Research Project was initiated in 1987 at the University of Ulster, Jordanstown, Northern Ireland, to address the problem of women′s under‐representation in key areas, including management and new technology. A new course for women, integrating personal and professional development, was designed and validated by the University of Ulster. Twenty‐five unemployed women were selected each year to attend this one‐year training project, which was evaluated with respect to the following criteria – effectiveness in relation to employment, self‐employment or continuing education; in developing leadership skills; in developing competence in information technology; entrance criteria as predictors of success on the course and in subsequent employment; employers′ views on the course and on potential employment of women; effects of participation on relationships within the family; barriers to learning for women. The outcome was positive. Additional EC funding ensured the continuation of the course for another three years, now in transnational partnership with other European programmes and this year introducing a specialism in telematics. The hybrid managers have arrived – and some are women!
The need for special training programmes for women in management is discussed. Traditionally, the assumption has been that, in order for women to succeed in the firm, they require special educational and development opportunities. Prior to undertaking such initiatives, it is suggested that organisations examine the philosophy underlying the demand for special training programmes which focus on assisting women in overcoming “sex‐related deficiencies”.