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Practitioners often are confused by theories that offer ambiguous prescriptions for designing the institutional forms or governance structures in which business activities…
Practitioners often are confused by theories that offer ambiguous prescriptions for designing the institutional forms or governance structures in which business activities are conducted. Unclear prescriptions for organizing tasks within the main governance alternatives leave key design decisions unguided: which tasks to perform in‐house (hierarchy), which to contract to outside agencies (market), and which to perform jointly by economic units within and outside the firm (hybrid)? A popular current theory ‐ transaction cost analysis ‐ suggests that governance structures should be aligned to tasks in a “mainly transaction cost economizing way.” Argues that the importance of transaction costs is overstated, and that observed patterns of firms’ governance structures suggest that firms also account for other theoretical issues ‐ production costs and strategic considerations ‐ in determining efficient boundaries. Begins by illustrating that transaction costs are not always primary. Then discusses the factors that impact production costs and transaction costs, and reviews certain strategic considerations that impact the choice of governance structure for a task. Offers practitioners guidance in choosing governance structures through a contingency analysis that examines the interaction of production costs, transaction costs, and strategic considerations. Illustrates normative implications for designing governance structures through corporate examples that are driven by both cost and strategy considerations.
The purpose of this paper is to explore different aggregate production planning (APP) strategies (inventory levelling, validation of the workforce and flexible production…
The purpose of this paper is to explore different aggregate production planning (APP) strategies (inventory levelling, validation of the workforce and flexible production alternatives: overtime and/or outsourcing) by using a system dynamics model in a two-level, multi-product, multi-period manpower intensive supply chain (SC). Therefore, the appropriateness of using systems dynamics as a research method, by focusing on managerial applications, to analyse APP policies is proven. From the combination of systems dynamics and APP, recommendations and action strategies are considered for each scenario to understand how the system performs and to improve decision making on APP in the SC context.
The research design analyses a typical factory setting with representative parameter settings for five different conventional APP policies – inventory levelling, workforce variation, overtime, outsourcing and a combination of overtime and outsourcing – through deterministic systems dynamics-based simulation. In order to validate the simulation model, the results from published APP models were replicated. Then, optimisation is conducted for this deterministic setting to determine the performance of all these typical policies with optimal parameter settings. Next, a Monte Carlo stochastic simulation is used to assess the robustness of such performances in a variety of demand settings. Different aggregate plans are tested and the effect that events like demand variability and production times have on the SC performance results is analysed.
The results support the assertion that the greater the demand variability, the higher the flexibility costs (overtime, outsourcing, inventory levelling, and contracts and firings). As greater inter-month oscillations appear, which must be covered with additional alternatives, the optimum number of employees must be determined by analysing the interchanges and marginal costs between capacity oversizing costs (wages, idle time, storage) and the costs to undersize it (penalties for lowering safety stocks, delayed demand, greater use of overtime and outsourcing). Accordingly, controlling the times to avoid increased costs and penalties incurred by delayed demand becomes an essential important task, but one that also depends on the characteristics of this variability.
This paper has developed a modelling approach for APP in a manpower intensive SC by applying system dynamics. It includes a simulation model, the analysis of several scenarios, the impact on performance caused by variability events in the parameters, and some recommendations and action strategies to be subsequently applied. The modelling methodology proposed can be employed to design-specific models for each SC.
This paper proposes an APP system dynamics approach in a two-level, multi-product, multi-period manpower intensive SC for the first time. This model bridges the gap in the literature relating to simulation, specifically system dynamics and its application for APP. The paper also provides a qualitative description of the various pros and cons of each analysed policy and how they can be combined.
Aim of the present monograph is the economic analysis of the role of MNEs regarding globalisation and digital economy and in parallel there is a reference and examination…
Aim of the present monograph is the economic analysis of the role of MNEs regarding globalisation and digital economy and in parallel there is a reference and examination of some legal aspects concerning MNEs, cyberspace and e‐commerce as the means of expression of the digital economy. The whole effort of the author is focused on the examination of various aspects of MNEs and their impact upon globalisation and vice versa and how and if we are moving towards a global digital economy.
The paper provides an overview of research published in the innovation and operations management (IOM) literature on 15 methods for cost management in new product…
The paper provides an overview of research published in the innovation and operations management (IOM) literature on 15 methods for cost management in new product development, and it provides a comparison to an earlier review of the management accounting (MA) literature (Wouters & Morales, 2014).
This structured literature search covers papers published in 23 journals in IOM in the period 1990–2014.
The search yielded a sample of 208 unique papers with 275 results (one paper could refer to multiple cost management methods). The top 3 methods are modular design, component commonality, and product platforms, with 115 results (42%) together. In the MA literature, these three methods accounted for 29%, but target costing was the most researched cost management method by far (26%). Simulation is the most frequently used research method in the IOM literature, whereas this was averagely used in the MA literature; qualitative studies were the most frequently used research method in the MA literature, whereas this was averagely used in the IOM literature. We found a lot of papers presenting practical approaches or decision models as a further development of a particular cost management method, which is a clear difference from the MA literature.
This review focused on the same cost management methods, and future research could also consider other cost management methods which are likely to be more important in the IOM literature compared to the MA literature. Future research could also investigate innovative cost management practices in more detail through longitudinal case studies.
This review of research on methods for cost management published outside the MA literature provides an overview for MA researchers. It highlights key differences between both literatures in their research of the same cost management methods.
Maintenance is a key lever for reducing costs in manufacturing companies. Researchers have focused in the past on the importance of integrating maintenance and production…
Maintenance is a key lever for reducing costs in manufacturing companies. Researchers have focused in the past on the importance of integrating maintenance and production planning to obtain total cost savings and have proposed a number of models. Nonetheless, all such contributions take a static perspective and do not consider the dynamics of markets, e.g. when some already committed preventive maintenance (PM) interventions are to be rescheduled. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to suggest a new decision‐making process to manage the rescheduling of PM interventions and to show – through the proposal of an ad hoc planning model – the economical savings from expressly considering rescheduling costs in re‐planning PM interventions.
In this paper the authors used six case studies to infer both the current process of production and maintenance integrated planning and the decision‐making process followed for rescheduling PM interventions. From the current practices the authors derived a new managerial framework for managing rescheduling events and they have built two mathematical models to compare the current and the proposed frameworks by using real data.
Considering rescheduling costs in the joint production and maintenance planning process leads to significant economical savings under all the scenarios tested. In particular, the use of the proposed model allows significant reductions in maintenance costs while keeping constant production costs. This makes the implementation of the authors' proposal in real companies easier.
This research originates from the wish of a real company to better investigate the issue of rescheduling interventions. To the best of the authors' knowledge this is the first study to face the problem of rescheduling PM interventions and to present a mathematical model to support managers in such a decision‐making process.
Allyn Young′s lectures, as recorded by the young Nicholas Kaldor,survey the historical roots of the subject from Aristotle through to themodern neo‐classical writers. The…
Allyn Young′s lectures, as recorded by the young Nicholas Kaldor, survey the historical roots of the subject from Aristotle through to the modern neo‐classical writers. The focus throughout is on the conditions making for economic progress, with stress on the institutional developments that extend and are extended by the size of the market. Organisational changes that promote the division of labour and specialisation within and between firms and industries, and which promote competition and mobility, are seen as the vital factors in growth. In the absence of new markets, inventions as such play only a minor role. The economic system is an inter‐related whole, or a living “organon”. It is from this perspective that micro‐economic relations are analysed, and this helps expose certain fallacies of composition associated with the marginal productivity theory of production and distribution. Factors are paid not because they are productive but because they are scarce. Likewise he shows why Marshallian supply and demand schedules, based on the “one thing at a time” approach, cannot adequately describe the dynamic growth properties of the system. Supply and demand cannot be simply integrated to arrive at a picture of the whole economy. These notes are complemented by eleven articles in the Encyclopaedia Britannica which were published shortly after Young′s sudden death in 1929.
Key components of the logistics mix are described in an effort tocreate an understanding of the total logistics concept. Chapters includean introduction to logistics; the…
Key components of the logistics mix are described in an effort to create an understanding of the total logistics concept. Chapters include an introduction to logistics; the strategic role of logistics, customer service levels, channel relationships, facilities location, transport, inventory management, materials handling, interface with production, purchasing and materials management, estimating demand, order processing, systems performance, leadership and team building, business resource management.
Maquiladora operations have become increasingly popular during the past 10 years. The driving force behind this popularity has been the dramatic devaluation of the Mexican…
Maquiladora operations have become increasingly popular during the past 10 years. The driving force behind this popularity has been the dramatic devaluation of the Mexican peso, which has made Mexican labour among the lowest cost in the world. However to take full advantage of maquiladora operations additional logistics costs are incurred in supporting the Mexican production/assembly facilities. The logistics/manufacturing cost trade‐offs inherent in maquiladora operations are explored empirically. While logistics costs were found to increase and logistics performance decreased, most of the firms involved in maquiladora operations considered their operations to be highly successful based on product cost savings.
Organizational scholars increasingly appreciate the role of categories as bases of order or “cognitive infrastructures” in markets. Yet they construe categories as…
Organizational scholars increasingly appreciate the role of categories as bases of order or “cognitive infrastructures” in markets. Yet they construe categories as disciplinary devices. They understand category formation, implementation, and revision as the purview of professionals. And they tie those processes to notions of institutional development that sharply distinguish settled from unsettled or disordered eras. We challenge these conceptions through a historical study of how manufacturers, associations, and cost accountants broke from the disciplinary functions of accounting categories underlying mass production to create new categorical schemes devoted to learning, innovation, and improvement. Reformers reconfigured the uses of categories in markets, mobilizing classifications to spark reflection, experimentation, and improvement among firms by perturbing taken-for-granted assumptions. They also redesigned the practices of producing, implementing, and revising categories. Manufacturers themselves produced and routinely revised classifications through collective deliberation, while accountants served as their consultants, rather than autonomous authorities who monopolized category formation and implementation. In so doing, reformers forged foundations for upgrading markets and fostering competition based on innovation and improvement in a variety of industries. Based on these findings, we extend existing research beyond categorical imperatives to highlight how categories also serve as cognitive infrastructures for learning, discovery, and innovation in markets.