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Article
Publication date: 15 February 2022

Megan M. Walsh, Erica L. Carleton, Amanda J. Hancock and Kara A. Arnold

The purpose of this paper were to investigate whether gendered social media images reduce women’s leadership aspirations (via reduced leadership self-efficacy) and whether…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper were to investigate whether gendered social media images reduce women’s leadership aspirations (via reduced leadership self-efficacy) and whether state mindfulness buffers the effect of stereotype threat on women’s leadership self-efficacy, and in turn, leadership aspirations.

Design/methodology/approach

Study 1 (n = 53) was a pilot study designed to test materials intended to induce stereotype threat via social media. Study 2 (n = 144) was an experimental study in which participants were randomly assigned to stereotype threat or control conditions. Stereotype threat was implicitly induced via a fictional Facebook timeline that incorporated gendered images.

Findings

Stereotype threat induced via social media predicted lower leadership aspirations for women, which was mediated by reduced leadership self-efficacy, as expected. State mindfulness moderated this mediated relationship in an unexpected way; stereotype threat effects on leadership self-efficacy and leadership aspirations were stronger for women higher in state mindfulness.

Originality/value

It is important to investigate stereotype threat induced via social media to understand the potential damage gendered images may have on women’s leadership aspirations in a modern advertising context. This research shows that indeed gendered images in social media advertising decrease women’s leadership self-efficacy and leadership aspirations. Interestingly, this study also found that mindfulness had a negative effect in relation to stereotype threat. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal , vol. 37 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 September 2021

Regina Kim, Jimena Y. Ramirez-Marin and Kevin Tasa

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the experiences of nonnative speakers in conflictual situations with native speakers in the workplace. In three studies, the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the experiences of nonnative speakers in conflictual situations with native speakers in the workplace. In three studies, the authors examine whether nonnative speakers experience stereotype threat in workplace conflict situations with native speakers, whether stereotype threat is associated with certain conflict managing behaviors (e.g. yielding and avoiding) and the relationship between stereotype threat, satisfaction with conflict outcomes and processes, and objective conflict outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

Studies 1 and 2 use critical incident recall methodology to examine nonnative speakers’ conflict behaviors and satisfaction with conflict outcomes. In Study 3, data were collected from a face-to-face simulation with a random-assignment design.

Findings

Findings suggest that nonnative speakers indeed experience heightened stereotype threat when interacting with native speakers in conflict situations and the experience of stereotype threat leads to less satisfaction with conflict outcomes, perceptions of goal attainment, as well as worse objective conflict outcomes.

Originality/value

The current study is one of the first studies to document the effects of accent stereotype threat on conflict behaviors and outcomes. More broadly, it contributes to the conflict studies literature by offering new insight into the effects and implications of stereotype threat on workplace conflict behaviors and outcomes.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 33 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 April 2017

Eduardo Oliveira and Carlos Cabral-Cardoso

The purpose of this paper is to examine the extent to which negative age-based metastereotypes mediate the relationship between the representation of older workers and two…

2417

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the extent to which negative age-based metastereotypes mediate the relationship between the representation of older workers and two forms of stereotype threat in the workplace: own-reputation and group-reputation. Adopting a social identity perspective, this paper also explores whether age diversity beliefs moderate the relationship between negative age-based metastereotypes and stereotype threats.

Design/methodology/approach

A cross-sectional design was adopted with bootstrapped mediation and moderation analyses. The data were collected from 567 older workers working in 15 manufacturing companies.

Findings

The analyses provide support for partial mediation and for a moderation effect of age diversity beliefs in the relationship between negative age-based metastereotypes and own-reputation threat. The results hold while controlling for age, objective organizational age diversity, and organizational tenure.

Research limitations/implications

The limitations of this study include its cross-sectional nature and the need for further work regarding older workers’ metastereotypes about middle-aged workers.

Practical implications

For stereotype threat interventions to be effective they must identify beforehand the target and the source of the threat. Moreover, interventions should aim for the development of a sense of identity on the organization as it may pave the way for members of different age groups to build bonds and for intergenerational boundaries to be blurred.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the literature by showing the importance of negative age-based metastereotypes in workplace age dynamics. It also provides further support for a multi-threat approach to the experience of age-based stereotype threats in the workplace.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 32 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 June 2021

Andrea Slobodnikova and Brandon Randolph-Seng

One of the goals of various European Union (EU) organizations (i.e. Roma and non-Roma nonprofits) is the integration of Roma into the educational system. A challenge for…

Abstract

Purpose

One of the goals of various European Union (EU) organizations (i.e. Roma and non-Roma nonprofits) is the integration of Roma into the educational system. A challenge for the educational systems of EU countries, therefore, is to determine how to support the academic performance of Roma. Understanding the positive and negative factors related to Roma’s academic performance and achievement is an important first step in increasing academic success among this minority group.

Design/methodology/approach

A quantitative experimental design was used both online and face-to-face to examine whether stereotype threat had an influence on the academic performance of Roma in Slovakia and second, whether such threat was moderated by social identification and academic self-efficacy.

Findings

The results showed that stereotype threat does influence Roma in Slovakia and there were direct effects of social identity and academic self-efficacy on academic performance of the face-to-face participants.

Originality/value

Consistent with stereotype threat theory, to the best of authors’ knowledge, this research is the first to show that a stereotype threat did harm the academic performance of the face-to-face Roma sampled. Further, although many studies have examined stereotype threat effects on academic performance, little is known regarding whether social identification and academic self-efficacy have an influence on such threats. The results of the study show that social identification and academic self-efficacy had a significant direct influence on academic performance.

Details

Journal for Multicultural Education, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-535X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 April 2017

Martin James Wasserberg

This study aimed to investigate whether a diagnostic testing condition leads to stereotype threat effects for African American and Latina/o children (N = 81) when tested…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aimed to investigate whether a diagnostic testing condition leads to stereotype threat effects for African American and Latina/o children (N = 81) when tested together at an urban elementary school in Miami, Florida.

Design/methodology/approach

To analyze the effect of stereotype threat on participants’ reading test performance, a 2 (race/ethnicity) × 2 (test condition) ANOVA was conducted.

Findings

Results indicated that presenting a reading test as diagnostic of abilities hindered the performance of African American children but not of Latina/o children.

Practical Implications

A relationship to Latina/o racial identity is explored as well as suggestions for developing interventions capable of attenuating stereotype threat effects for African American children.

Originality/value

In past research, Latina/o children have been demonstrated to be negatively affected by stereotype threat when tested alone or in the presence of a White comparison group (McKown and Weinstein, 2003; Nader and Clark, 2011). However, the Latina/o participants in this study, tested with an African American comparison group, were unaffected by stereotype threat trending toward experiencing stereotype lift. The present findings posit questioning as to whether Latina/o racial identity moderates stereotype threat effects and how it plays out in elementary schools.

Details

Journal for Multicultural Education, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-535X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 February 2018

Eduardo Oliveira and Carlos Cabral Cardoso

Taking a social identity approach, the purpose of this paper is to examine the extent to which age-based stereotype threat mediates the relationships between older…

1410

Abstract

Purpose

Taking a social identity approach, the purpose of this paper is to examine the extent to which age-based stereotype threat mediates the relationships between older workers’ negative age-based metastereotypes and two negative work attitudes: organizational disidentification and work disengagement.

Design/methodology/approach

A two-wave cross-sectional design was adopted to collect data from 423 blue-collar older workers of the Portuguese manufacturing sector. Structural equation modeling was used to test the mediation model.

Findings

The analyses show that age-based stereotype threat partially mediates the relationship between negative age-based metastereotypes and negative work attitudes. Moreover, findings suggest that older workers respond to negative age-based metastereotypes through threat reactions, and undesirable work attitudes.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the literature by showing the importance of negative age-based metastereotypes and age-based stereotype threat in workplace dynamics. It also provides evidence that age threats impair the relationship older workers keep with their organization and their work.

Article
Publication date: 3 July 2020

Hyeyoon Bae, Sang Hyun Jo and Euehun Lee

The purpose of this study is to advance the understanding of consumer innovativeness during aging. This study explores why older consumers have decreased innovativeness…

1557

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to advance the understanding of consumer innovativeness during aging. This study explores why older consumers have decreased innovativeness and how awareness of age-related change affects the adoption of innovation.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey was conducted on 200 older consumers aged 50 and older to investigate whether awareness of age-related change influences innovativeness.

Findings

The results show that awareness of age-related change causes older consumers to have a decreased tendency to adopt novel products. Moreover, the stereotype threat of older consumers is found to play a mediating role. Older individuals who sense they are negatively viewed as older people restrict their innovativeness to avoid situations that would confirm their incompetence to others. Furthermore, the effects of older consumers’ stereotype threat on innovativeness are moderated by self-monitoring. Older consumers who exhibit high self-monitoring cope with stereotype threat by showing increased innovativeness; however, the opposite effect occurs in older consumers with low self-monitors.

Originality/value

The findings deepen the understanding of older adults’ consumption behavior regarding innovative products and show why people are reluctant to adopt innovative products and services because they grow older by identifying the underlying process that hinders customer innovativeness.

Article
Publication date: 23 September 2020

Mohammed El Hazzouri, Sergio W. Carvalho and Kelley Main

This study aims to introduce the concept of dissociative threat, which is the fear of being associated with an undesirable (dissociative) group as a result of…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to introduce the concept of dissociative threat, which is the fear of being associated with an undesirable (dissociative) group as a result of demonstrating ability in a domain that is stereotypically linked to that group. Consumers experiencing dissociative threats use inability signaling as a self-presentational strategy in which they present themselves as lacking ability in the dissociative domain.

Design/methodology/approach

Five experimental studies were conducted to test whether consumers experience threat in dissociative domains and to examine factors that influence this threat.

Findings

Results showed that dissociative threat adversely affects consumers’ performance at tasks that require using products linked to dissociative groups. Threatened participants reported intentions to perform poorly and train for a longer time in preparation for such tasks, thus signaling low ability in dissociative domains. Additionally, when participants who were experiencing dissociative threats received confirmation that they lacked ability in that domain, their performance at these tasks improved.

Research limitations/implications

This study expands the knowledge on strategies, including inability signaling, that consumers use to avoid being linked to dissociative groups.

Practical implications

The findings suggest to marketers that stereotypes that link their products to certain consumer segments can threaten other consumers. Factors that shape and alleviate this threat are identified, which may help companies who are marketing such products.

Originality/value

This study extends the current understanding of stereotype threat and proposes a new self-presentational strategy, that has not been documented yet in the literature (i.e. inability signaling), that consumers use to deal with the dissociative threat.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 55 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 May 2020

Kate Westberg, Mike Reid and Foula Kopanidis

This study aims to use the lens of the stereotype threat theory to explore older consumers’ age identity and experiences with service providers.

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Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to use the lens of the stereotype threat theory to explore older consumers’ age identity and experiences with service providers.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used semi-structured interviews with Australian consumers aged between 55 and 69. Data were examined using thematic analysis.

Findings

Older consumers justify a younger cognitive age by distancing themselves from the negative stereotypes associated with ageing and by associating themselves with attitudes and behaviours consistent with a younger age identity. Older consumers are confronted with age-based stereotype threats in a services context through four practices. Exposure to these threats results in service failure and can have a negative impact on both consumers’ ability to function effectively as consumers and their overall well-being.

Research limitations/implications

A more diverse sample is required to identify the extent to which age-based stereotype threats are experienced and which services marketing practices have the most detrimental impact on older consumers.

Practical implications

The findings provide insight for services marketers seeking to effectively cater for older consumers and have implications for service staff training, service technology and communications.

Social implications

The findings have implications for the well-being of older consumers in terms of their self-efficacy and self-esteem as well as their ability to function effectively as consumers.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the nascent understanding of older consumers’ experiences and their expectations of service interactions and advertising communication. The findings also extend the literature on service failure by demonstrating how age-based stereotypes threaten age identity, resulting in a negative customer experience.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 35 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 September 2009

Daniel E. Martin, Carol F. Moore and Carol Hedgspeth

The purpose of this paper is to validate the unobtrusive knowledge test (UKT) in a minority population, and examine its potential for limiting stereotype threat.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to validate the unobtrusive knowledge test (UKT) in a minority population, and examine its potential for limiting stereotype threat.

Design/methodology/approach

Study One: (convergent validity): UKT and Wonderlic Personnel Test (WPT) scores were correlated for 131 students. Study Two: (stereotype threat) 202 minority students were placed into one of four groups based on whether or not they were given instructions to elicit stereotype threat, and whether they took the Excellence scale of the UKT or the WPT.

Findings

Correlations provided evidence of convergent validity between the Excellence subscale of the UKT and the WPT. The stereotype threat study was inconclusive, with no differences being seen in the threat/non‐threat conditions for the WPT, and higher scores in the threat condition than the non‐threat condition for the UKT.

Research limitations/implications

Unreliability of some scales and low correlations of others with the WPT, lessened the overall UKT's convergent validity.

Practical implications

The need to develop measures of intelligence not subject to adverse impact is clear, and the results of the current research provide justification for further research establishing the properties of the UKT as a selection tool.

Originality/value

This paper offers new evidence of the usefulness of the UKT as a measure of cognitive ability for minority populations, and raises questions about the impact of stereotype threat on the UKT test.

Details

Equal Opportunities International, vol. 28 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0261-0159

Keywords

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