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Article
Publication date: 23 November 2021

Hüseyin Emre Ilgın, Markku Karjalainen and Sofie Pelsmakers

The paper aims to understand Finnish architects' attitudes towards the use of timber as a structural material in multi-storey (over two--storeys high) residential construction.

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to understand Finnish architects' attitudes towards the use of timber as a structural material in multi-storey (over two--storeys high) residential construction.

Design/methodology/approach

The study was conducted through a literature survey mainly including international peer-reviewed journals and similar research projects. Furthermore, the literature survey informed the generation of the web-based survey questionnaire design to gather information on architects' perceptions, attitudes and interest in the use of wood in multi-storey (over two-storeys high) residential buildings.

Findings

The paper's findings are as follows: (1) respondents perceived the most important advantages of wood as a lightweight, local and ecological material; (2) wood construction (compared to concrete) included perceived concerns about it being more costly and needing more complex engineering and (3) respondents had a favourable overall attitude towards the use of wood particularly in low-rise residential construction, whilst their perception of tall housing, including timber ones, was mostly negative.

Originality/value

No studies have evaluated the use of wood in tall residential buildings and architects' perceptions in Finland.

Details

International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-4708

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Article
Publication date: 25 January 2021

Sheryl Staub-French, Angelique Pilon, Erik Poirier, Azadeh Fallahi, Mohamed Kasbar, Francisco Calderon, Zahra Teshnizi and Thomas Froese

The purpose of this paper is to present the construction process innovations that enabled the successful delivery of the hybrid mass timber high-rise building in Canada…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present the construction process innovations that enabled the successful delivery of the hybrid mass timber high-rise building in Canada, the Brock Commons Tallwood House at the University of British Columbia. It is one of a set of papers examining the project, including companion papers that describe innovations in the mass timber design process and the impact of these innovations on construction performance. The focus of this paper is on innovation in the construction phase and its relationship to innovations implemented in previous project phases.

Design/methodology/approach

A mixed-method, longitudinal case study approach was used in this research project to investigate and document the Tallwood House project over a three-year period. Both quantitative and qualitative data collection and analysis techniques were used. Members of the research team observed prefabrication and construction, conducted periodic interviews and reviewed project artefacts.

Findings

The research identified three innovation “clusters,” including the use of innovative tools, techniques and strategies in the design and construction processes and the role they played in delivering the project. The “clusters” were further characterized according to the type of “connectivity” they afforded, either facilitation, operationalization or materialization. These two perspectives support a compounding view on innovation and help to understand how it can flow throughout a project’s life cycle and across its supply chain. Three process-based innovations were initiated during the design phase, integrated design process, building information modeling and virtual design and construction and flowed through to the construction phase. These were seen to enable the creation of connections that were crucial to the overall success of the project. These innovations were operationalized and enacted through the construction phase as design for manufacturing and assembly and prefabrication, staged construction and just-in-time delivery, integration of safety and risk management and a rigorous quality control and quality assurance process. Finally, a full-scale mock-up was produced for practice and constructability assessment, materializing the radical product innovation that was the mass timber structure. These strategies are used together for a synergistic and integrated approach to increase productivity, expedite the construction schedule and develop an innovative building product.

Originality/value

This paper details an in-depth investigation into the diffusion dynamics of multiple systemic innovations for the construction process of a unique building project, the tools and techniques used by the construction manager and team, and the challenges, solutions and lessons learned.

Details

Construction Innovation , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1471-4175

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Article
Publication date: 19 June 2009

Kelvin Zuo, Regan Potangaroa, Suzanne Wilkinson and James O.B. Rotimi

The purpose of this paper is to explore the alternative procurement procedures that will address the complexity of issues surrounding timber procurement for housing…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the alternative procurement procedures that will address the complexity of issues surrounding timber procurement for housing reconstruction after the Tsunami in Banda Aceh. It reviews construction supply chain management (SCM) and procurement philosophies with a project management (PM) perspective to facilitate the logistics of post‐disaster reconstruction.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on two fieldtrip experiences in Banda Aceh in 2006 (one month) and 2008 (two months) with the housing reconstruction program of an international non‐governmental organisation, this paper examines the modern literature on SCM and analyses this process associated with construction material procurement in practice, reviews the problems inherited in the Indonesian context and analyses the proposed procedures of local and international procurement of timber to streamline the supply for reconstruction in Banda Aceh, Indonesia.

Findings

The incorporation of sustainable considerations into the design of procurement routes in the overall PM process for post‐disaster construction should be well recognized. The paper shows that basic SCM philosophies of ensuring stakeholder integration and collaboration could reduce the problems in timber procurement in Banda Aceh. Sustainable construction and triple bottom lines criteria are proposed to ensure a value creation process for a wider stakeholder engagement and overall reconstruction project delivery.

Originality/value

The paper provides useful PM insights into SCM and sustainable construction literature. The case study reviews the timber procurement problems and goes further to present two alternative procurement models that could be implemented as more sustainable responses to post‐disaster reconstruction in Banda Aceh.

Details

International Journal of Managing Projects in Business, vol. 2 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8378

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Article
Publication date: 3 January 2017

John Lindgren and Stephen Emmitt

The purpose of this paper is to identify factors that influence the diffusion of a systemic innovation in the Swedish construction sector. The focus is on high-rise…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify factors that influence the diffusion of a systemic innovation in the Swedish construction sector. The focus is on high-rise multi-storey timber housing; the development of which was enabled by a change in building regulations. This allowed building higher than two stories in timber.

Design/methodology/approach

A longitudinal case study was used with multiple data collection methods to study the development and diffusion of a multi-storey timber house system by a case study organisation.

Findings

The findings contribute to understanding for a number of interacting factors influencing the diffusion of a systemic innovation related to the case study organisation.

Originality/value

The research provides a holistic view of interacting factors influencing the diffusion of a systemic innovation. The results have value to the Swedish construction sector and to the global community of construction researchers, as it provides empirical findings that further increase the understanding for diffusion of systemic innovations in a specific context.

Details

Construction Innovation, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1471-4175

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Article
Publication date: 13 March 2019

Ruth Dowsett, Martin Green, Martin Sexton and Chris Harty

This paper aims to provide insights into how supply chain integration may occur for small housebuilders adopting modern methods of construction (MMCs). The process of…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to provide insights into how supply chain integration may occur for small housebuilders adopting modern methods of construction (MMCs). The process of creating an empirically informed road map is described, whereby the practical day-to-day challenges of adopting a timber-frame solution on a small housing development in Southeast England were fed into a road map of future supply chain integration scenarios. The intention is to better position small housebuilders to contribute in addressing the shortfall in housing that continues to face the UK.

Design/methodology/approach

Interviews with supply chain members along with on-site observations captured key aspects of integration. Findings were used within two collaborative forums to guide discussion in a dual approach; discussing the challenges of timber-frame on the project and what would be needed on future projects for the firms analysed.

Findings

Empirically informed malleable roadmaps, of the kind developed within this study, provide feasible options for small housebuilders and suppliers of MMCs to collectively collaborate when transitioning towards fully integrated supply chains. Practically, the roadmapping approach, and the roadmap itself, would help small housebuilders and suppliers of MMCs transition towards full integration. Opening up avenues of integration that are spread across yet connected through numerous phases, firms and technologies helps construction professionals use more sophisticated modular and volumetric off-site solutions.

Research limitations/implications

Data collection took place over the course of a year. Future research could expand this relatively short duration to analyse the potential for construction professionals within the supply chain to integrate further over a longer period of time.

Originality/value

The novelty and contribution of this paper lie in the development and application of an alternative approach to roadmapping that departs from the normative linear examples of roadmaps found within the technology-roadmapping literature. The authors present a structured yet flexible approach to roadmapping that is both representative of the strategic planning and innovation activities that occur within small housebuilding firms and open to adaption to account for firm-level characteristics and contingencies. Positioned alongside firm-level dynamics (e.g. business cases and approaches to design), the roadmapping approach also reinforces the potential of incremental rather than whole-scale transitions.

Details

Construction Innovation, vol. 19 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1471-4175

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Book part
Publication date: 15 June 2020

Thomas Walker and Sherif Goubran

In recent years, sustainability considerations in the real estate sector have moved from being a niche market phenomenon to a mainstream trend. The movement has been…

Abstract

In recent years, sustainability considerations in the real estate sector have moved from being a niche market phenomenon to a mainstream trend. The movement has been accompanied by a shift in the industry’s perception of sustainable buildings. Traditional cost-saving goals are now complemented by a growing interest in the potential for sustainable buildings to tackle broader economic and social sustainability challenges as well as issues related to health and well-being. The real estate industry is increasingly expected to adapt its strategies to incorporate new and more stringent environmental and urban development requirements, to cater to shifting demographics, and to utilize new advancements in construction processes and materials. This chapter explores recent research on sustainable real estate and highlights some of the newest trends in the market. The chapter then examines how policy and technological advancements can enable real estate developers to tackle environmental, social, and economic sustainability challenges. This will be exemplified through a focus on carbon taxation and timber construction. Based on these case studies, the chapter illustrates how today’s sustainable real estate sector – marked by its move beyond a focus on cost savings – requires for building practices to be strongly rooted in global, sustainable development policies.

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1992

T.C. Hutton, H. Lloyd and J. Singh

Points to the decline of “craftsmanship” as a factorleading to the demise of the ability to control timber decay in anenvironmentally‐friendly fashion. Considers…

Abstract

Points to the decline of “craftsmanship” as a factor leading to the demise of the ability to control timber decay in an environmentally‐friendly fashion. Considers pesticides and other chemical‐based treatments as a lower‐cost, relatively recent, but often unsuccessful remedy to timber decay. Outlines major timber‐decay problems: dry rot, wet rot and woodboring insects, and their detection techniques. Includes diagrams and detailed discussion on remedial treatments. Concludes that timber decay cannot be effectively treated without an understanding of the interaction of the external environment, building materials, design and content, and the activities within and occupants of a building, and that manipulation of a single variable (timber decay organisms) is bound to be unsuccessful without such understanding.

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

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Article
Publication date: 16 May 2019

Perry John Forsythe and Samad M.E. Sepasgozar

A problematic issue for new approaches to prefabricated timber construction is simply that there is insufficient productivity measurement data to assist estimation of…

Abstract

Purpose

A problematic issue for new approaches to prefabricated timber construction is simply that there is insufficient productivity measurement data to assist estimation of resource usage, speed onsite and best practice. A lack of information potentially results in increased pricing behaviour which may slow the uptake of prefabricated construction. The purpose of this paper is to measure installation productivity onsite for prefabricated timber floor cassette panels and develop sufficient understanding of the process to suggest improved practices.

Design/methodology/approach

A time and motion approach, paired with time-lapse photography was used for detailed capture of prefabricated cassette flooring installation processes onsite. An emphasis was placed on work flow around crane cycles from three case study projects. Time and date stamping from 300 crane cycles was used to generate quantitative data and enable statistical analysis.

Findings

The authors show that crane cycle speed is correlated to productivity including gross and net crane time scenarios. The latter is refined further to differentiate uncontrolled outlying crane cycles from normally distributed data, representing a controlled work process. The results show that the installation productivity rates are between 69.38 and 123.49 m2/crane-hour, based on normally distributed crane cycle times. These rates were 10.8–26.1 per cent higher than the data set inclusive of outlier cycles. Large cassettes also proved to be more productive to place than small.

Originality/value

The contribution of this research is the focus on cranage as the lead resource and the key unit of measure driving installation productivity (in cassette flooring prefabricated construction), as distinct from past research that focuses on labour and craft-based studies. It provides a different perspective around mechanisation, for resourcing and planning of work flow. Crane cycles provide a relatively easy yet reliably repeatable means for predicting productivity. The time-lapse photographic analysis offers a high degree of detail, accuracy and objectivity not apparent in other productivity studies which serves to enable quantitative benchmarking with other projects.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 26 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

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Article
Publication date: 11 June 2018

Catherine Forbes

The purpose of this paper is to highlight the importance of vernacular architecture and traditional knowledge to building resilience in Nepal and the impact of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to highlight the importance of vernacular architecture and traditional knowledge to building resilience in Nepal and the impact of modernisation on that resilience and architectural diversity.

Design/methodology/approach

Using an action research approach, including field observations and discussions with local community members, artisans, architects, engineers and other international experts, the study examines the resilience of traditional building typologies to natural hazards in Nepal, including earthquake; the changes that have occurred over time leading to the failure and/or rejection of traditional construction; and a review of post-earthquake reconstruction options, both traditional and modern.

Findings

Although traditional approaches have been cyclically tested over time, this study found that changes in building materials, technologies, knowledge and skills, access to resources, maintenance practices, urban environments and societal aspirations have all contributed to the popular rejection of vernacular architecture following the earthquakes.

Research limitations/implications

The research is limited to traditional timber and masonry construction in the Kathmandu Valley and surrounding mountain areas.

Practical implications

To improve resilience the study identifies the need for capacity building in both traditional and modern construction technologies; adoption of approaches that use local materials, knowledge and skills, whilst addressing local timber shortages and access issues; a transparent construction certification system; good drainage; and regular maintenance.

Originality/value

The study critically evaluates the impact of technological, environmental, social and economic changes over time on the resilience of vernacular housing in Nepal.

Details

International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-5908

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Article
Publication date: 21 June 2019

Nigel Isaacs

The purpose of this paper is to review the historic development of the requirements for sub-floor (also known as “basementless space” or “crawl space”) moisture management…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to review the historic development of the requirements for sub-floor (also known as “basementless space” or “crawl space”) moisture management in the USA, UK and New Zealand (NZ) from 1600s to 1969.

Design/methodology/approach

The review of 171 documents, including legislation, research papers, books and magazines, identified three time periods where the focus differed: 1849, removal of impure air; 1850–1929, the use of ground cover and thorough ventilation; and 1930–1969, the development of standards.

Findings

Published moisture management guidance has been found from 1683, but until the 1920s, it was based on the provision of “adequate” ventilation and, in the UK, the use of impermeable ground cover. Specific ventilation area calculations have been available from 1898 in the UK, 1922 in the USA and 1924 in NZ. These are based on the area of ventilation per unit floor area, area of ventilation per unit length of perimeter wall, or a combination of both. However, it was not until 1937 in the USA, 1944 in NZ and after the period covered by this paper in the UK, that numerical values were enforced in codes. Vents requirements started at 1 in. of vent per square foot of floor area (0.7 per cent but first published in the USA with a misplaced decimal point as 7 per cent). The average vent area was 0.69 per cent in USA for 19 cases, 0.54 per cent in NZ for 7 cases and 0.13 per cent in UK for 3 cases. The lower UK vent area requirements were probably due to the use of ground covers such as asphalt or concrete in 1854, compared with in 1908 in NZ and in 1947 in USA. The use of roll ground cover (e.g. plastic film) was first promoted in 1949 in USA and 1960 in NZ.

Practical implications

Common themes found in the evolution of sub-floor moisture management include a lack of documented research until the 1940s, a lack of climate or site-based requirements and different paths to code requirements in the three countries. Unlike many building code requirements, a lack of sub-floor moisture management seldom leads to catastrophic failure and consequent political pressure for immediate change. From the first published use of performance-based “adequate” ventilation to the first numerical or “deemed to satisfy” solutions, it took 240 years. The lessons from this process may provide guidance on improving modern building codes.

Originality/value

This is the first time such an evaluation has been undertaken for the three countries.

Details

International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, vol. 37 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-4708

Keywords

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