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Open Access
Book part
Publication date: 4 May 2018

Jamidi, Abdul Rauf, Chairani Hanum and Erwin Nyak Akop

Purpose – The purpose of the research aims to observe the high growth of corn crops with a different cropping pattern.Design/Methodology/Approach – The research is…

Abstract

Purpose – The purpose of the research aims to observe the high growth of corn crops with a different cropping pattern.

Design/Methodology/Approach – The research is conducted based on field experiments with Group Randomized Design (hereafter RAK shortened from Cluster Random Design). The treatment of cropping pattern I is that corn crops are planted in one row with the size of plot 9 m × 4 m, and the distance planting of the crops is 70 cm × 40 cm. Cropping pattern II is that corn crops are planted in two rows with the size of plot 9 m × 4 m, and the distance planting is 70 cm × 40 cm. Cropping pattern III is that corn crops are planted in three rows with the size of plot 9 m × 4 m, and the distance among the crops is 70 cm × 40 cm.

Findings – The result of research shows that the highest corn crops are from cropping pattern II.3 at age 15 and 30 after planting time (called HariSetelahTanam or HST). The increase of cropping rows from one row to two rows indicates that intra-specific competition are more dominant. The growth of crops is faster because they need full sunlight at vegetative and generative stages. The need of full sunlight at the growing stage causes the increasing of stem height of crops to enable the crops to receive the sunlight optimally due to the continuity of photosynthesis process. The increasing growth of stem diameter is in accordance with the growth speed of height plant at the same age.

Research Limitations/Implications – This research intends to find out the best growing process of the plant. Further research is needed to study the outcome of final product of the plant.

Practical Implications – This is to see the utilization of the best cropping pattern and optimal land utilization.

Originality/Value – High growth of corn crops and stem diameter (Zea may, S) with a different cropping pattern has not yet been published.

Details

Proceedings of MICoMS 2017
Type: Book
ISBN:

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 November 2011

Milton Boyd, Jeffrey Pai, Qiao Zhang, H. Holly Wang and Ke Wang

The purpose of this paper is to explain the factors affecting crop insurance purchases by farmers in Inner Mongolia, China.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explain the factors affecting crop insurance purchases by farmers in Inner Mongolia, China.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey of farmers in Inner Mongolia, China, is undertaken. Selected variables are used to explain crop insurance purchases, and a probit regression model is used for the analysis.

Findings

Results show that a number of variables explain crop insurance purchases by farmers in Inner Mongolia. Of the eight variables in the model, seven are statistically significant. The eight variables used to explain crop insurance purchases are: knowledge of crop insurance, previous purchases of crop insurance, trust of the crop insurance company, amount of risk taken on by the farmer, importance of low crop insurance premium, government as the main information source for crop insurance, role of head of village, and number of family members working in the city.

Research limitations/implications

A possible limitation of the study is that data includes only one geographic area, Inner Mongolia, China, and so results may not always fully generalize to all regions of China, for all situations.

Practical implications

Crop insurance has been recently expanded in China, and the information from this study should be useful for insurance companies and government policy makers that are attempting to increase the adoption rate of crop insurance in China.

Social implications

Crop insurance may be a useful approach for stabilizing the agricultural sector, and for increasing agricultural production and food security in China.

Originality/value

This is the first study to quantitatively model the factors affecting crop insurance purchases by farmers in Inner Mongolia, China.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 3 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 August 2005

Gawaher Muthanna and M.S.M. Amin

The purpose of this paper is to present a procedure to estimate the total irrigation water requirement for a command area of 2,500 hectares in an arid environment under…

1265

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a procedure to estimate the total irrigation water requirement for a command area of 2,500 hectares in an arid environment under various crops and soil types using GIS for data storage, analysis and visualization of results.

Design/methodology/approach

Bani Al‐Harith agricultural area in Sana'a basin, Yemen was chosen for the study. ArcView GIS was used to plan for suitable crops and estimate the irrigation water requirements based on the farmer's preference and soil types. Using the available soil maps, the soil characteristics such as salinity, texture and suitable crop types were overlaid to produce the crop blocks map. The water balance equation was used to produce the crop water requirement map considering the crop coefficient for different crop stages. The total water demand for each irrigation block was calculated by summing the three components, namely percolation loss through the soil, maximum evapotranspiration of the crop and leaching requirement (LR) to maintain an acceptable salinity level.

Findings

The case study is an example of using GIS as an effective tool in irrigation planning. GIS facilities to acquire, store, analyze and display spatial data were used to produce the soil class map, soil profile map, crop map and water requirement map. The profile ECe values for the chosen crops is within the crop salinity tolerance for 100 percent yield except for blocks 4 and 5 where grape and coffee respectively are suggested to be grown. The profile ECe values are 18.37 dS/m in block 4 and 3.27 to 7.88 dS/m in block 5. The tolerance threshold of 100 percent yield for grape is 1.5 dS/m and for coffee is 3 to 6 dS/m. The salinity of the irrigation water was 2.08 dS/m. From the crop blocks map, the salinity tolerance level for 100 percent yield of onion for block 1 is 1.2 dS/m, tomato for block 2 is 2.5 dS/m, alfalfa for block 3 is 2 dS/m, grape for block 4 is 1.5/ dS/m, and the salinity tolerance level for 100 percent yield of coffee for block 5 is 5 dS/m. Leaching requirements were obtained by taking ECw value of 2.08 and ECe of 1.2, 2.5, 2, 1.5 and 5 for onion, tomato, alfalfa, grape and coffee respectively. The peak total water requirement occurred in May and was found to be 5,595 m3/ha, or 560 mm. The design irrigation water requirement for every block is shown in a map for easy visualization and manipulation to produce the best combination of soils, crops and water use.

Research limitations/implications

This method of determining the total irrigation water requirement is dependent on the selected irrigation system and crops whether shallow‐rooted, deep‐rooted or tree crops. The use of water in agriculture should be judicious, precise and sustainable. Application of GIS can be a useful tool in irrigation management since it provides rapid access to underlying information of crop suitability. The designer can try out various combinations of crops, to suit the soils and available water.

Practical implications

This methodology is useful for training irrigation engineers and water resource planners on the use of GIS technique to plan irrigation projects in arid areas.

Originality/value

This technique has never been applied to the study area.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 25 July 2011

Matin Qaim

Purpose – The role of genetically modified (GM) crops for food security is the subject of controversial debates. Consequently, policy-makers are unsure whether this…

Abstract

Purpose – The role of genetically modified (GM) crops for food security is the subject of controversial debates. Consequently, policy-makers are unsure whether this technology is suitable for developing countries. This chapter reviews the scientific evidence.

Methodology/approach – Starting from a food security definition, potential pathways of how GM crops could contribute to hunger reduction are analyzed conceptually. Furthermore, studies about the socioeconomic impacts of GM crop applications are reviewed. This includes ex post studies for present applications such as insect-resistant and herbicide-tolerant crops, as well as ex ante studies for future GM technologies such as Golden Rice and drought-tolerant varieties.

Findings – GM crops can raise agricultural productivity and thus contribute to better food availability. Especially when tailored to small farm conditions, GM crops can also cause income increases for the rural poor, entailing better access to food. Nutritionally enhanced, biofortified GM crops could reduce problems of micronutrient malnutrition in a cost-effective way.

Research limitations – The examples observable so far are still limited. Impacts also depend on the wider institutional setting. Like any technology, GM crops are not a substitute but a complement to much needed institutional and infrastructure improvement in developing countries.

Social implications – The fact that available GM crops already contribute to poverty reduction and improved food security has not been widely recognized up until now.

Value of paper – Results presented in this chapter can contribute to a more constructive public debate, in which GM crop risks are not discussed out of the context of actual and potential benefits.

Details

Genetically Modified Food and Global Welfare
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-758-2

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 25 July 2011

Volker Beckmann, Claudio Soregaroli and Justus Wesseler

Two major regulatory regimes for planting of genetically modified (GM) crops have emerged: one where the property rights for growing GM crops are mainly with the GM farmer…

Abstract

Two major regulatory regimes for planting of genetically modified (GM) crops have emerged: one where the property rights for growing GM crops are mainly with the GM farmer and another where the property rights are mainly with the non-GM farmer. In this contribution, the regulatory model chosen by Canada and the United States is compared with that of the EU and its variants, analyzed from an efficiency point of view. While the general view in the literature on ex-ante regulation versus ex-post liability rules under uncertainty holds that the most efficient regulatory regime depends on the specific case under investigation, we have investigated the analytical conditions for one or the other regulatory system to be more efficient, concluding that the property rights systems are almost equivalent, so long as transaction costs are not prohibitively high and using the court system is costless. As using the court system is not cost free, however, we hold that property rights regimes where the GM farmer is not liable are preferable from a social welfare point of view.

Details

Genetically Modified Food and Global Welfare
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-758-2

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 25 November 2019

Kien Nguyen-Trung

In late 2015, the El Nĩno phenomenon induced Vietnam’s worst drought in 60 years, which lasted until mid-2016 and intensified the most expansive saline intrusion in 90…

Abstract

In late 2015, the El Nĩno phenomenon induced Vietnam’s worst drought in 60 years, which lasted until mid-2016 and intensified the most expansive saline intrusion in 90 years. The combination of the two hazards resulted in a large-scale disaster, which has led 18 provinces of Vietnam, most of them from the Mekong Delta, to water shortage, insanitation, human and animal diseases, food emergency need and a considerable disruption in local communities’ livelihoods. These devastating effects raise the question of what makes local households vulnerable to drought and saline intrusion. The chapter argues that vulnerability to the natural disaster is not something resulted from external threats, but rather, is derived from the interplay between social structures residing deeply inside the socio-economic systems and agency’s conditions presenting at the household level. Social structures are rules and procedures that constrain and/or enable human actions in agricultural production, risk taking and adaptation. Agency refers to the capacities of disaster-affected households in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta who cultivated third rice crop and suffered heavily from the 2015–2016 disaster. In addition to households’ lack of planning and coping capacities, the constitution of vulnerability to drought and saline intrusion can be attributed to the interaction between farmers’ choice of extra rice crops and the state’s policies and directions in agricultural and irrigation development since 1990s to date.

Book part
Publication date: 25 July 2011

Guillaume P. Gruère, Antoine Bouët and Simon Mevel

Purpose – The chapter examines the international welfare effects of biotech crop adoption, based on a transversal literature review and a case study of the introduction of…

Abstract

Purpose – The chapter examines the international welfare effects of biotech crop adoption, based on a transversal literature review and a case study of the introduction of genetically modified (GM) food crops in Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, and the Philippines.

Methodology/approach – The analysis is based on (a) a review of lessons from the applied economic literature and (b) simulations using an improved multimarket, multicountry, computable general equilibrium (CGE) model, calibrated with productivity hypotheses formulated with local scientists in the four Asian countries.

Findings – Results from the analysis show that, in the absence of trade-related regulations, GM crop adoption generates economic gains for adopting countries and importing non-adopters, that domestic regulations at adopters and especially non-adopters can reduce these gains, and that import regulations in other countries can also affect gains for exporting adopters. The case study illustrates these conclusions, but it also shows that net importers will mostly benefit from adoption in their terms of trade, and that segregation of non-GM crops for export markets can be beneficial if it is not too costly.

Research limitations/implications – The use of a CGE model allows for accounting for cross-sectoral effects, and for regulations affecting bilateral trade flows, but it also has a number of limitations. The model used here, like the ones used in the other papers in the literature, is static, based on an aggregated representation of the global economy (GTAP database), and assumes perfect competition. This means that the absolute results of each scenario may not perfectly represent the actual welfare effects engendered by the adoption of biotech crops. Still, what matters here is the comparison of the relative welfare effects across countries and scenarios. The simulations are also done ex-ante, so, even if the model here was calibrated with country-based data, the results do depend on hypothetical assumptions about the performance of the selected technologies.

Originality/value of the paper – The chapter aims to illustrate the welfare effects generated by GM crops for adopters, non-adopters, in a segmented and regulated international market. Unlike other papers, the review section provides key transversal lessons from the literature, accounting for results from both partial equilibrium and CGE model studies. The empirical application focuses on four populous Asian countries that have been largely left out of the literature. The model used in the simulation presents a number of improvement from the CGE literature on GM crops, including partial adoption, factor-biased productivity shock in each adopting country, GM labeling regulations modeled as trade filters, and the inclusion of costly non-GM segregation as observed in the international market.

Details

Genetically Modified Food and Global Welfare
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-758-2

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 28 March 2022

Altaf Alam, Anurag Chauhan, Mohd Tauseef Khan and Zainul Abdin Jaffery

In this chapter, drone and vision camera technology have been combined for monitoring the crop product quality. Three vegetable crops such as tomato, cauliflower, and…

Abstract

In this chapter, drone and vision camera technology have been combined for monitoring the crop product quality. Three vegetable crops such as tomato, cauliflower, and eggplant are considered for quality monitoring; hence, image datasets are collected for those vegetables only. The proposed method classified the vegetables into two classes as rotten and nonrotten products so the images were collected for rotten and nonrotten products. Three different features information such as chromatic features, contour features, and texture features have been extracted from the dataset and further used to train a Gaussian kernel support vector machine algorithm for identifying the product quality. The system utilized multiple features such as chromatic, contour, and texture features in classifier training which enhances the accuracy and robustness of the system. Chromatic features were utilized for detecting the crop while other features such as contour and texture features were utilized for further classifier building to identify the crop product quality. The performance of the system is evaluated based on the true positive rate, false discovery rate, positive predictive value, and accuracy. The proposed system identified good and bad products with a 97.9% of true positive rate, 2.43 % of false discovery rate, 97.73% positive predictive value, and 95.4% of accuracy. The achieved results concluded that the results are lucrative and the proposed system is efficient in agriculture product quality monitoring.

Article
Publication date: 21 March 2022

A. Ashwitha and C.A. Latha

Automated crop prediction is needed for the following reasons: First, agricultural yields were decided by a farmer's ability to work in a certain field and with a…

Abstract

Purpose

Automated crop prediction is needed for the following reasons: First, agricultural yields were decided by a farmer's ability to work in a certain field and with a particular crop previously. They were not always able to predict the crop and its yield solely on that idea alone. Second, seed firms frequently monitor how well new plant varieties would grow in certain settings. Third, predicting agricultural production is critical for solving emerging food security concerns, especially in the face of global climate change. Accurate production forecasts not only assist farmers in making informed economic and management decisions but they also aid in the prevention of famine. This results in farming systems’ efficiency and productivity gains, as well as reduced risk from environmental factors.

Design/methodology/approach

This research paper proposes a machine learning technique for effective autonomous crop and yield prediction, which makes use of solution encoding to create solutions randomly, and then for every generated solution, fitness is evaluated to meet highest accuracy. Major focus of the proposed work is to optimize the weight parameter in the input data. The algorithm continues until the optimal agent or optimal weight is selected, which contributes to maximum accuracy in automated crop prediction.

Findings

Performance of the proposed work is compared with different existing algorithms, such as Random Forest, support vector machine (SVM) and artificial neural network (ANN). The proposed method support vector neural network (SVNN) with gravitational search agent (GSA) is analysed based on different performance metrics, such as accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, CPU memory usage and training time, and maximum performance is determined.

Research limitations/implications

Rather than real-time data collected by Internet of Things (IoT) devices, this research focuses solely on historical data; the proposed work does not impose IoT-based smart farming, which enhances the overall agriculture system by monitoring the field in real time. The present study only predicts the sort of crop to sow not crop production.

Originality/value

The paper proposes a novel optimization algorithm, which is based on the law of gravity and mass interactions. The search agents in the proposed algorithm are a cluster of weights that interact with one another using Newtonian gravity and motion principles. A comparison was made between the suggested method and various existing strategies. The obtained results confirm the high-performance in solving diverse nonlinear functions.

Details

International Journal of Intelligent Computing and Cybernetics, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-378X

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 6 October 2017

Lance Brennan, Les Heathcote and Anton Lucas

This paper attempts to understand how the interaction of natural disasters and human behaviour during wartime led to famines in three regions under imperial control around…

Abstract

This paper attempts to understand how the interaction of natural disasters and human behaviour during wartime led to famines in three regions under imperial control around the Indian Ocean. The socio-economic structure of these regions had been increasingly differentiated over the period of imperial rule, with large proportions of their populations relying on agricultural labour for their subsistence.

Before the war, food crises in each of the regions had been met by the private importation of grain from national or overseas surplus regions: the grain had been made available through a range of systems, the most complex of which was the Bengal Famine Code in which the able-bodied had to work before receiving money to buy food in the market.

During the Second World War, the loss of control of normal sources of imported grain, the destruction of shipping in the Indian Ocean (by both sides) and the military demands on internal transport systems prevented the use of traditional famine responses when natural events affected grain supply in each of the regions. These circumstances drew the governments into attempts to control their own grain markets.

The food crises raised complex ethical and practical issues for the governments charged with their solution. The most significant of these was that the British Government could have attempted to ship wheat to Bengal but, having lost naval control of the Indian Ocean in 1942 and needing warships in the Atlantic and Mediterranean in 1943 chose to ignore the needs of the people of Bengal, focussing instead on winning the war.

In each of the regions governments allowed/encouraged the balkanisation of the grain supply – at times down to the sub-district level – which at times served to produce waste and corruption, and opened the way for black markets as various groups (inside and outside government ranks) manipulated the local supply.

People were affected in different ways by the changes brought about by the war: some benefitted if their role was important to the war-effort; others suffered. The effect of this was multiplied by the way each government ‘solved’ its financial problems by – in essence – printing money.

Because of the natural events of the period, there would have been food crises in these regions without World War II, but decisions made in the light of wartime exigencies and opportunities turned crises into famines, causing the loss of millions of lives.

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