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Ethnographies of Law and Social Control
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-128-6

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Article

Hui Shan Loh and Vinh V. Thai

The function of a port has evolved from a platform providing simple loading and unloading activities to a gateway that opens up numerous opportunities that proliferate…

Abstract

Purpose

The function of a port has evolved from a platform providing simple loading and unloading activities to a gateway that opens up numerous opportunities that proliferate economic benefits. The effects of globalization and modern supply chain trends have reinforced the role that ports play in supply chains. This calls for contemporary studies on supply chain management to expand to address the management of supply chain disruptions that originate from port operations. The purpose of this paper is to provide perspectives from the industry on the proposed management model that seeks to address port-related supply chain disruptions (PSCD).

Design/methodology/approach

In-depth interviews were conducted with professionals from the port management and port users to preliminarily substantiate the findings.

Findings

A list of port-related supply chain threats was first identified and their occurrences were analyzed. Then, through the interviews with the management of industry players, the factors which may affect the implementation of the management model have been identified.

Research limitations/implications

This paper fills gaps in literature related to management of port risks and port resiliency.

Practical implications

The findings raised important issues in the management of PSCD with respect to strategic decision making and policy development.

Originality/value

This study contributes by aiming to minimize the potential of a list of identified threats through the implementation of a practical management model by port management to increase port resilience and maintain supply chain sustainability.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 27 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article

Joe Christopher, Gerrit Sarens and Philomena Leung

This study aims to critically analyse the independence of the internal audit function through its relationship with management and the audit committee.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to critically analyse the independence of the internal audit function through its relationship with management and the audit committee.

Design/methodology/approach

Results are based on a critical comparison of responses from questionnaires sent out to Australian chief audit executives (CAEs) versus existing literature and best practice guidelines.

Findings

With respect to the internal audit function's relationship with management, threats identified include: using the internal audit function as a stepping stone to other positions; having the chief executive officer (CEO) or chief finance officer (CFO) approve the internal audit function's budget and provide input for the internal audit plan; and considering the internal auditor to be a “partner”, especially when combined with other indirect threats. With respect to the relationship with the audit committee, significant threats identified include CAEs not reporting functionally to the audit committee; the audit committee not having sole responsibility for appointing, dismissing and evaluating the CAE; and not having all audit committee members or at least one member qualified in accounting.

Originality/value

This study introduces independence threat scores, thereby generating analysis of the internal audit function's independence taking into account a combination of threats.

Details

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

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Book part

Kajsa Asplund, Pernilla Bolander and Andreas Werr

Performance management can play an important role in the implementation of strategic change, by aligning employees’ mindsets and behavior with organizational goals…

Abstract

Performance management can play an important role in the implementation of strategic change, by aligning employees’ mindsets and behavior with organizational goals. However, the ways in which employees react to change efforts aided by performance management practices are far from straight-forward. In this chapter, we develop a conceptual framework for understanding employees’ reactions to strategic change as a consequence of their occupational identities and their performance management outcome. We further apply the framework to an empirical study of a strategic change initiative in a school organization that was supported by a new performance management practice. We show how variations in perceived identity threat translate into four distinct patterns of emotional and behavioral reactions, where only one represents whole-hearted change acceptance. The study contributes to our understanding of individual- and group-level heterogeneity in reactions to strategic change, and also to a more nuanced conception of identity threat.

Details

Research in Organizational Change and Development
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-436-1

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Article

Rita Dalton and Helen Eracleous

This article considers the literature on threats made by individuals, with particular reference to threats made by patients against health care workers. It is in two…

Abstract

This article considers the literature on threats made by individuals, with particular reference to threats made by patients against health care workers. It is in two parts. The first part considers the definitions and classification of threats, the prevalence of threat‐making and suggestions for assessment and management. The second part concerns the characteristics of those who threaten and the impact of the threats on the victims, and considers threats as predictors of, and part of, the escalating process which leads to further violence.

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The British Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6646

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Article

H. Mouratidis, H. Jahankhani and M.Z. Nkhoma

The purpose of this study is to explore the rationale that governs implementation of information systems and network security expenditures through a case study approach.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to explore the rationale that governs implementation of information systems and network security expenditures through a case study approach.

Design/methodology/approach

The research method took the form of a mixed‐method assessment of the perceptions of persons of authority in the management and the network security areas of an organization that has implemented network security protocols. Two stages of the research process were completed in order to gather the necessary data for the study. The first stage of the study was the administration of a Likert‐type questionnaire in which respondents answered 30 unique items on network security. In the second phase of the study, a number of responders were contacted to further expand upon the themes presented in the Likert‐type questionnaire.

Findings

Empirical evidence gathered justifies theoretical claims that personnel from general management have different perspectives towards network security than personnel from the network security management. In particular, the study indicates that such differences are demonstrated on a number of areas such as the effectiveness and the efficiency of the networked system; control of network security; security‐related decision‐making processes; and users of the network. The latter being the most controversial issue with one side indicating that users should be allowed to use the network in an efficient manner, and the other side emphasizing that users pose one of the greatest security risks to the system.

Research limitations/implications

The limitations of the study are found in its focus on a specific company and on its perception‐centred nature of risk and risk analysis. No two persons identify and frame risk in an identical manner. This creates potential conflict of interest when the participants within a risk assessment process approach the issues and present their arguments as to how to best identify and respond to risks.

Practical implications

Through comparing and contrasting the perspectives of the two sample populations, the research assists in demonstrating how, why, and to what extent specific problems are recognized by those within management and those within network security. This allowed the analysis of how these problems are defined and what steps can be taken that would help to reduce or eliminate its impact in the organization used in our case study.

Originality/value

It has been argued in the literature that there is lack of empirically based research to explore and effectively analyze the perceptions held by management and by security specialists within organizations with respect to security. This paper presents the results of the application of a novel two‐stage framework on an empirical case study focused on a large national bank. The work allowed the identification of the various perceptions held by management and by security specialists, and the degree to which these perceptions are similar.

Details

Information Management & Computer Security, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0968-5227

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Article

Luca Urciuoli, Sangeeta Mohanty, Juha Hintsa and Else Gerine Boekesteijn

The purpose of this paper is to enhance the understanding about how energy supply chains work to build resilience against exogenous security threats and thereafter what…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to enhance the understanding about how energy supply chains work to build resilience against exogenous security threats and thereafter what support mechanisms should be introduced or improved by the European Union.

Design/methodology/approach

Five case studies and data collection from multiple sources is used to understand what exogenous security threats could lead to the disruption of oil and gas flows to Europe, how energy companies, from a supply chain perspective, are working to manage these threats and finally, how the EU may coordinate the security of the energy sector in collaboration with supply chain companies.

Findings

Results show that today, oil and gas supply chains have in place a good combination of disruption strategies, including portfolio diversification, flexible contracts, transport capacity planning and safety stocks. The most relevant security threats the companies fear, include hijacking of vessels (sea piracy), but also terrorism, and wars. Finally, the study highlights that the European Union has built a comprehensive portfolio of strategies to deal with scarcity of oil and gas resources. However, these approaches are not often synchronized with supply chain strategies.

Practical implications

The paper provides guidance for supply chain managers dealing with critical suppliers located in conflict environments. The paper recommends that supply chain managers fine tune their strategies in coordination with governmental actions in foreign politics, dependence reduction and crisis management. This may be achieved by closer communication with governments and potentially through the creation of a pan-European sector alliance.

Originality/value

Previous research discusses the topic of supply chain resilience and supply chain risk management. However, none of these studies report on exogenous security threats and disruption strategies of oil and gas supply chains. At the same time, previous research lacks detailed studies describing the interaction between governments and energy supply chains.

Details

Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, vol. 19 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-8546

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Article

Monique Combes-Joret and Laëtitia Lethielleux

After eight years of reforms, the French Red Cross (FRC) changed status from humanitarian association to nonprofit organization (NPO). This in-depth study of the…

Abstract

Purpose

After eight years of reforms, the French Red Cross (FRC) changed status from humanitarian association to nonprofit organization (NPO). This in-depth study of the organization’s recent past (2005-2013) aims to highlight several identity threats linked to the ongoing process of organizational rationalization and managerialization. The main contribution of this paper is based on the responses provided by this NPO to deal with it.

Design/methodology/approach

This communication has been produced as part of a three-year research contract (2010-2013) for the FRC. A total of 39 semi-structured interviews conducted between February and June 2013, participatory observation and documentary study. Of the 39 interviews, 29 were usable, and these were analyzed using ALCESTE software. This software enabled the authors to quantify and extract the strongest signifying structures.

Findings

The “Red Cross” meta-identity has so far enabled FRC to change its identity, not without difficulty, but without major organizational crises. In this case, the results confirm the Ravasi at Schultz model (2006) by underlining the difficulty to create a “giving sense process.” At managerial level, the choice of “self-regulated” professionalization seems to have made the most impact in changing the members’ identity understanding. In response to the threat of the fragmentation of social links, the implementation of an important internal communication policy around the idea of a “community of actors” has not had the expected results.

Research limitations/implications

This study is based on a unique case with unusual dimensions (18,025 employees and 56,136 volunteers).

Practical implications

The example of the FRC is indicative of what happens in the nonprofit sector. The answers provided by this extraordinary association may inspire other organizations facing an identity crisis.

Originality/value

This paper reveals two major contributions. First, it validates the appropriateness of the Ravasi and Schultz model (2006) for the study of identity change in social enterprises. Second, it assists managers through its analysis of the appropriateness of procedures and tools used to support identity change. From an international perspective, this paper also contributes by describing the evolution of NPOs in the French context.

Details

Society and Business Review, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5680

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Article

Eileen Weisenbach Keller, Stephanie Hughes and Giles Hertz

An increase in the number of disruptive and violent events on college and university campuses instigated this review of the methods used to interrupt the trend, with the…

Abstract

Purpose

An increase in the number of disruptive and violent events on college and university campuses instigated this review of the methods used to interrupt the trend, with the goal of identifying a preliminary model for systematic management of such threats. The intent is to instigate research, review and discussion in order to decrease the number and severity of threatening incidents on college campuses.

Design/methodology/approach

Thorough review of plans from primary and secondary education, plans in use in higher education, literature on risk and threat assessment, literature on “whistle blowers”, and of violent events on college campuses was used to construct a model.

Findings

It was found that, in terms of managing and reducing threats to people who study, live and work in post‐secondary educational institutions, insufficient attention has been given to the unique needs of this setting and therefore efforts to mitigate threats have been insufficient. The investigation resulted in the development of a model of assessment and management of threats on university and college campuses.

Research limitations/implications

College campus threat assessment research is very much in its infancy and will certainly develop over time. This paper is the first step in an effort to develop and ultimately test the plausibility of a model. Future research should be pursued to determinewhether the model holds up under a majority of situations on college campuses. Those involved in threat mitigation in university settings should be queried to determine their agreement with the proposed framework and for assistance in refining it.

Originality/value

This paper presents suggestions for the systematic management of threats and mitigation in university settings.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 49 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

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Article

Kurt J. Engemann

Unforeseen crises can result in significant losses for unprepared organizations. A paradigm for risk management discloses that threats can lead to crisis events which can…

Abstract

Purpose

Unforeseen crises can result in significant losses for unprepared organizations. A paradigm for risk management discloses that threats can lead to crisis events which can have immense negative consequences. Analyzing risks and making appropriate decisions regarding them is very challenging but crucial. Emerging developments in organizational risk reveal similar characteristics among evolving threats. Effective risk management requires insightful leadership and is essential for an organization to achieve security. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors explore some emerging developments in organizational risk, by highlighting evolving concerns and identifying their common characteristics. The authors then discuss key resources and recommend approaches in managing organizational risk.

Findings

Evolving concerns in organizational risk include: infrastructure risk, enterprise risk, information security risk, supply chain risk and new technologies risk. The most troubling threats to an organization tend to have some risk characteristics in common. These attributes are useful in identifying further threats.

Originality/value

Managing risk is an enormous challenge that all organizations encounter. Understanding the common characteristics of evolving risks that are currently under scrutiny can provide insight into identifying further threats to organizations. With these common characteristics understood, the primary resources of solid leadership, risk analytics and professional business continuity management can aid in the recognition of additional obscured but growing risks and be beneficial in providing security for an organization.

Details

Continuity & Resilience Review, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2516-7502

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