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Article
Publication date: 1 September 1996

Teodiano Freire Bastos, L. Calderón, J.M. Martín and R. Ceres

Evaluates the applicability of ultrasonic sensors in a welding environment and reports on experimental measurements carried out with a sensory head containing ultrasonic

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167

Abstract

Evaluates the applicability of ultrasonic sensors in a welding environment and reports on experimental measurements carried out with a sensory head containing ultrasonic transducers with different frequencies. Analyses the effects on the sensors of factors such as noise, temperature and shielding gas flow and concludes by suggesting appropriate protective measures for the sensors for them to operate effectively in a welding environment.

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Sensor Review, vol. 16 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

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Article
Publication date: 14 January 2014

Javad Abbaszadeh, Herlina Binti Abdul Rahim, Ruzairi Bin Abdul Rahim and Sahar Sarafi

Since the importance role of ultrasonic tomography (UT) in industry, especially in oil industry, to produce noninvasive and nondestructive plane images, research on UT…

Abstract

Purpose

Since the importance role of ultrasonic tomography (UT) in industry, especially in oil industry, to produce noninvasive and nondestructive plane images, research on UT system with a metal pipe conveyor is investigated. The produced cross-sectional images are used for detecting the concentration of solid and liquid mixture inside the pipe, noninvasively. In practice, due to application of metal pipes as the conveyor of oil mixture so the capability of manufacturing an UT system with a metal pipe is investigated in this paper. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Finite element software (COMSOL Multiphysics 3.5) for visualizing the structure of pipe with mounted sensors on the periphery of the pipe is used. The manner of ultrasonic wave propagation on different layers on various frequencies and finding the time of flight for transmission mode signal and lamb mode signal are achieved by the means of done simulations. Finding the proper ultrasonic sensor base on its efficiency is the main step of designing an UT system. This is done by estimating the resonance frequency of sensor due to the manner of ultrasonic wave propagation in different frequencies shown in simulation results.

Findings

Due to simulation results, lamb wave is a permanent propagation mode of ultrasonic wave which makes interference in measuring process of straight path signal and it is impossible to remove. Relief of the mentioned problem finding an optimum frequency to decrease the affection of lamb wave in detecting point. Optimum frequency of ultrasonic wave to satisfy the objective is 45 kHz which is measured by considering of mathematic of ultrasonic wave propagation in different layers. The reaching time of straight path signal and lamb wave signal in opposite sensor as the receiver are 5.5 and 4.6 μs, respectively.

Originality/value

This investigation is the first step to perform the UT in a noninvasive method to produce the cross-sectional images of metal pipe. Due to the wide application of metal pipes as the conveyor of the liquids/gases, metal pipe for the UT application is studied in this research.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 34 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 1999

David D. Shepard and Kim R. Smith

Measurements of the ultrasonic sound speed of thermosetting resins and composites can be used as an in‐process cure monitoring technique. Ultrasonic measurements have an…

Abstract

Measurements of the ultrasonic sound speed of thermosetting resins and composites can be used as an in‐process cure monitoring technique. Ultrasonic measurements have an advantage over other in‐process techniques in that ultrasonic sensors do not make contact with the part (thus leaving no imbedded sensor or witness mark) and can make true bulk measurements of the part. A new commercially available ultrasonic cure monitoring system for the cure monitoring of thermosetting resins and composites has been developed. Advancements in ultrasonic sensor technology enable the self‐contained ultrasonic sensor to be easily installed in a mold and maintain good coupling to the part during thermal cycling to 260°C. Data are presented showing the change in ultrasonic sound speed during the compression molding of epoxy prepregs. The data show a good relationship to the electrical resistivity data collected via dielectric cure monitoring. The ultrasonic technique is also applicable to phenolic based materials.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 19 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

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Publication date: 4 May 2018

Yusman, Aidi Finawan and Rusli

Purpose – The purpose of this research is to design and build a wild animal pest repellent device with combination of passive infrared (PIR) sensor and ultrasonic signal…

Abstract

Purpose – The purpose of this research is to design and build a wild animal pest repellent device with combination of passive infrared (PIR) sensor and ultrasonic signal based on microcontroller as system controller. The PIR sensor is used to detect the presence of wild animal objects and ultrasonic signals to interfere with the hearing.

Design/Methodology/Approach – The design of the system is built based on microcontroller as the system controller. The system as a whole includes hardware and software. The design of hardware consists of the system design on the transmitter side and the system design on the receiver side, while the software in the of system are algorithms using C language programming.

Findings – The resulting repellent device can detect animals approaching up to a distance of 5 m and may interfere with its hearing with a 40 kHz ultrasonic frequency up to a distance of 20 m. The system also uses remote monitoring devices using 433 MHz radio frequency up to a distance of 60 m.

Research Limitations/Implications – Each animal has different hearing frequencies, as well as some wild animals, but the hearing frequencies of wild animals are generally at ultrasonic frequencies. The frequency of animal hearing may vary from audio frequency to ultrasonic frequency, so ultrasonic wave emission testing with varying frequencies is required.

Practical Implications – This research combines systems on transmitters and receivers, with real-time monitoring of wild animal positions, and it can be possible to monitor the position of more detailed animals by installing more types of sensors as well as increasing the number of sensors.

Originality/Value – This paper may provide additional insight into the hearing frequencies of animals and may also serve as comparable papers for similar studies.

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1994

Eduardo Caicedo Bravo, T Friere Bastos, J M Martin, L Calderdon and R Ceres

Analyses the effects of temperature on the behaviour of ultrasonicsensors applied to object recognition. Describes the measurement systememployed, the environmental…

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106

Abstract

Analyses the effects of temperature on the behaviour of ultrasonic sensors applied to object recognition. Describes the measurement system employed, the environmental considerations of ultrasonic sensors and looks at the most commonly used parameters to analyse the echo form in the recognition process. Evaluates the performance of the parametric model of the ultrasonic echo signal with a comparative study of different ultrasonic transducers.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 14 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

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Article
Publication date: 18 October 2011

David Sanders, Ian Stott, Jasper Graham‐Jones, Alexander Gegov and Giles Tewkesbury

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how to make powered‐wheelchair driving easier using simple expert systems to interpret joystick and ultrasonic sensor data. The…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how to make powered‐wheelchair driving easier using simple expert systems to interpret joystick and ultrasonic sensor data. The expert systems interpret shaky joystick movement and identify potentially hazardous situations and then recommend safe courses of action.

Design/methodology/approach

The way that a human user interacts with a powered‐wheelchair is investigated. Some simple expert systems are presented that interpret hand tremor and provide joystick position signals for an ultrasonic sensor system. Results are presented from a series of timed tasks completed by users using a joystick to control a powered‐wheelchair. Effect on the efficiency of driving a powered‐wheelchair is measured using the times to drive through progressively more complicated courses. Drivers completed tests both with and without sensors and the most recently published systems are used to compare results.

Findings

The new expert systems consistently out‐performed the most recently published systems. A minor secondary result was that in simple environments, wheelchair drivers tended to perform better without any sensor system to assist them but in more complicated environments then they performed better with the sensor systems.

Research limitations/implications

The time taken for a powered‐wheelchair to move from one place to another partly depends on how a human user interacts with the powered‐wheelchair. Wheelchair driving relies heavily on visual feedback and the experience of the drivers. Although attempts were made to remove variation in skill levels by using sets of data associated with each driver and then using paired statistical tests on those sets, some variation must still be present.

Practical implications

The paper presents new systems that could allow more people to use powered‐wheelchairs and also suggests that the amount of sensor support should be varied depending on circumstances.

Originality/value

The new systems described in the paper consistently performed driving tasks more quickly than the most recently published systems.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 38 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

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Article
Publication date: 28 June 2011

David Sanders, Giles Tewkesbury, Ian J. Stott and David Robinson

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how to make tele‐operated tasks easier using an expert system to interpret joystick and sensor data.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how to make tele‐operated tasks easier using an expert system to interpret joystick and sensor data.

Design/methodology/approach

Current tele‐operated systems tend to rely heavily on visual feedback and experienced operators. Simple expert systems improve the interaction between an operator and a tele‐operated mobile‐robot using ultrasonic sensors. Systems identify potentially hazardous situations and recommend safe courses of action. Because pairs of tests and results took place, it was possible to use a paired‐samples statistical test.

Findings

Results are presented from a series of timed tasks completed by tele‐operators using a joystick to control a mobile‐robot via an umbilical cable. Tele‐operators completed tests both with and without sensors and with and without the new expert system and using a recently published system to compare results. The t‐test was used to compare the means of the samples in the results.

Research limitations/implications

Time taken to complete a tele‐operated task with a mobile‐robot partly depends on how a human operator interacts with the mobile‐robot. Information about the environment was restricted and more effective control of the mobile‐robot could have been achieved if more information about the environment had been available, especially in tight spaces. With more information available for analysis, the central processor could have had tighter control of robot movements. Simple joysticks were used for the test and they could be replaced by more complicated haptic devices. Finally, each individual set of tests was not necessarily statistically significant so that caution was required before generalising the results.

Practical implications

The new systems described here consistently performed tasks more quickly than simple tele‐operated systems with or without sensors to assist. The paper also suggests that the amount of sensor support should be varied depending on circumstances. The paired samples test was used because people (tele‐operators) were inherently variable. Pairing removed much of that random variability. When results were analysed using a paired‐samples statistical test then results were statistically significant. The new systems described in this paper were significantly better at p<0.05 (95 per cent probability that this result would not occur by chance alone).

Originality/value

The paper shows that the new system performed every test faster on average than a recently published system used to compare the results.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 31 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

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Article
Publication date: 20 June 2016

Chiew Loon Goh, Ruzairi Abdul Rahim and Mohd Hafiz Fazalul Rahiman

The purpose of this paper is to conduct a review of types of tomographic systems that have been widely researched within the past 10 years. Decades of research on…

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429

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to conduct a review of types of tomographic systems that have been widely researched within the past 10 years. Decades of research on non-invasively and non-intrusively visualizing and monitoring gas-liquid multi-phase flow in process plants in making sure that the industrial system has high quality control. Process tomography is a developing measurement technology for industrial flow visualization.

Design/methodology/approach

A review of types of tomographic systems that have been widely researched especially in the application of gas-liquid flow within the past 10 years was conducted. The sensor system operating fundamentals and assessment of each tomography technology are discussed and explained in detail.

Findings

Potential future research on gas-liquid flow in a conducting vessel using ultrasonic tomography sensor system is addressed.

Originality/value

The authors would like to undertake that the above-mentioned manuscript is original, has not been published elsewhere, accepted for publication elsewhere or under editorial review for publication elsewhere and that my Institute’s Universiti Teknologi Malaysia representative is fully aware of this submission.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 36 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

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Article
Publication date: 24 August 2010

David A. Sanders, Jasper Graham‐Jones and Alexander Gegov

The purpose of this paper is to describe the use of simple expert systems to improve the performance of tele‐operated mobile robots and ultrasonic sensor systems. The…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe the use of simple expert systems to improve the performance of tele‐operated mobile robots and ultrasonic sensor systems. The expert systems interpret data from the joystick and sensors and identify potentially hazardous situations and then recommend safe courses of action so that tele‐operated mobile‐robot tasks can be completed more quickly.

Design/methodology/approach

The speed of a tele‐operator in completing progressively more complicated driving tasks is investigated while using a simple expert system. Tele‐operators were timed completing a series of tasks using a joystick to control a mobile robot through a simple expert system that assisted them with driving the robot while using ultrasonic sensors to avoid obstacles. They either watched the robot while operating it or sat at a computer and viewed scenes remotely on a screen from a camera mounted on the robot. Tele‐operators completed tests with the simple expert system and the sensors connected. The system used an umbilical cable to connect to the robot.

Findings

The simple expert systems consistently performed faster than the other systems. Results are compared with the most recently published results and show a significant improvement. In addition, in simple environments, tele‐operators performed better without a sensor system to assist them but in more complicated environments than tele‐operators performed better with the sensor systems to assist.

Research limitations/implications

Simple expert systems are shown to improve the operation of a tele‐operated mobile robot with an obstacle avoidance systems fitted.

Practical implications

Tele‐operated systems rely heavily on visual feedback and experienced operators. This paper investigates how to make tasks easier. Simple expert systems are shown to improve the operation of a tele‐operated mobile robot. The paper also suggests that the amount of sensor support should be varied depending on circumstances.

Originality/value

The simple expert systems are shown in this paper to improve the operation of a tele‐operated mobile robot. Tele‐operators completed tests with the simple expert system and the sensors connected. The results are compared with a tele‐operator driving a mobile robot without any assistance from the expert systems or sensors and they show a significant improvement.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 37 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 1 March 2000

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34

Abstract

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

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