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Article
Publication date: 10 September 2018

Prem Chhetri, Jonathan Corcoran, Shafiq Ahmad and Kiran KC

The purpose of this paper is twofold: first is to examine the changing spatio-temporal patterns and regional trends in residential fires; and second is to investigate the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is twofold: first is to examine the changing spatio-temporal patterns and regional trends in residential fires; and second is to investigate the likely association of fire risk with seasons, calendar events and socio-economic disadvantage.

Design/methodology/approach

Using spatial analytic and predictive techniques, 11 years of fire incident data supplied by the Queensland Fire and Emergency Services are mapped and analysed.

Findings

The results show significant spatial and temporal variability in the distribution of residential fires. Residential fire incidents are more likely to occur in the inner city and across more disadvantaged areas. Mapped outputs show some areas in Brisbane at a higher risk of fire than others and that the risk of fire escalates at specific times of the year, in neighbourhoods with a higher disadvantage, during major sporting events and school holidays. The residential fires showed strong seasonal periodicity. There is a continuous yet gradual increase in the number of fire incidents recorded for all five sub-regions within SEQ. Sunshine Coast experienced the highest upward trend whereas Toowoomba and West Moreton show the lowest increase.

Originality/value

This study provides an empirical basis to guide future operational strategies through targeting high fire risk areas at particular times. This, in turn, will help utilise finite resources in areas where and when they need and thus enable minimise emergency management costs.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 27 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

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Article
Publication date: 23 November 2020

Olanrewaju Timothy Dada, Hafeez Idowu Agbabiaka, Adewumi Israel Badiora, Bashir Olufemi Odufuwa and Deborah Bunmi Ojo

Tourism has become a sustainable and viable tool in place making or community revitalization process. Residents’ perceptions of tourism impacts are critical to the…

Abstract

Purpose

Tourism has become a sustainable and viable tool in place making or community revitalization process. Residents’ perceptions of tourism impacts are critical to the sustainability of the tourism industry. This study follows a quantitative research approach to examine how variation in patronage pattern impact its host community using Olumo Rock in Abeokuta, Nigeria, as a case study.

Design/methodology/approach

Primary data from 324 residents are analysed using mean scores, chi-square and one-way ANOVA analysis. Secondary data such as the number of monthly patronage and precipitation and temperature were also analysed.

Findings

The findings revealed that the majority of residents do not patronize the tourism destination and that patronage patterns were seasonal and varied within and between seasons in Olumo. The perception of the residents living adjacent to the tourism destination established that they experienced positive and sometimes negative regardless of the season of the year or the proximity residential neighbourhood to tourism destination.

Originality/value

The findings of this study are sufficiently valuable to merit further investigation. It also provides an important spatial–temporal platform for future tourism impacts variability research in Nigeria and other countries in the tropic region. Furthermore, it is apparent from this study that temporal analyses in a given tourism destination may not translate effectively into another. In this respect, tourism managers in Olumo Rock should be aware of fluctuation in patronage pattern so as to introduction other attraction components at the right season.

Details

International Journal of Tourism Cities, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-5607

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Book part
Publication date: 23 August 2012

Francesco Andreoli

Models of race-based segregation establish that individual characteristics or housing market attributes are complementary causes of the observed level of races…

Abstract

Models of race-based segregation establish that individual characteristics or housing market attributes are complementary causes of the observed level of races’ concentration inside an urban space. The goal of this work is to establish which variables, and in which order of magnitude, among individual characteristics, housing features, and local amenities correlate with immigrants’ segregation, in the case of consistent within-city immigrants’ mobility. We capture the degree of segregation for different immigration groups by a local concentration statistics that is directly obtained from segregation curves, and we use data on the Verona Municipality as a case study. We find strong evidence in favor of the role of the housing market and housing ownership distribution across city areas.

Details

Inequality, Mobility and Segregation: Essays in Honor of Jacques Silber
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-171-7

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Book part
Publication date: 1 January 2006

Zohra Calcuttawala

Investigations of urban public services remain confined to western settings while research on urban public services in non-western cities focuses mainly on the…

Abstract

Investigations of urban public services remain confined to western settings while research on urban public services in non-western cities focuses mainly on the availability and delivery of basic services. Using the case study of Calcutta, this study is an empirical investigation of the evolution, spatial distribution, and changes in spatial patterns of public libraries for the period 1850–1991. It seeks to demonstrate the provision and accessibility to public libraries at the intraurban scale thereby extending research of urban service delivery to a non-western city. Within the context of urban service delivery – who benefits and why, the location of libraries in three time periods are analyzed. The study finds that the urban morphology of the colonial city continues to exert a strong influence on the growth and spatial distribution of public libraries. Empirical evidence suggests that there is no locational bias based on physical accessibility in the distribution of public libraries. No progressive or regressive spatial arrangement based on socioeconomic variables is indicated.

Details

Advances in Library Administration and Organization
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1410-2

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Abstract

Details

Handbook of Microsimulation Modelling
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-570-8

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Article
Publication date: 7 September 2010

Konstantin Gluschenko and Darya Karchevskaya

This paper aims to make a preliminary estimate of the degree of integration in the US product market (widely acknowledged to be the most integrated among geographically…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to make a preliminary estimate of the degree of integration in the US product market (widely acknowledged to be the most integrated among geographically large economies) as an upper bound of spatial integration that is practically achievable in markets covering fairly large territories.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach takes the form of an econometric model derived from the fact that local price of a tradable good should not be dependent on local demand under the law of “one price is a tool to measure market integration”. It is applied to data on the cost of a grocery basket and prices for three individual goods in 2000 across 29 US cities.

Findings

The regression results suggest that the US market is not perfectly integrated. Thus, the estimated degree of its integration can be deemed, indeed, as a feasible maximum. Applying this benchmark to the European part of Russia in 2000, its degree of market integration turns out to be comparable – by the order of magnitude – with the feasible one. The roles of a few factors that could potentially cause segmentation of the US market are estimated.

Research limitations/implications

The estimated degree of US market integration is crude because of the relatively small spatial sample. Further research has to substantially widen the spatial sample and estimate integration of the US market across a number of points in time.

Originality/value

The paper suggests a realistic benchmark standard for judging the extent of market integration in various (geographically large) economies.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 37 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Article
Publication date: 21 June 2019

Amit Srivastava, Dharmendra Kumar Srivastava and Anil Kumar Misra

The present study aims to demonstrate the performance assessment of flexible pavement structure in probabilistic framework with due consideration of spatial variability

Abstract

Purpose

The present study aims to demonstrate the performance assessment of flexible pavement structure in probabilistic framework with due consideration of spatial variability modeling of input parameter.

Design/methodology/approach

The analysis incorporates mechanistic–empirical approach in which numerical analysis with spatial variability modeling of input parameters, Monte Carlo simulations (MCS) and First Order Reliability Method (FORM) are combined together for the reliability analysis of the flexible pavement. Random field concept along with Cholesky decomposition technique is used for the spatial variability modeling of the input parameter and implemented in commercially available finite difference code FLAC for the numerical analysis of pavement structure.

Findings

Results of the reliability analysis, with spatial variability modeling of input parameter, are compared with the corresponding results obtained without considering spatial variability of parameters. Analyzing a particular three-layered flexible pavement structure, it is demonstrated that spatial variability modeling of input parameter provides more realistic treatment to property variations in space and influences the response of the pavement structure, as well as its performance assessment.

Originality/value

Research is based on reliability analysis approach, which can also be used in decision-making for quality control and flexible pavement design in a given environment of uncertainty and extent of spatially varying input parameters in a space.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology , vol. 17 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 9 October 2019

Hui Chen and Donghai Liu

The purpose of this study is to develop a stochastic finite element method (FEM) to solve the calculation precision deficiency caused by spatial variability of dam…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to develop a stochastic finite element method (FEM) to solve the calculation precision deficiency caused by spatial variability of dam compaction quality.

Design/methodology/approach

The Choleski decomposition method was applied to generate constraint random field of porosity. Large-scale laboratory triaxial tests were conducted to determine the quantitative relationship between the dam compaction quality and Duncan–Chang constitutive model parameters. Based on this developed relationship, the constraint random fields of the mechanical parameters were generated. The stochastic FEM could be conducted.

Findings

When the fully random field was simulated without the restriction effect of experimental data on test pits, the spatial variabilities of both displacement and stress results were all overestimated; however, when the stochastic FEM was performed disregarding the correlation between mechanical parameters, the variabilities of vertical displacement and stress results were underestimated and variation pattern for horizontal displacement also changed. In addition, the method could produce results that are closer to the actual situation.

Practical implications

Although only concrete-faced rockfill dam was tested in the numerical examples, the proposed method is applicable for arbitrary types of rockfill dams.

Originality/value

The value of this study is that the proposed method allowed for the spatial variability of constitutive model parameters and that the applicability was confirmed by the actual project.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 36 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 11 May 2010

Shyam Adhikari, Eric J. Belasco and Thomas O. Knight

The purpose of this paper is to examine the spatial components of producer heterogeneity in crop insurance product selection among US corn producers and identifies…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the spatial components of producer heterogeneity in crop insurance product selection among US corn producers and identifies neighborhood spillover or agent marketing effects in these decisions.

Design/methodology/approach

County‐level insurance and yield data are used to demonstrate that a gradual shift from yield‐based insurance to revenue‐based insurance has spatial patterns. Conventional risk variables such as yield variability, price variability, prevalence of irrigation, other crops, and yield‐price relationships play an important role in this shift and are consistently estimated only when spatial components are included. A spatial random effects model is used to also identify the impact of spatial lag effects, which include neighborhood spillover and agent marketing effects, on the share of corn acres insured with revenue‐based plans vs yield‐based plans.

Findings

Theoretically consistent variables associated with risk are found to significantly influence the choice between crop revenue and yield insurance. Non‐linear parameters identify the region‐specific effects from changes in irrigation, yield price correlation, and the prevalence of corn production on insurance decisions. In addition, spatial components such as the decisions made by nearby producers and marketing drives are also found to influence decisions. These results may demonstrate the relative influence of trusted sources, such as nearby producers and insurance agents, on insurance decisions.

Originality/value

Traditional risk variables are consistently estimated by controlling for spatial heterogeneity. This study also reveals the propensity of producers to rely on the opinions of other producers or agents that they know.

Details

Agricultural Finance Review, vol. 70 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-1466

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 4 January 2013

Luis Emmi, Leonel Paredes‐Madrid, Angela Ribeiro, Gonzalo Pajares and Pablo Gonzalez‐de‐Santos

The purpose of this paper is to propose going one step further in the simulation tools related to agriculture by integrating fleets of mobile robots for the execution of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose going one step further in the simulation tools related to agriculture by integrating fleets of mobile robots for the execution of precision agriculture techniques. The proposed new simulation environment allows the user to define different mobiles robots and agricultural implements.

Design/methodology/approach

With this computational tool, the crop field, the fleet of robots and the different sensors and actuators that are incorporated into each robot can be configured by means of two interfaces: a configuration interface and a graphical interface, which interact with each other.

Findings

The system presented in this article unifies two very different areas – robotics and agriculture – to study and evaluate the implementation of precision agriculture techniques in a 3D virtual world. The simulation environment allows the users to represent realistic characteristics from a defined location and to model different variabilities that may affect the task performance accuracy of the fleet of robots.

Originality/value

This simulation environment, the first in incorporating fleets of heterogeneous mobile robots, provides realistic 3D simulations and videos, which grant a good representation and a better understanding of the robot labor in agricultural activities for researchers and engineers from different areas, who could be involved in the design and application of precision agriculture techniques. The environment is available at the internet, which is an added value for its expansion in the agriculture/robotics family.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 40 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

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