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Book part
Publication date: 21 May 2020

Ann Gallagher

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Slow Ethics and the Art of Care
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-195-7

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Book part
Publication date: 22 July 2013

Howard Harris

Whom should we consider a moral saint or exemplar? This chapter looks at the relationship between the virtue of courage and the concept of a moral saint in an…

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Whom should we consider a moral saint or exemplar? This chapter looks at the relationship between the virtue of courage and the concept of a moral saint in an organisational context, apart from war and religion. It seeks to show that careful consideration of the nature of saints and heroes and of the response of the wider population to them will help us to understand the purpose of moral exemplars and the impact they can have on our lives. Thomas Carlyle’s description of the changing relationship between people and hero since the time of the ancient Greek and Scandinavian gods provides a central core for the analysis.

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Moral Saints and Moral Exemplars
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-075-8

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Book part
Publication date: 4 October 2014

Matthew Beard

The images of soldiers which are evoked on memorial days commonly include a number of different virtues: courage, loyalty, fraternity, etc. One ideal perhaps extolled…

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The images of soldiers which are evoked on memorial days commonly include a number of different virtues: courage, loyalty, fraternity, etc. One ideal perhaps extolled above all others is that of sacrifice. Soldiers, according to popular moral platitudes, are lauded for the sacrifices they make for the common good. Implied in this is the expectation that soldiers ought to be the type of people who are prepared to sacrifice themselves in defence of an ideal. Within the most popular framework for morally evaluating war, Just War Theory, sacrifice tends to be understood from within the deontological, rights-based framework that modern just war theorists favour. In this chapter I will aim to show how the conclusions drawn by considering sacrifice through a deontological lens can be enriched through the addition of virtue theoretical considerations, leading to a fuller account of sacrifice.

This chapter takes a philosophical approach to the idea of sacrifice in the military. It explores whether the predominant framework used for evaluating war, Just War Theory, is a suitable framework for understanding the sacrifices soldiers, commanders, and political leaders can be asked to make in times of war. Focussing on various conceptions of sacrifice, including physical and moral sacrifices, the chapter argues that the predominantly deontological formulation of modern just war theories could be enriched by considering notions surrounding the ancient Greek concept of arete (virtue). Thus, as well as being a detailed exposition of sacrifice in war, the chapter also seeks to show how consideration of aretaic notions such as virtue, character and moral psychology can enrich just war theories responses to various issues.

The value of this research is in suggesting that soldiers are morally obligated to accept more risk than modern warfare typically places, or at least historically has placed, on them. It also has implications for military ethics education in that it suggests that soldiers’ characters should be shaped in such a way as to dispose them to sacrifice. Further, it has implications for the use of Just War Theory in international relations by introducing a moral framework through which political leaders can determine when they might be morally obligated to forgive the indiscretions of another nation, and what it means to forgive in this context. As such, it makes a contribution to a growing discussion within Just War Theory: jus post bellum – the moral norms surrounding the resolution of conflict.

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Achieving Ethical Excellence
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-245-6

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Book part
Publication date: 21 May 2020

Ann Gallagher

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Slow Ethics and the Art of Care
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-195-7

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Book part
Publication date: 17 September 2020

Michael Schwartz and Debra R. Comer

Chris Provis (2017) has discussed Aristotle’s Doctrine of the Mean and its counterpart in Confucianism. The Doctrine of the Mean informs an agent that ‘acting as a

Abstract

Chris Provis (2017) has discussed Aristotle’s Doctrine of the Mean and its counterpart in Confucianism. The Doctrine of the Mean informs an agent that ‘acting as a virtuous person will often be constituted by avoidance of choosing excess or deficiency’ (Provis, 2017, p. 118). Indeed, Provis (2017) argues against any act ‘oriented towards maximisation’ (p. 127). Provis’s (2017) focus is the encounter ‘between European and East Asian ethical traditions’ (p. 116). Our chapter is a response to Provis (2017). We respond to Provis (2017) by exploring a debate amongst Jewish scholars which originated in North Africa. Some of these scholars advocated Aristotle’s Mean. But others advocated forsaking that Mean and pursuing the extreme.

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War, Peace and Organizational Ethics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-777-8

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1994

Edmund D. Pellegrino and Richard A. Gray

A species of moral malaise afflicts the professions today, a malaise that may prove fatal to their moral identities and perilous to our whole society. It is manifest in a…

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A species of moral malaise afflicts the professions today, a malaise that may prove fatal to their moral identities and perilous to our whole society. It is manifest in a growing conviction even among conscientious doctors, lawyers, and ministers that it is no longer possible to practice their professions within traditional ethical constraints. More specifically, the belief is taking hold that unless professionals look out for their own self‐interest, they will be crushed by commercialization, competition, government regulation, malpractice actions, advertising, public and media hostility, and a host of other inimical socio‐economic forces. This line of reasoning leads the professional to infer that self‐interest justifies compromises in, and even rejection of, obligations that standards of professional ethics have traditionally imposed.

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Reference Services Review, vol. 22 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0090-7324

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Slow Ethics and the Art of Care
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-195-7

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Article
Publication date: 13 May 2014

Stuart Hannabuss

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Reference Reviews, vol. 28 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0950-4125

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Book part
Publication date: 26 November 2015

Simo Vehmas

This chapter offers a critical evaluation of the disability scholarship of Michael Oliver, a leading developer of the British social model of disability, and Peter Singer…

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This chapter offers a critical evaluation of the disability scholarship of Michael Oliver, a leading developer of the British social model of disability, and Peter Singer, a philosopher whose utilitarian ethics excludes some persons with intellectual disabilities from full moral status. Through a critique of the simplified accounts of disability employed by these two very different scholars, this chapter explores the ontology and the moral significance of disability. The importance of the ontology of disability in relation to inclusion is also discussed.

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Foundations of Inclusive Education Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-416-4

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Book part
Publication date: 1 June 2011

Ross B. Emmett

And let the quantities of the different factors owned by the different individuals be represented by the symbol Qik. That is, the quantity of the first factor owned by the…

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And let the quantities of the different factors owned by the different individuals be represented by the symbol Qik. That is, the quantity of the first factor owned by the first individual will be Qi1k1, for the first factor owned by the second individual, Q i2k1, for the second factor and the first individual Q i1k2, and so on to QiN for the nth factor and the Nth individual.7

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Frank H. Knight in Iowa City, 1919–1928
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-009-4

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