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Article
Publication date: 21 March 2019

Donald J. Peurach, David K. Cohen and James P. Spillane

The purpose of this paper is to examine relationships among governmental organizations, non-governmental organizations and the organization and management of instruction…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine relationships among governmental organizations, non-governmental organizations and the organization and management of instruction in US public education, with the aim of raising issues for cross-national research among countries in which the involvement of non-governmental organizations is increasing.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is structured in four parts: an historical analysis of the architecture and dynamics of US public education; an analysis of contemporary reform efforts seeking to improve quality and reduce inequities; an analysis of ways that legacy and reform dynamics manifest in two US public school districts; and a discussion of considerations for cross-national research.

Findings

In US public education, dependence on non-governmental organizations for instructional resources and services is anchored in deeply institutionalized social, political and economic values dating to the country’s founding and that continue to function as constraints on educational reform, such that new solutions always emerge in-and-from the same problematic conditions that they seek to redress. The consequence is that reform takes on an evolutionary (vs transformative) character.

Research limitations/implications

The US case provides a foundation for framing issues for cross-national research comparing among macro-level educational infrastructures, patterns of instructional organization and classroom instruction.

Originality/value

Such research would move beyond reductionist approaches to cross-national research toward new approaches that examine how histories, legacy architectures, contemporary reforms and patterns of instructional organization and management interact to shape students’ day-to-day lives in classrooms.

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Book part
Publication date: 27 November 2014

Jacques Defourny and Victor Pestoff

There is still no universal definition of the third sector in Europe, but it can be seen as including all types of non-governmental not-for-profit entities such as…

Abstract

There is still no universal definition of the third sector in Europe, but it can be seen as including all types of non-governmental not-for-profit entities such as non-profit organizations, mutuals, cooperatives, social enterprises and foundations. This article attempts to make sense of the current shifting conceptualization of the third sector in Europe. It is based on short country summaries of the images and concepts of the third sector in 13 European countries by EMES Network’s members, first presented in 2008 (Defourny and Pestoff, 2008; nine of them were recently revised and are found in the appendix to this article.). The perception and development of the third sector in Europe is closely related to the other major social governance institutions/mechanisms, like the market, state and community and through the third sector’s interaction with them. Moreover, many third sector organizations (TSOs) overlap with these other social institutions, resulting in varying degrees of hybridity and internal tensions experienced by them. TSOs can generate resources from their activities on the market, by providing services in partnership with the state and/or by promoting the interests of a given community or group. The country overviews document a growing professionalization of TSOs in most countries and a growing dependency of public funds to provide services. This has important theoretical and practical implications for orienting the articles included in this book. Thus, it can provide a key for better understanding the discussion and analysis in the remainder of this volume.

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Accountability and Social Accounting for Social and Non-Profit Organizations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-004-9

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Book part
Publication date: 18 February 2013

Maria Alejandra Gonzalez-Perez

Purpose – This chapter on global civil society provides a definition of global civil society, and also provides a historical and theoretical overview of social movements…

Abstract

Purpose – This chapter on global civil society provides a definition of global civil society, and also provides a historical and theoretical overview of social movements. This chapter also presents a taxonomy of non-state actors and demonstrates at the theoretical level that actions and initiatives by non-state actors since the 1990s’ globalisation. In this chapter, the concept of civil society is presented as a form of globalisation from below, and its role in the participatory governance of societal processes implies forms of soft regulation and moral authority which transcend the role of states as enforcers.Design/methodology/approach – This chapter is based on an extensive literature review.Findings – Actions and initiatives by non-state actors in the current age of globalisation have been increasing. This increase has become more evident with the more stringent traceability of processes associated with the development of information and communication technologies (ICT), and private forms of organisation networking at the local and transnational level. This has re-defined geographical boundaries, creating proximity between individuals which goes beyond physical constraints, and it has extended definitions of communities to multiple levels of identification and convergence, but also divergence.The concept of civil society and its role in the participatory governance of societal processes implies forms of soft regulation and moral authority which transcend the role of states as enforcers. The idea of civil society opens a space for non-traditional actors to actively participate and engage in the political processes of change in society, for the betterment of marginalised groups, the environment or social justice in general. The diversity of roles that single individuals have in society allows them to participate from different angles.Although the concept of civil society has limitations due to its breadth, manifestations of a global civil society can be understood as forms of globalisation that occur outside traditional institutional settings.Originality/value of chapter – This chapter provides a general overview on civil society, and its relevance for analysing contexts of international business, and MNES's relations with community and non-governmental groups. Within this chapter, it is also conceptually describe how multinationals as non-state actors have increasingly playing a role in providing welfare.

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International Business, Sustainability and Corporate Social Responsibility
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-625-5

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Article
Publication date: 30 October 2019

Sanjaya Chinthana Kuruppu and Sumit Lodhia

The purpose of this paper is to examine the concept of accountability as it relates to a non-governmental organisation (NGO) evolving through a period of considerable…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the concept of accountability as it relates to a non-governmental organisation (NGO) evolving through a period of considerable change in Sri Lanka.

Design/methodology/approach

An in-depth single case study of a large NGO working in Sri Lanka is presented. Data collection involved conducting semi-structured interviews with a range of NGO employees and stakeholders, undertaking participant and non-participant observation and document analysis.

Findings

This paper shows how accountability is a contested notion that is shaped by struggles among stakeholders within a field. The authors explore how the “widespread field” consisting of the aid context in Sri Lanka and internationally is rapidly shifting. This creates unique pressures within the “restricted field” of the case NGO and its constituents. These pressures are manifested in the contest between the different capitals held by various stakeholders to shape the NGO. The nature of access to these capitals is important in the way that the NGO is shaped by external forces, and also by the individuals within it.

Research limitations/implications

This study adds fresh perspective to the growing body of work in NGO accountability. The paper highlights the tensions NGOs face through a holistic application of a Bourdieusian conceptual framework. The authors show how the habitus of the organisation is shaped in such a way that conceptions of accountability were captured by powerful external and internal constituencies. Ultimately, the nature of an organisation’s agency is questioned.

Practical implications

The authors present a more nuanced understanding of forces which shape accountability in an NGO setting which is of practical relevance to NGOs and their stakeholders. The authors highlight the struggle for an NGO to maintain its agency through resisting external forces that impact on its operations.

Originality/value

This study presents a comprehensive and holistic application of Bourdieu’s concepts and their interactions in an organisational setting. The struggle to harness various forms of capital in the field, shapes doxa and the habitus of NGO actors, illuminating the role of symbolic violence in the creation of an organisational identity.

Details

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. 33 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2021

Mohammed Azmy Ateia, Saneya Abdelfattah El Galaly and André de Waal

The purpose of this paper is to answer the research question “Is the high-performance organization (HPO) Framework suitable for non-governmental private sector…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to answer the research question “Is the high-performance organization (HPO) Framework suitable for non-governmental private sector organizations, specifically the affiliates of international companies operating in the ICT sector in Egypt?”

Design/methodology/approach

The research concerns a replication study in which the HPO Questionnaire was used to collect data, and factor analysis was applied to evaluate the reliability and consistency of the HPO Framework. The research approach was the same as applied by de Waal et al. (2016), but this time the research population consisted of affiliates of international ICT companies, instead of local ICT companies as in the de Waal et al. (2016) study.

Findings

Data gathered by means of the HPO Questionnaire from managers of these affiliates were used to evaluate the reliability and internal consistency of the HPO Framework. The confirmatory factor analysis was done twice, once for the original 35-characteristic HPO Framework and once for the 26-characteristic HPO Framework as proposed by de Waal et al. (2016) for Egyptian local ICT companies. The study results clearly show the applicability of the original 35-characteristic HPO Framework for measuring the organizational strength and identifying performance-gaps of ICT companies that are affiliates of international organizations operating in Egypt.

Originality/value

This study adds to the growing HPO literature on developing countries and helps Egyptian ICT companies to adopt high-performance practices to be able to contribute more to the economic development of Egypt.

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 29 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

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Article
Publication date: 7 June 2011

Nicolas Jean Francois Ragodoo

This paper seeks to analyse the contribution of business organisations towards non‐governmental organisations (NGOs) engaged in the fight against poverty. Studies…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to analyse the contribution of business organisations towards non‐governmental organisations (NGOs) engaged in the fight against poverty. Studies generally refer to figures and reports provided by business organisations themselves. This present research, however, aims to turn towards NGOs engaged in the poverty battle to have their views on the role presently being played by the business sector. It aims to study the case of Mauritius, a developing‐economy.

Design/methodology/approach

For data‐collection purposes, a research instrument, in the form of a structured interview schedule, has been devised and applied to a representative sample (50 per cent) of the 110 NGOs actively engaged in helping the poor in Mauritius. Data collected provide valuable information with regard to the NGOs' perception of business organisations and their engagement in the poverty battle through CSR initiatives.

Findings

From this work, it is clear that the perception of NGOs engaged in the poverty battle is generally negative towards business organisations. The range of CSR initiatives is considered as being poor, and the funding they received from the business sector is considered as being marginal. They are also of the opinion that their on‐the‐ground expertise is not presently being used.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the scarce literature on CSR in Africa by taking a deep insight into the business‐NGO relationship from an innovative angle. It analyses the present situation and identifies steps to be taken for this link to be strengthened so as to be more effective in the poverty battle.

Details

Social Responsibility Journal, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-1117

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Article
Publication date: 6 April 2012

Ernest L. Okorley and Edmund E. Nkrumah

Despite the role of non‐governmental organisations (NGOs) as actors in development, the issue of local NGOs' sustainability remains a major concern in many developing…

Abstract

Purpose

Despite the role of non‐governmental organisations (NGOs) as actors in development, the issue of local NGOs' sustainability remains a major concern in many developing countries such as Ghana. This study seeks to determine key factors that can influence local NGOs based on a Ghanaian case study.

Design/methodology/approach

The research used a combination of quantitative and qualitative research approaches.

Findings

The study identifies that the availability of funds, quality material resources, supportive leadership, development of needs‐based and demand‐driven programmes, and effective management can have a significant influence on the sustainability of local NGOs. Significantly, leadership emerged as the most important factor to organisational sustainability of local NGOs. Equally, the availability and quality of material resources for work were least critical to local NGO sustainability, although they were all very important.

Practical implications

The case study suggests that local NGOs can adopt several measures to ensure their sustainability. These include the writing of good needs‐based and demand‐driven project proposals, ensuring transparency and accountability, leadership training and lobbying for resources including funds, especially, from local sources.

Originality/value

Although the findings are based on Ghanaian local NGO sustainability scenario, the lessons can be useful to NGOs within similar contexts.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 39 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 7 November 2016

Suren H. Galstyan and Tsovinar L. Harutyunyan

The purpose of this paper is to report the results of a study that investigated the barriers and facilitators associated with the adoption of a hazard analysis critical…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to report the results of a study that investigated the barriers and facilitators associated with the adoption of a hazard analysis critical control point based food safety management system (HACCP FSMS) in dairy processing companies of Armenia.

Design/methodology/approach

A cross-sectional qualitative research design was employed to examine managerial experience and perceptions of barriers and drivers to organizational adoption of HACCP FSMS procedures. The data were collected in 20 food processing facilities in the dairy industry through individual in-depth interviews with their representatives and in governmental and non-governmental organizations through focus group discussions with 23 policy makers and food safety consultants. Diffusion of innovations theory provided a framework for systematic exploration of the phenomenon under study.

Findings

Most frequently reported drivers of adoption included enhanced traceability, increased export opportunities, improved organizational image, and broader accountability. Major impeding factors, such as high investment costs, value incompatibility, excessive documentation, inadequate physical and technological infrastructures, and low observability led to less favorable attitudes toward the organizational change needed for HACCP FSMS adoption. The results indicate that larger organizations with well-developed infrastructures and skilled workforce have an advantage over smaller organizations in the process of adoption.

Originality/value

This study provides a comprehensive theory-based analysis of perceived determinants of organization-wide adoption of HACCP-based system in Armenia. The results of the study support and extend the findings of earlier research and provide new insights into HACCP FSMS adoption across different contexts.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 118 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Book part
Publication date: 22 August 2017

Linne Marie Lauesen and Shahla Seifi

All forms of organization have governance requirements and procedures. Often, these are quite similar despite the form and mission of the organization in question. They…

Abstract

All forms of organization have governance requirements and procedures. Often, these are quite similar despite the form and mission of the organization in question. They only consider governance in the organization environment and rarely look beyond their immediate stakeholders. In many corporations, the immediate stakeholders are even considered to be the investors and only those regardless of the apparency of other close stakeholders such as workers, customers, suppliers, authorities, and interest groups or non-governmental organizations. Even corporations with such narrow views and organizations with a broader stakeholder view are relatively unrealistic and are inappropriate in the modern global world, which we inhabit. Organizations of any form and size need to recognize both the need to consider radical changes in the modern global environment and the opportunities and possibilities presented by the current environment. Therefore, this chapter takes a broad approach and considers governance requirements in the modern world seen from a global perspective for all forms of organization. With global perspective, organizational governance is, here, called New Governance, and it includes the idea, that even the smallest decision can have a dramatic social, economic, or geopolitical impact in other parts of the world. The idea of New Governance is to put on the global lenses when making decisions to consider the potential effect – positive as well as negative – on the local as well as the global perspective, even on the unknown future and on future generations to come. Some may call this sustainable governance, but in this chapter, it is embedded in the New Governance as a concept, which can be nothing else but sustainable in its core idea. The future requirements for New Governance in any kind of organization are discussed, as the relationship between organizations and its global and future stakeholders, and how they form these requirements.

Details

Modern Organisational Governance
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-695-2

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 24 November 2016

Shazia K. Jan, Moosung Lee and Keri Chui

In this chapter we explore gender and regional disparities in leadership positions in major international organizations. To this end, we conducted data mining of the…

Abstract

In this chapter we explore gender and regional disparities in leadership positions in major international organizations. To this end, we conducted data mining of the Yearbook of International Organizations 2007–2008, the largest database of profiles of high-ranking officials in international organizations ranging from intergovernmental organizations and non-governmental organizations. Findings indicate that significant gender and regional disparities exist in leadership positions; the vast majority of global leaders in the organizations were males, mostly educated in Western-based universities. Given the increasing influence of international organizations on various global issues, our findings enable us to question whether key international organizations equitably represent all people by developing and implementing the best policies for all people. Our findings also suggest that these organizations’ hiring and promotion practices need to be better understood, given that certain types of human resources (males educated in top Western-based universities) appear to be selectively appreciated, preferred, and accepted as leaders.

Details

Racially and Ethnically Diverse Women Leading Education: A Worldview
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-071-8

Keywords

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