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Article
Publication date: 8 June 2021

Nina Smith, Tor Eriksson and Valdemar Smith

The purpose of this paper is to describe how gender stereotypes and self-stereotypes of Danish managers vary among managers at different job levels, from lower level managers to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe how gender stereotypes and self-stereotypes of Danish managers vary among managers at different job levels, from lower level managers to CEO level, in a large survey of Danish private-sector managers.

Design/methodology/approach

This study is explorative. Measures of stereotypes and self-stereotypes are constructed and analyzed with regressions models that control for a large number of individual and firm characteristics.

Findings

The results document significant gender differences in stereotyping among managers. Male managers have significantly more masculine stereotypes of successful leaders, and they rate themselves higher on masculine traits than female managers. For CEOs, the picture is different. Stereotypes do not differ by gender and female CEOs have more pronounced masculine stereotypes than female managers at lower levels. Female managers at the age of 50 are the least gender stereotyping managers. Younger female managers have significantly more masculine stereotypes about the role as a successful leader.

Research limitations/implications

This study is based on cross-sectional data and does not claim to uncover causal relationships.

Practical implications

The results suggest that gender stereotypes and self-stereotypes among Danish private-sector managers are not going to change quickly indicating that new government policies with more focus on gender equalization and affirmative actions are called for.

Originality/value

Most earlier studies of stereotypes concerning female managers are based on studies of samples drawn from the general population or consisting of students. This study makes use of a large sample of managerial employees from all levels of the corporate hierarchy in different types of firms.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal , vol. 36 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 2002

Jan Bentzen and Valdemar Smith

In the Spring of 1995 the French military announced a series of nuclear tests to take place at the Muroroa atoll later that year. Despite worldwide protests a nuclear test series…

Abstract

In the Spring of 1995 the French military announced a series of nuclear tests to take place at the Muroroa atoll later that year. Despite worldwide protests a nuclear test series of six bombs was carried out from September 1995 to January 1996. In some countries, e.g. Denmark, the public reaction to the test series was quite strong and during the nuclear testing period in the South Pacific many consumers substituted goods from other countries, especially wine, for French goods. This paper analyses the demand for French wine in Denmark with focus on the effects of the nuclear tests on the Danish import of French wine. The effects, if any, may be temporary or more permanent, affecting the consumption of French wine in Denmark in the long run. By the use of monthly data for the Danish import of red wine and white wine, the long‐run trends in these variables are extracted and the analysis of these are in favour of wine import boycott effects of a temporary nature in late 1995 and early 1996 and possibly a minor permanent effect for French red wine on the Danish market.

Details

International Journal of Wine Marketing, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-7541

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 2004

Jan Bentzen and Valdemar Smith

Auctions of selected wines have regularly taken place internationally and from natural reasons they have mostly involved the finest wines as e.g. the top wines from Bordeaux. In…

Abstract

Auctions of selected wines have regularly taken place internationally and from natural reasons they have mostly involved the finest wines as e.g. the top wines from Bordeaux. In order to analyse specific auction wine prices, the Mouton Rothschild (Medoc Premier Cru Classé) has been selected for investigation, where auction data have been collected from the USA (The Chicago Wine Company), Denmark (Bruun Rasmussen, Selected Wines Auctions) and from other sources as well. The price development of this specific icon wine is expected to be influenced by many factors, although theoretically, investment decisions concerning e.g. icon wines, ought not to be highly sensitive to short‐run business conditions. The empirical findings exhibit that the auction prices of the Mouton Rothschild differ relatively much between the auction houses, and the time series analysis reveals only weak evidence of co‐movements between wine prices and selected business cycle indicators.

Details

International Journal of Wine Marketing, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-7541

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 August 2008

Jan Bentzen and Valdemar Smith

Champagne is bought with low frequency and many consumers most likely do not have or seek full information on the quality of champagne. Some consumers may rely on the reputation…

Abstract

Purpose

Champagne is bought with low frequency and many consumers most likely do not have or seek full information on the quality of champagne. Some consumers may rely on the reputation of particular brands, e.g. “Les Grandes Marques”, some consumers choose to gain information from sensory ratings of champagne. The aim of this paper is to analyse the champagne prices on the Scandinavian markets by applying a hedonic price function in a comparative framework with minimal models using sensory ratings.

Design/methodology/approach

Consumers optimize the quality–price relationship when buying champagne by seeking only the necessary market information. Within a search model framework, they choose between costless information from sensory ratings and using time for seeking information on the quality attributes of the champagnes. The model is tested on data for the Scandinavian markets in an econometric skeleton.

Findings

The retail prices of the champagnes on the Scandinavian markets can be fairly well explained by a hedonic price function. However, the ratings by the wine experts, especially Robert Parker, do just as well in terms of explaining the retail prices of champagnes.

Practical implications

Assuming that sensory ratings by wine experts reflect the true quality of champagne, which is supported by the results in this paper, it hardly pays for normal consumers to use resources on seeking detailed information on champagne quality. Thus, sensory rating is an efficient guide to optimize the quality–price relationship.

Originality/value

Champagne prices are normally analysed using experimental techniques. In our paper, champagne prices are analysed using a search model and tested on market data. Furthermore, the issue on expert ratings vs quality attributes as the optimal price predictor is expanded to the champagne market too.

Details

International Journal of Wine Business Research, vol. 20 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1062

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 November 2011

Valdemar Smith and Jan Bentzen

The purpose of this paper is to introduce the Danish wine industry and then concentrate on production and discuss which factors are of importance for producing high‐quality wines…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to introduce the Danish wine industry and then concentrate on production and discuss which factors are of importance for producing high‐quality wines. Historically, Denmark has not been a wine‐producing country primarily due to sub‐optimal climate conditions, but during the latest decade, entrepreneurial growers have entered the business of wine production by establishing small wine fields and investing in professional production facilities.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a rich longitudinal micro data set from the Association of Danish Wine Growers, an econometric model is set up in order to explain the chances of obtaining awards at the yearly Danish Wine Contest, i.e. signalling “quality”.

Findings

Contrary to the authors' hypotheses, field slope, field direction, size and commercial status of the producer have no influence on quality. However, the natural sugar content at harvest, grape variety, soil and growers' experience have the anticipated influence. But unobservable characteristics seem important. Spirit and entrepreneurial enthusiasm of the growers in an emerging wine industry also appear to be of importance.

Practical implications

Awards at wine contests signal quality to the market, which can be used in the sales strategy of the growers, thereby getting higher prices for their wines and overcoming potential “lemon‐market” effects due to asymmetric information on the market. Furthermore, noting that awards can be explained by specific factors, this may be an efficient guide for the producers to optimize their quality‐costs relationship.

Originality/value

The analysis of the Danish wine industry is carried out by the use of a longitudinal micro data set. A hedonic model of wine quality is estimated by using econometric methods.

Details

International Journal of Wine Business Research, vol. 23 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1062

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 May 2011

Nina Smith, Valdemar Smith and Mette Verne

This study aims to analyse the gender pay gap among CEOs, VPs and potential top executives. The authors seek to analyse how much of the gap is explained by differences in…

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Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to analyse the gender pay gap among CEOs, VPs and potential top executives. The authors seek to analyse how much of the gap is explained by differences in individual characteristics and how much is explained by firm characteristics and discriminatory processes.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper estimates compensation functions based on a panel of employer‐employee data set covering all Danish companies in the private sector with more than 50 employees during the period 1996‐2005.

Findings

The authors document that when controlling for a large number of observable characteristics and time‐invariant characteristics, there still exists a large gender compensation gap among top executives in Denmark. For VP and potential top executives, the estimated gap increased during the period 1996‐2005 while for the small and selected group of CEOs, the corrected gender gap decreased slightly.

Research limitations/implications

The study does not claim to identify causal links between top executive compensation and individual or firm specific background characteristics.

Practical implications

The extension of the family‐friendly schemes may have had negative boomerang effects on the compensation and careers of all women, irrespective of whether they become mothers or not. Especially for those women aiming to reach the top of the organisation, these effects may be important because potential career interruptions are expected to be more severe for this group.

Originality/value

This study adds to the limited empirical literature on the gender pay gap among the narrow group of top executives using a large panel employer‐employee data set of all Danish companies.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 32 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 October 2006

Nina Smith, Valdemar Smith and Mette Verner

This paper aims to examine the relationship between management diversity and firm performance in the case of women in top executive jobs and on boards of directors. Corporate…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the relationship between management diversity and firm performance in the case of women in top executive jobs and on boards of directors. Corporate governance literature argues that board diversity is potentially positively related to firm performance. This hypothesis is tested in the paper.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper with the use of data for the 2,500 largest Danish firms observed during the period 1993‐2001 various statistical models for firm performance are specified and estimated. The main focus in the models is the estimated relationship between the proportion of women in top management (CEOs and on boards of directors) and firm performance.

Findings

The results in this paper show that the proportion of women in top management jobs tends to have positive effects on firm performance, even after controlling for numerous characteristics of the firm and direction of causality. The results show that the positive effects of women in top management strongly depend on the qualifications of female top managers.

Originality/value

This paper provides solid statistical evidence of the effects of women in top management on firm performance. The use of a large sample and the panel nature of the data set make it possible to properly control for direction of causality and, furthermore, much firm and individual information is included to estimate genuine effects of women in top management.

Details

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. 55 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 8 November 2011

Ulrich R. Orth

679

Abstract

Details

International Journal of Wine Business Research, vol. 23 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1062

Book part
Publication date: 14 September 2007

Abstract

Details

Handbook of Transport Modelling
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-08-045376-7

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1989

Stuart Hannabuss

The management of children′s literature is a search for value andsuitability. Effective policies in library and educational work arebased firmly on knowledge of materials, and on…

Abstract

The management of children′s literature is a search for value and suitability. Effective policies in library and educational work are based firmly on knowledge of materials, and on the bibliographical and critical frame within which the materials appear and might best be selected. Boundaries, like those between quality and popular books, and between children′s and adult materials, present important challenges for selection, and implicit in this process are professional acumen and judgement. Yet also there are attitudes and systems of values, which can powerfully influence selection on grounds of morality and good taste. To guard against undue subjectivity, the knowledge frame should acknowledge the relevance of social and experiential context for all reading materials, how readers think as well as how they read, and what explicit and implicit agendas the authors have. The good professional takes all these factors on board.

Details

Library Management, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-5124

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