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Article

Zhenzhong Ma and Alfred M. Jaeger

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of assertiveness in determining negotiation outcomes in two different cultures and thus to help understand the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of assertiveness in determining negotiation outcomes in two different cultures and thus to help understand the cultural differences in the relationship between assertiveness and negotiation outcomes in the West and East, where assertiveness is often viewed quite differently.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from four simulated negotiations of varying degrees of complexity ranging from the most distributive to the most integrative. Over 400 business students were recruited as subjects from a Western culture and an Eastern culture, namely Canada and China, to participate in the simulations in order to test the cultural differences in the relationship between assertiveness and negotiation outcomes.

Findings

The results provide support for the effects of assertiveness on both economic outcome and affective outcome, and thus confirm the importance of assertiveness as a negotiator trait; the relationship between assertiveness and negotiation outcomes is found to be culture dependent whereby assertiveness is associated with economic outcome and affective outcome for Canadians, but only with affective outcome for the Chinese.

Practical implications

This study provides important guidelines for negotiation practitioners. Relevant training and development programs could be designed for international managers to improve their effectiveness when they negotiate with the Chinese who often place more emphasis on affective outcome and on negotiation process.

Originality/value

Negotiation skills become more important in the increasingly globalized world market and research on negotiation needs to provide more knowledge for scholars and negotiation practitioners. This paper attempts to enrich our understanding of negotiation in two different cultures and to provide insights on cross‐cultural differences in negotiation process.

Details

Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

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Article

James B. Parham, Carmen C. Lewis, Cherie E. Fretwell, John G. Irwin and Martie R. Schrimsher

– The purpose of this paper is to contribute to assertiveness research and assess the differences in assertiveness as it relates to gender, national culture, and ethnicity.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to assertiveness research and assess the differences in assertiveness as it relates to gender, national culture, and ethnicity.

Design/methodology/approach

The data for the study are from 231 undergraduate students majoring in business at one of four academic institutions: three in the USA and one in the Republic of Vietnam. Students completed the 30-item Rathus Assertiveness Schedule.

Findings

This research suggests that individuals who are alike in level of education and status demonstrate similar levels of assertiveness, regardless of gender, national culture, or ethnicity. However, differences were seen as the data show white American males to be the most assertive, with African American females next. White females ranked third, followed by Vietnamese females, concluding with Vietnamese males.

Research limitations/implications

Although the sample size is small, the intent of this research was never to have the subjects represent the general population in terms of the variables used. Instead, the authors attempted to control for gender, culture, and ethnicity variables by using a sample of college students who were similar in relation to education and social status. Future research could more fully research the findings from this study which suggest that African American women are more assertive than all other groups with the exception of white males.

Originality/value

This study also gives credence to the suggestion that the global manager, in order to become more effective, needs to fully understand employee differences as represented by gender, national culture, and ethnicity.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 34 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

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Article

KEN BACK and KATE BACK

We are writing this article and the follow up one next month as a result of our experiences in training people in organisations to become more assertive. At the same time…

Abstract

We are writing this article and the follow up one next month as a result of our experiences in training people in organisations to become more assertive. At the same time we are drawing on our learning from working on our own personal assertiveness. In this article we describe assertion, aggression and nonassertion, and their effects on individuals. We outline how to see this relating to people in organisations. We end with comments on some of the assumptions about assertiveness and assertiveness training. In the second article we explain our approach to assertiveness training.

Details

Industrial and Commercial Training, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0019-7858

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Article

Francesco Calza, Nadir Aliane and Chiara Cannavale

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of cross‐cultural differences on Italian firms' internationalization in Algeria, and to determine if performance…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of cross‐cultural differences on Italian firms' internationalization in Algeria, and to determine if performance orientation and assertiveness are perceived by Italian managers of local subsidiaries as important cultural dimensions.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is a qualitative analysis based on a semi‐structured questionnaire and three case studies. All the questionnaires are submitted during an interview in order to clearly explain their purpose and the terms used.

Findings

Cultural differences are strongly perceived by Italian managers operating in Algeria. Algerian culture seems to be characterized by a low degree of performance orientation and a low degree of assertiveness, with strong implications for Italian managers.

Research limitations/implications

The sample is still limited and in the future a quantitative analysis on a larger sample should be done in order to evaluate the relationship between family and religious values, on one hand, and performance orientation and assertiveness, on the other.

Practical implications

While entering Algeria, Italian firms have to be aware of cross‐cultural differences. Algerians' low performance orientation and assertiveness discourage local workers to reach higher standards and to improve performance, and they impact on Italian managers' capability to give instructions and to motivate local workers. The involvement of local managers is crucial in overcoming these problems.

Originality/value

While interest towards Southern Mediterranean countries is increasing, there is little written on this topic. The impact of performance orientation and assertiveness on firms' internationalization has not been investigated so far.

Details

European Business Review, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-534X

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Article

Hyejin Bang, Dongwon Choi, Sukki Yoon, Tae Hyun Baek and Yeonshin Kim

Prosocial advertisers widely use assertive messages to encourage prosocial attitudes and behaviors, but ironically, assertive messages may cause reactance. By applying…

Abstract

Purpose

Prosocial advertisers widely use assertive messages to encourage prosocial attitudes and behaviors, but ironically, assertive messages may cause reactance. By applying cultural theories and the reciprocity principle, this study aims to observe whether consumers’ responses to assertive messages hold across culturally different audiences (Americans vs South Koreans) and different consumption situations (price discount vs no discount).

Design/methodology/approach

American and Korean participants take part in three experimental studies examining the interactions of nationality, price discounts and assertive messaging for influencing consumer responses, first to a prosocial ad encouraging recycling (Study 1), the second for a campaign requesting donations for disadvantaged children (Study 2) and the third to prosocial messages encouraging water conservation (Study 3).

Findings

The three experiments strongly support the moderating role of price discounts and cultural backgrounds in the persuasiveness of assertive prosocial messages. American consumers generally dislike assertive messages, but feel reciprocal obligations if marketers include price discounts, whereas South Korean consumers accept both assertive and nonassertive messages without resistance, and discounts have no effects on persuasion.

Research limitations/implications

The findings make two key contributions to the literature and to prosocial advertising practices. First, although many corporations have adopted philanthropic strategies, few researchers have examined how specific consumption contexts determine the effectiveness of prosocial persuasion. The findings show how price discounts and message framing potentially alter the effectiveness of prosocial messages across Eastern and Western cultures. Second, assertive language evokes reactance, but the findings suggest that reactive responses to prosocial advertising are culture-specific.

Practical implications

International nonprofit organizations and brands using philanthropic strategies might use the guidelines of this study for tailoring strategic, practical prosocial messages that will appeal to consumers from diverse cultural backgrounds. In particular, pro-environmental and charity campaigns targeting North American or Western European populations may consider bundling discounts into promotions to evoke reciprocity.

Originality/value

Findings provide novel implications for social marketers regarding on how to couple message assertiveness and price discounts to maximize the success of prosocial messages in different cultures.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article

Marcus Renatus Johannes Wolkenfelt and Frederik Bungaran Ishak Situmeang

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the marketing literature and practice by examining the effect of product pricing on consumer behaviours with regard to the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the marketing literature and practice by examining the effect of product pricing on consumer behaviours with regard to the assertiveness and the sentiments expressed in their product reviews. In addition, the paper uses new data collection and machine learning tools that can also be extended for other research of online consumer reviewing behaviours.

Design/methodology/approach

Using web crawling techniques, a large data set was extracted from the Google Play Store. Following this, the authors created machine learning algorithms to identify topics from product reviews and to quantify assertiveness and sentiments from the review texts.

Findings

The results indicate that product pricing models affect consumer review sentiment, assertiveness and topics. Removing upfront payment obligations positively impacts the overall and pricing specific consumer sentiment and reduces assertiveness.

Research limitations/implications

The results reveal new effects of pricing models on the nature of consumer reviews of products and form a basis for future research. The study was conducted in the gaming category of the Google Play Store and the generalisability of the findings for other app segments or marketplaces should be further tested.

Originality/value

The findings can help companies that create digital products in choosing a pricing strategy for their apps. The paper is the first to investigate how pricing modes affect the nature of online reviews written by consumers.

Details

Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7122

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Article

Katja Soyez

The purpose of this paper is to link national cultural values to personal pro‐environmental value orientations, in order to investigate why the salience of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to link national cultural values to personal pro‐environmental value orientations, in order to investigate why the salience of pro‐environmental value orientations differs cross‐culturally. A value‐based model is proposed and tested in a multinational study.

Design/methodology/approach

An empirical investigation of 1,096 consumers was conducted in five nations with a different cultural profile on the two cultural dimensions in‐group collectivism and assertiveness. The paper applies multi‐group structural equation modelling to test the moderating effect of culture on the impact of pro‐environmental values on attitudes and subjective norms.

Findings

The study reveals that the influence of a pro‐environmental value orientation differs substantially, according to national cultural values. While an ecocentric value orientation is important in the US, Canadian, German, and Australian samples which hold individualistic values, an anthropocentric value orientation is salient in the Russian sample, characterized by collectivistic values. The hypothesized influence of the national cultural value assertiveness, however, could not be established decisively.

Research limitations/implications

First, the present study considers culture as a national value on an aggregated level. Future studies should take into account cultural values at different levels of aggregation. Second, since only one collectivistic society is the object of the investigation, the results are limited in terms of generalizability.

Practical implications

In order to address the ecocentric value orientation in the analyzed individualistic societies, marketers should emphasize benefits for the environment in the USA, Canada, Australia, and Germany. By contrast, the positive consequences for humankind in general and future generations should be stressed in the collectivistic Russian sample.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to the literature by integrating both individual and national perspectives on the value‐based drivers of environmental concern. The study also provides insight into pro‐environmental consumer behavior in an emerging market (namely Russia), which has so far been neglected in cross‐cultural research.

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Article

Evangelia Demerouti, Erik van Eeuwijk, Margriet Snelder and Ulrike Wild

This study seeks to examine the effects of a “personal effectiveness” training on both assertiveness and Psychological Capital (PsyCap) that were monitored before and…

Abstract

Purpose

This study seeks to examine the effects of a “personal effectiveness” training on both assertiveness and Psychological Capital (PsyCap) that were monitored before and after the training.

Design/methodology/approach

In addition to self‐ratings, other‐ratings were assembled to explore two ways in which they can contribute to the monitoring of intervention effects. To verify self‐reported results, and to predict participants' performance through the use of self‐other agreement.

Findings

Overall, rater and ratee scores showed a similar increase on assertiveness and most components of PsyCap. Self‐other agreement measures showed an increase in agreement for assertiveness and PsyCap after the training. Lastly, the type of relationship between rater and ratee appeared to have significant influence on the consistency between raters, such that agreement was higher for cohabiting partners than colleagues, supervisors or friends.

Originality/value

This study has created a better understanding of the role that the self‐other agreement and PsyCap can play in monitoring intervention effects.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

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Article

Roger J. Volkema and Denise Fleck

This paper seeks to introduce a model of the initiation process in negotiations, and to describe a study of the effects of culture and personality on propensity to…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to introduce a model of the initiation process in negotiations, and to describe a study of the effects of culture and personality on propensity to initiate and assertiveness in negotiations.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a survey research approach and hierarchical regression analyses, initiation propensity and assertiveness were regressed against two country cultures diverse with respect to perceived appropriateness of initiation (Brazil and the USA) and four measures of personality (self‐efficacy, locus of control, risk propensity, Machiavellianism).

Findings

Regression analyses found three personality factors (risk propensity, self‐efficacy, Machiavellianism) to be most significantly associated with initiation propensity/assertiveness, along with an interaction effect involving country culture and risk propensity.

Research limitations/implications

Future studies might benefit from a broader, more diverse subject pool (beyond the two countries studied). This would allow for separate analyses of cultural dimensions, rather than treating culture as a composite measure. In addition, future research might include measures of actual initiation behavior.

Practical implications

Initiation is a manageable process. Self‐efficacy, for example, can be improved by observing others skilled in the initiation process, and through practicing initiation under more favorable conditions. Furthermore, an individual can follow a graduated approach to gain initiation confidence, beginning with simply engaging (without asking) and progressing to asking and optimizing.

Originality/value

This paper offers a model for understanding the dynamics of the initiation process in negotiations, which generally has been overlooked by negotiation researchers. The study examines two sets of factors that can influence initiation behavior that have not been investigated in total – culture and personality.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 23 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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Article

Michael K. Rich and Daniel C. Smith

With the increased emphasis on establishing long‐term customer relationships in the selling process, greater emphasis needs to be placed on hiring salespeople that possess…

Abstract

With the increased emphasis on establishing long‐term customer relationships in the selling process, greater emphasis needs to be placed on hiring salespeople that possess skills in identifying communication characteristics in prospects. This identification process is an essential first step in the salesperson being able to adapt his or her behavior to permit a greater comfort level to be experienced by the prospect with subsequent trust being established over an extended period of time. Additionally, those sales situations where the activity is more transaction oriented, the identification skill of the salesperson is critical since the time duration of the dyadic relationship is limited and trust must be established quickly in order to consummate the sale. This research indicates that individuals with higher levels of responsiveness tend to exhibit greater identification skills than those with lower levels. These findings should prove useful to sales managers desiring to hire salespeople with strong “people skills”, to facilitate developing meaningful long‐term relationships with prospects.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

Keywords

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