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Book part
Publication date: 4 May 2018

Jamidi, Abdul Rauf, Chairani Hanum and Erwin Nyak Akoeb

Purpose – The purpose of the research aims to observe the high growth of corn crops with a different cropping pattern.Design/Methodology/Approach – The research is…

Abstract

Purpose – The purpose of the research aims to observe the high growth of corn crops with a different cropping pattern.

Design/Methodology/Approach – The research is conducted based on field experiments with Group Randomized Design (hereafter RAK shortened from Cluster Random Design). The treatment of cropping pattern I is that corn crops are planted in one row with the size of plot 9 m × 4 m, and the distance planting of the crops is 70 cm × 40 cm. Cropping pattern II is that corn crops are planted in two rows with the size of plot 9 m × 4 m, and the distance planting is 70 cm × 40 cm. Cropping pattern III is that corn crops are planted in three rows with the size of plot 9 m × 4 m, and the distance among the crops is 70 cm × 40 cm.

Findings – The result of research shows that the highest corn crops are from cropping pattern II.3 at age 15 and 30 after planting time (called HariSetelahTanam or HST). The increase of cropping rows from one row to two rows indicates that intra-specific competition are more dominant. The growth of crops is faster because they need full sunlight at vegetative and generative stages. The need of full sunlight at the growing stage causes the increasing of stem height of crops to enable the crops to receive the sunlight optimally due to the continuity of photosynthesis process. The increasing growth of stem diameter is in accordance with the growth speed of height plant at the same age.

Research Limitations/Implications – This research intends to find out the best growing process of the plant. Further research is needed to study the outcome of final product of the plant.

Practical Implications – This is to see the utilization of the best cropping pattern and optimal land utilization.

Originality/Value – High growth of corn crops and stem diameter (Zea may, S) with a different cropping pattern has not yet been published.

Details

Proceedings of MICoMS 2017
Type: Book
ISBN:

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Article
Publication date: 24 February 2021

Wenbin Wu, Ximing Wu, Yu Yvette Zhang and David Leatham

The purpose of this paper is to bring out the development of a flexible model for nonstationary crop yield distributions and its applications to decision-making in crop insurance.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to bring out the development of a flexible model for nonstationary crop yield distributions and its applications to decision-making in crop insurance.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors design a nonparametric Bayesian approach based on Gaussian process regressions to model crop yields over time. Further flexibility is obtained via Bayesian model averaging that results in mixed Gaussian processes.

Findings

Simulation results on crop insurance premium rates show that the proposed method compares favorably with conventional estimators, especially when the underlying distributions are nonstationary.

Originality/value

Unlike conventional two-stage estimation, the proposed method models nonstationary crop yields in a single stage. The authors further adopt a decision theoretic framework in its empirical application and demonstrate that insurance companies can use the proposed method to effectively identify profitable policies under symmetric or asymmetric loss functions.

Details

Agricultural Finance Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-1466

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Article
Publication date: 22 November 2011

Milton Boyd, Jeffrey Pai, Qiao Zhang, H. Holly Wang and Ke Wang

The purpose of this paper is to explain the factors affecting crop insurance purchases by farmers in Inner Mongolia, China.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explain the factors affecting crop insurance purchases by farmers in Inner Mongolia, China.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey of farmers in Inner Mongolia, China, is undertaken. Selected variables are used to explain crop insurance purchases, and a probit regression model is used for the analysis.

Findings

Results show that a number of variables explain crop insurance purchases by farmers in Inner Mongolia. Of the eight variables in the model, seven are statistically significant. The eight variables used to explain crop insurance purchases are: knowledge of crop insurance, previous purchases of crop insurance, trust of the crop insurance company, amount of risk taken on by the farmer, importance of low crop insurance premium, government as the main information source for crop insurance, role of head of village, and number of family members working in the city.

Research limitations/implications

A possible limitation of the study is that data includes only one geographic area, Inner Mongolia, China, and so results may not always fully generalize to all regions of China, for all situations.

Practical implications

Crop insurance has been recently expanded in China, and the information from this study should be useful for insurance companies and government policy makers that are attempting to increase the adoption rate of crop insurance in China.

Social implications

Crop insurance may be a useful approach for stabilizing the agricultural sector, and for increasing agricultural production and food security in China.

Originality/value

This is the first study to quantitatively model the factors affecting crop insurance purchases by farmers in Inner Mongolia, China.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 3 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2005

Gawaher Muthanna and M.S.M. Amin

The purpose of this paper is to present a procedure to estimate the total irrigation water requirement for a command area of 2,500 hectares in an arid environment under…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a procedure to estimate the total irrigation water requirement for a command area of 2,500 hectares in an arid environment under various crops and soil types using GIS for data storage, analysis and visualization of results.

Design/methodology/approach

Bani Al‐Harith agricultural area in Sana'a basin, Yemen was chosen for the study. ArcView GIS was used to plan for suitable crops and estimate the irrigation water requirements based on the farmer's preference and soil types. Using the available soil maps, the soil characteristics such as salinity, texture and suitable crop types were overlaid to produce the crop blocks map. The water balance equation was used to produce the crop water requirement map considering the crop coefficient for different crop stages. The total water demand for each irrigation block was calculated by summing the three components, namely percolation loss through the soil, maximum evapotranspiration of the crop and leaching requirement (LR) to maintain an acceptable salinity level.

Findings

The case study is an example of using GIS as an effective tool in irrigation planning. GIS facilities to acquire, store, analyze and display spatial data were used to produce the soil class map, soil profile map, crop map and water requirement map. The profile ECe values for the chosen crops is within the crop salinity tolerance for 100 percent yield except for blocks 4 and 5 where grape and coffee respectively are suggested to be grown. The profile ECe values are 18.37 dS/m in block 4 and 3.27 to 7.88 dS/m in block 5. The tolerance threshold of 100 percent yield for grape is 1.5 dS/m and for coffee is 3 to 6 dS/m. The salinity of the irrigation water was 2.08 dS/m. From the crop blocks map, the salinity tolerance level for 100 percent yield of onion for block 1 is 1.2 dS/m, tomato for block 2 is 2.5 dS/m, alfalfa for block 3 is 2 dS/m, grape for block 4 is 1.5/ dS/m, and the salinity tolerance level for 100 percent yield of coffee for block 5 is 5 dS/m. Leaching requirements were obtained by taking ECw value of 2.08 and ECe of 1.2, 2.5, 2, 1.5 and 5 for onion, tomato, alfalfa, grape and coffee respectively. The peak total water requirement occurred in May and was found to be 5,595 m3/ha, or 560 mm. The design irrigation water requirement for every block is shown in a map for easy visualization and manipulation to produce the best combination of soils, crops and water use.

Research limitations/implications

This method of determining the total irrigation water requirement is dependent on the selected irrigation system and crops whether shallow‐rooted, deep‐rooted or tree crops. The use of water in agriculture should be judicious, precise and sustainable. Application of GIS can be a useful tool in irrigation management since it provides rapid access to underlying information of crop suitability. The designer can try out various combinations of crops, to suit the soils and available water.

Practical implications

This methodology is useful for training irrigation engineers and water resource planners on the use of GIS technique to plan irrigation projects in arid areas.

Originality/value

This technique has never been applied to the study area.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

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Article
Publication date: 10 February 2021

Ghanshyam Pandey and Seema Kumari

In low-income economies agriculture plays an important role in promoting economic growth and reducing poverty. Agricultural growth achieved through diversification toward…

Abstract

Purpose

In low-income economies agriculture plays an important role in promoting economic growth and reducing poverty. Agricultural growth achieved through diversification toward the higher value crops enhance income and mitigate risk. The present study focuses on one of the eastern Indian states namely “Jharkhand”; where agriculture is the mainstay for the 80% of its rural population. The state per-capita income is below the national average; however, it has registered an impressive growth, especially in the agriculture sector in the last one decade. In this study, the authors attempt to identify the components in sources of agricultural growth; the authors also estimate the determinants of overall agricultural growth.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is based on the secondary data from 2000–2001 to 2015–2016. This paper first decomposes the agricultural growth into area, price, yields (technological improvement) and diversification effects through the method of growth accounting approach. Secondly, the study employs the new classical growth model through the ordinary least square (OLS) to examine the determinants of overall agricultural growth.

Findings

The author's findings indicate that there has been a shift in cropping patterns from the cultivation of cereals to non-cereals in the state during the study period. Among the major crops, the area under pulses cultivation has increased by 19% from 2000–t2002 to 2014–2016. The increase in area under cultivation and the diversification in favor of higher-value crops have been the major reasons for the accelerating overall agricultural growth in the state along with improvements in technology. The study reveals that increased use of fertilizer per hectare, capital formation and road density are the main determinants of high agricultural growth in the state.

Research limitations/implications

The study is based on secondary data and based on one state. A primary study to complement this could have been better. The limited data available for some of important variables related to mechanizations are also a limitation of the present study.

Originality/value

Several studies have analyzed the diversification and agricultural growth in India. With our best knowledge this kind of study has not been done so far for the state of Jharkhand in eastern India.

Details

Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-0839

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Article
Publication date: 7 January 2021

Pei Li, Ye Tian, JunJie Wu and Wenchao Xu

The purpose of this paper evaluates the effects of the Great Western Development (GWD) policy on agricultural intensification, land use, agricultural production and rural…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper evaluates the effects of the Great Western Development (GWD) policy on agricultural intensification, land use, agricultural production and rural poverty in western China.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors collect county-level data on land use, input application, grain crop production, income, poverty and geophysical characteristics for 1996–2005 and use a quasi-natural experimental design of difference-in-differences (DD) in the empirical analysis.

Findings

Results suggest that the GWD policy significantly increased the grain crop production in western China. This increase resulted from higher yield, with increased fertilizer use and agricultural electricity consumption per hectare, and more land allocated to grow grain crops. The policy also increased land-use concentration, reduced crop diversity and alleviated rural poverty in western China.

Originality/value

This paper makes three contributions. First, the authors add to the growing literature on the GWD policy by evaluating its effects on farm household decisions and exploring the mechanisms and broad socioeconomic impacts in western China. Second, the authors take advantage of a quasi-natural experimental design to improve the identification strategy where input use, land allocation, production and off-farm labor participation are all endogenous in a farm household. Third, the authors explore a long list of variables within one integrated dataset to present a comprehensive picture of the impact of the GWD policy.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

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Article
Publication date: 14 January 2021

Ruojin Zhang, Dan Fan, Gene Lai, Junqian Wu and Jungong Li

Agricultural insurance has become increasingly important to farmers' livelihood and production in rural China. Yet despite the enormous governmental subsidizing efforts…

Abstract

Purpose

Agricultural insurance has become increasingly important to farmers' livelihood and production in rural China. Yet despite the enormous governmental subsidizing efforts, the insurance participation rate remains below expectations. This study revisits the linkage between farmers' risk attitudes and crop insurance utilization by providing a cross-cutting perspective such that the role of risk aversion is re-scrutinized in Chinese “kindred” village economies.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors administrated a lottery-based multiple price list (MPL) experiment by recruiting rice farmers from 12 villages in Sichuan province in southwestern China. Using the experimental data, farmers' risk attitudes are assessed and coefficients of risk aversion are estimated within the rank-dependent expected utility (RDEU) framework by maximizing a structured likelihood function.

Findings

This study provides substantiating evidence that rice farmers in southwestern China exhibit relatively high risk aversion. The authors also provide suggestive evidence of the positive relationship between farmers' risk aversion and crop insurance utilization. In addition, findings reveal that kinship network has a negative effect on crop insurance utilization, such that farmers who are connected in higher degree of kinship network have lower likelihood of crop insurance utilization, which suggests that kinship network may be substitute for formal crop insurance. Result also demonstrates that the incentive effect of risk aversion on farmers' crop insurance participation manifests differently depending on the degree of kinship network in rural China.

Originality/value

This study provides a cross-cutting perspective by scrutinizing the effects of farmers' risk attitudes and kinship network on crop insurance participation in rural China, which has received relatively little attention in the literature. Conclusions on the effects of risk aversion on crop insurance participation have been mixed in previous studies. In addition, to the best of our knowledge, little has been done to explicitly examine the influence of social proximity and networks on farmers' insurance uptake. This study attempts to fill both gaps. This study provides new insights which might shed lights on the understanding of farmers' crop insurance participation in rural China.

Details

Agricultural Finance Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-1466

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Article
Publication date: 27 November 2020

Huong Thi Lan Huynh, Lieu Nguyen Thi and Nguyen Dinh Hoang

This study aims to evaluate the impact of climate change on some specific areas of agricultural production in Quang Nam Province, including assessing the possibility of…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to evaluate the impact of climate change on some specific areas of agricultural production in Quang Nam Province, including assessing the possibility of losing agricultural land owing to sea level rise; assessing the impact on rice productivity; and, assessing the impact on crop water demand.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used the method of collecting and processing statistics data; method of analysis, comparison and evaluation; method of geographic information system; method of using mathematical model; and method of professional solution, to assess the impacts of climate change.

Findings

Evaluation results in Quang Nam Province show that, by the end of the 21st century, winter–spring rice productivity may decrease by 33%, while summer–autumn rice productivity may decrease by 49%. Under representative concentration pathway (RCP) 4.5 scenario, water demand increases by 31.1% compared to the baseline period, of which the winter–spring crop increases by 28.4%, and the summer–autumn crop increased by 34.3%. Under RCP 8.5 scenario, water demand increases by 54.1% compared to the baseline period, of which the winter–spring crop increases by 46.7%, and the summer–autumn crop increased by 63.1%. The area of agricultural land likely to be inundated by sea level rise at 50 cm is 418.32 ha, and at 80 cm, it is 637.07 ha.

Originality/value

To propose adaptation solution to avoid the impacts of climate change on agriculture, it is necessary to consider about the impact on losing land for agriculture, the impact on rice productivity, assess the impact on crop water demand and other. The result of this assessment is useful for policymakers for forming the agriculture development plan.

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. 12 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

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Book part
Publication date: 25 July 2011

Matin Qaim

Purpose – The role of genetically modified (GM) crops for food security is the subject of controversial debates. Consequently, policy-makers are unsure whether this…

Abstract

Purpose – The role of genetically modified (GM) crops for food security is the subject of controversial debates. Consequently, policy-makers are unsure whether this technology is suitable for developing countries. This chapter reviews the scientific evidence.

Methodology/approach – Starting from a food security definition, potential pathways of how GM crops could contribute to hunger reduction are analyzed conceptually. Furthermore, studies about the socioeconomic impacts of GM crop applications are reviewed. This includes ex post studies for present applications such as insect-resistant and herbicide-tolerant crops, as well as ex ante studies for future GM technologies such as Golden Rice and drought-tolerant varieties.

Findings – GM crops can raise agricultural productivity and thus contribute to better food availability. Especially when tailored to small farm conditions, GM crops can also cause income increases for the rural poor, entailing better access to food. Nutritionally enhanced, biofortified GM crops could reduce problems of micronutrient malnutrition in a cost-effective way.

Research limitations – The examples observable so far are still limited. Impacts also depend on the wider institutional setting. Like any technology, GM crops are not a substitute but a complement to much needed institutional and infrastructure improvement in developing countries.

Social implications – The fact that available GM crops already contribute to poverty reduction and improved food security has not been widely recognized up until now.

Value of paper – Results presented in this chapter can contribute to a more constructive public debate, in which GM crop risks are not discussed out of the context of actual and potential benefits.

Details

Genetically Modified Food and Global Welfare
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-758-2

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Book part
Publication date: 25 July 2011

Volker Beckmann, Claudio Soregaroli and Justus Wesseler

Two major regulatory regimes for planting of genetically modified (GM) crops have emerged: one where the property rights for growing GM crops are mainly with the GM farmer…

Abstract

Two major regulatory regimes for planting of genetically modified (GM) crops have emerged: one where the property rights for growing GM crops are mainly with the GM farmer and another where the property rights are mainly with the non-GM farmer. In this contribution, the regulatory model chosen by Canada and the United States is compared with that of the EU and its variants, analyzed from an efficiency point of view. While the general view in the literature on ex-ante regulation versus ex-post liability rules under uncertainty holds that the most efficient regulatory regime depends on the specific case under investigation, we have investigated the analytical conditions for one or the other regulatory system to be more efficient, concluding that the property rights systems are almost equivalent, so long as transaction costs are not prohibitively high and using the court system is costless. As using the court system is not cost free, however, we hold that property rights regimes where the GM farmer is not liable are preferable from a social welfare point of view.

Details

Genetically Modified Food and Global Welfare
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-758-2

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