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The concept of zero inventory (ZI) is a powerful tool to improve production economics. The major factor in ZI is set‐up cost reduction. Examines what will happen when set‐up costs are stationarily and non‐stationarily reduced by mathematical presentations and simulation. The results are useful for real practice. Zangwill observes that reducing set‐up costs need not decrease inventory by a special example of non‐stationary cases. Likewise, set‐up cost reduction need not decrease total production and inventory costs. By using simulation, obtains results contrary to Zangwill. Most presentations of set‐up cost reduction consider the stationary case. It is hard to find the degree of cost variations by mathematical models. Thus uses a mathematical approach and a few simulation results that varying set‐up costs are provided. Reduces set‐up costs stationarily and non‐stationarily to examine the effects on total costs and total holding costs.
The objective of this monograph is to describe the industrial logistics structure within consumer goods industries and to provide a framework upon which the significance of the integrated industrial logistics system could be determined. The method of approach adopted is to define those problems which may occur within the logistics structure, define an ideal type of organisational structure and to monitor the effect of each type of decision within the established framework. Since all the elements of logistics add cost to a product, throughout the latter half of the discussion there is considerable emphasis upon methods of achieving the minimum cost throughout the channel.
Preface The functions of business divide into several areas and the general focus of this book is on one of the most important although least understood of these—DISTRIBUTION. The particular focus is on reviewing current practice in distribution costing and on attempting to push the frontiers back a little by suggesting some new approaches to overcome previously defined shortcomings.
To achieve a full understanding of the role ofmarketing from plan to profit requires a knowledgeof the basic building blocks. This textbookintroduces the key concepts in…
To achieve a full understanding of the role of marketing from plan to profit requires a knowledge of the basic building blocks. This textbook introduces the key concepts in the art or science of marketing to practising managers. Understanding your customers and consumers, the 4 Ps (Product, Place, Price and Promotion) provides the basic tools for effective marketing. Deploying your resources and informing your managerial decision making is dealt with in Unit VII introducing marketing intelligence, competition, budgeting and organisational issues. The logical conclusion of this effort is achieving sales and the particular techniques involved are explored in the final section.
Sees the objective of teaching financial management to be to help managers and potential managers to make sensible investment and financing decisions. Acknowledges that financial theory teaches that investment and financing decisions should be based on cash flow and risk. Provides information on payback period; return on capital employed, earnings per share effect, working capital, profit planning, standard costing, financial statement planning and ratio analysis. Seeks to combine the practical rules of thumb of the traditionalists with the ideas of the financial theorists to form a balanced approach to practical financial management for MBA students, financial managers and undergraduates.
Costs estimation is essential and important to resource allocation and prioritizing different interventions in the health system. The purpose of this paper is to estimate…
Costs estimation is essential and important to resource allocation and prioritizing different interventions in the health system. The purpose of this paper is to estimate the costs of lung cancer in Iran, in 2017.
This was a prevalence-based cost of illness study with a bottom-up approach costing conducted from October 2016 to April 2017. The sample included 645 patients who referred to Imam Reza hospital, Tabriz, Iran, in 2017. Follow-up interviews were every two months. Hospitalization costs extracted from the patient’s record and outpatient costs, nondirect medical costs and indirect costs collected using questionnaire. SPSS software version 22 was used for the data analysis.
Mean direct medical costs, nondirect medical costs and indirect costs amounted to 36,637.02 ± 23,515.13 PPP (2016) (251,313,217.83 Rials), 2,025.25 ± 3,303.72 PPP (2016) (16,613,202.53 Rials) and 48,348.55 ± 34,371.84 PPP (2016) (396,599,494.56 Rials), respectively. There was a significant and negative correlation between direct medical costs, direct nonmedical costs, indirect costs and age at diagnosis, and there was a significant and positive correlation between the length of hospital stay and direct medical cost.
As the cost of lung cancer is substantial and there have been little studies in this area, the objective of this study is to investigate the cost of lung cancer and present ways to tackle this.
It seems that the Internet boom, which started at the end of the 1990s and finished with the spectacular collapse of the so-called dotcoms, is probably over. We are…
It seems that the Internet boom, which started at the end of the 1990s and finished with the spectacular collapse of the so-called dotcoms, is probably over. We are currently enjoying a period of fast and stable growth. This is manifested by the growing number of both Internet users and companies which – to an ever-increasing extent – use the Internet as a form of communication (both internal and external), promotion, sales etc. Expenditures on Internet advertising are growing continuously and now constitute more than 25% of all advertising expenditure. A natural consequence of this development is the need for the standardisation and organisation of the world of the Internet. These activities will result in a greater awareness of the benefits which this medium provides, increasing the possibilities of its use, and – most importantly – the opportunity to evaluate the return on investments made on the Internet. Nowadays, it is clear that many companies are striving to increase the quality of their activities on the Internet or to improve the effectiveness of such activities. As a consequence, the number of companies that look for indices which would enable the making of more precise and effective decisions in the scope of online operations is growing.
This chapter is dedicated to the phenomenon of the increasing role of the Internet in business, including the scale of its use by Polish and international companies. We present the most commonly used measures of marketing activities on the Internet and in social media. This group includes the indices which make it possible to determine whether a company actually needs a website. Other measures allow for the improvement in the effectiveness of the activity on the Internet, whereas others specify the costs of activities on the Internet and often serve as the basis for settlements between a company and advertising agencies or companies specialising in website design. It is worth emphasising that the Paid, Earned, Shared, Owned (PESO) model, worked out by Don Bartholomew,1 is the basis for creation and description of indices concerning social media. This model has gained certain popularity in the social media industry. It does not, however, specify how individual indices should be named and calculated. It maps already existing indices and adapts them to specific levels of marketing communication measurement. All the measures indicated by the author of the model have been grouped into five major areas: exposure, engagement, brand awareness, action and recommendations. This model– similarly to all models of performance measurement – inspired by the sales funnel concept, adjusts certain standard indices and proposals of measurements for specific levels. Additionally, the measures are divided into four types, depending on who the owner of the content is: Paid (P) – refers to all forms of paid content; Owned (O) – all websites and web properties controlled by a company or brand; Earned (E) – the contents about a given brand created spontaneously by Internet users; and Shared (S) – the contents shared by Internet users.
The conceptual problem associated with marketing productivity analysis is examined followed by an examination of currrent practice in marketing productivity in the…
The conceptual problem associated with marketing productivity analysis is examined followed by an examination of currrent practice in marketing productivity in the following areas — on the product line, in advertising and promotional mix, in the salesforce, in distribution and in customer activity tracking. It provides UK companies with some guidance on how they can improve their performance measurement using marketing information systems and reorganising existing information for more effective marketing action. The research concentrates on 50 well‐known British companies in oil, chemicals, various engineering disciplines, food, pharmaceuticals, insurance, construction and chain‐store retailing. The findings are based on 28 viable responses, and a further 21 (different) responses from companies which were personally visited. Although the research techniques need to be refined they conclude that the management of resources invested in marketing activities can never be refined to the point where an incremental investment in any specific marketing application can be measured with great accuracy. Yet a great deal of measurement is possible and marketing managers can be well enough informed about the behaviour of marketing inputs so that allocation decisions in future periods will benefit.?