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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2009

Sacha Joseph‐Mathews, Mark A. Bonn and David Snepenger

The purpose of this research is to examine the impact of atmospherics on consumer symbolic interpretations, and various psychological outcomes in a purely hedonic service

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to examine the impact of atmospherics on consumer symbolic interpretations, and various psychological outcomes in a purely hedonic service environment.

Design/methodology/approach

Field data were collected from 500 respondents in Florida across four hedonic service attraction sites and then analyzed using MANOVA in SPSS. A mediation method proposed by Baron and Kenny is utilized to determine the mediating role of consumer symbolic interpretations in the nomological network.

Findings

There were four major findings. First, similar to other service sectors, environmental factors do play a critical role in determining behavioral intentions in hedonic services. Second, patrons conceptualize hedonic attractions/services in terms of both utilitarian and hedonic components. Third, consumer symbolic perceptions (meanings) do affect behavioral intentions. Finally, consumers do evaluate their service environments (ambient, design and layout and social factors) differently depending on the meanings they attach to a service environment.

Research limitations/implications

Managers can tailor service environments to match the symbolic interpretations and behavioral outcomes they would like to foster in order to maximize monies spent on physical upgrades. Additional work is needed in the area of consumer meanings and symbolic interpretations.

Originality/value

The study indicates that the service environment can be used as a differentiating tool to perpetuate brand meaning and uniqueness in the minds of the consumer, thereby creating a competitive advantage for the hedonic facilities and by extension ensuring repeat patronage.

Details

International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, vol. 3 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6182

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Article
Publication date: 16 March 2012

Kendra Fowler and Eileen Bridges

The purpose of this paper is to improve understanding of the relationships between the service environment, service provider mood, and provider‐customer interaction…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to improve understanding of the relationships between the service environment, service provider mood, and provider‐customer interaction. Specifically, mood is evaluated as a potential moderator of the relationship between the service environment and provider‐customer interaction.

Design/methodology/approach

A multi‐method data collection approach was utilized, including observation and provider and customer surveys. Hypotheses are tested using regression, ANOVA, and MANOVA.

Findings

Findings indicate that service provider evaluations of the physical environment improve in the presence of an appropriate ambient scent. Behavioral responses are also enhanced: providers are viewed as more courteous and customers more friendly. Perhaps the most interesting observation is that provider mood moderates the relationship between the service environment and customer perceptions of service provider behavior.

Research limitations/implications

The only environmental characteristic that was manipulated was scent, and access was granted to only one store over the course of three consecutive Saturdays. Consequently, validity is threatened by the potential for impact of factors other than the manipulated characteristic.

Practical implications

Implications for managers include careful consideration of potential changes to the ambient environment; if introduction of an appropriate scent can be undesirable, other changes may also lead to unexpected results. Changes under consideration should be tested before implementation.

Originality/value

This research extends service theory by examining the relationship between providers and customers in an actual retail setting. Important theoretical contributions include: demonstrating that service provider mood moderates the relationship between service environmental characteristics and customer perceptions of provider behavior; and finding that positive changes to the environment can amplify negative outcomes.

Details

Managing Service Quality: An International Journal, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-4529

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Article
Publication date: 8 May 2018

Khadijeh Momeni and Miia Maarit Martinsuo

Resource allocation is challenged by dynamic environments where changes are frequent. The purpose of this paper is to identify resource allocation challenges and practices…

Abstract

Purpose

Resource allocation is challenged by dynamic environments where changes are frequent. The purpose of this paper is to identify resource allocation challenges and practices in service units that perform both project and non-project activities in dynamic environments. Its goal is to show that top-down mechanisms of project resource allocation need to be replaced by or supplemented with mechanisms that are more flexible.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative comparative case study was conducted in two service units of two project-based firms. The main source of data consisted of semi-structured interviews with 17 service managers and staff members.

Findings

This study shows that resource allocation is not necessarily a top-down process at all, and the practices are context-dependent. Two more flexible approaches are revealed – hybrid resource allocation and bottom-up resource allocation – as examples of managing resource allocation in service units that engage in projects under uncertain conditions. The results of the analysis highlight prioritisation and adapting to change and delay as the main issues that managers face in allocating resources to different types of projects and service activities in dynamic environments.

Research limitations/implications

The two target companies chosen for the qualitative research design limit the analysis to project-based firms in a business-to-business context. Further, the viewpoint of the service unit is central to the study. Studying project resource allocation in different organisational contexts and uncovering the perspectives of product development and delivery units would offer promising directions for future research.

Practical implications

The study reveals that in dynamic project settings such as service organisations, top-down mechanisms of resource allocation need to be accompanied by other, more flexible approaches to ensure the sufficient resourcing of projects and related services in dynamic environments. Companies need to establish practices for resource allocation changes that are caused by re-prioritising tasks and accommodating changes and delays in their project and service activities.

Originality/value

Compared to a top-down perspective taken in previous research, the study proposes a more flexible approach for resource allocation in constantly changing environments with different project and service activities. Previous studies have focussed on resource competition between projects, placing project managers in the central role for resource allocation. By contrast, this study discusses hybrid and bottom-up resource allocation, both of which involve broader personnel engagement in resource allocation tasks, drawing on the experience of all employees.

Details

International Journal of Managing Projects in Business, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8378

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Article
Publication date: 31 December 2006

Mohammed Ganna and Eric Horlait

Current networks are providing plenty of services that users can access and use. These services are more and more pervasive and deployed in different networks distributed…

Abstract

Current networks are providing plenty of services that users can access and use. These services are more and more pervasive and deployed in different networks distributed across an environment. This raises the problem of managing such environments in order to grant access to services from anywhere and to adapt the environment’s networks to dynamic changes. Also, there is a need of an autonomous behavior to reduce human intervention and assure environment’s consistency. This autonomous and distributed behavior leads to the definition and integration of existing and new technologies to enable autonomous distributed management. This is fulfilled by providing paradigms that bring awareness about the surroundings and enabled tools to manage and adapt the environment’s resources. The main problem is to dynamically provide auto‐configuration of networks to deal with the frequent changes which results from users’ roaming, changing services constraints, and changing services themselves, and adding, upgrading or removing policies. The outcome of these issues is a dynamic system with complex management. Hence, this paper proposes the integration of different techniques to provide an autonomous, distributed, and secure management including auto‐configuration, adaptation, and auto‐protection of pervasive environments. Then, policies control the behavior of the environment, devices configuration and the enforcement of security mechanisms to protect sensitive data. Also, mobile agents are employed to distribute management tasks across the distributed environment. In order to provide auto‐protection capabilities, the autonomous behavior of the environment have to be secured. Actually, this security issue is addressed by defining an agent‐based Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) with X.509 certificates. The agent ensures then that the security functions are applied across all the distributed networks, where specific agents are responsible for conveying necessary information and certificates to local environments. Finally, the paper proposes a semantic‐based privacy management approach using ontologies to decide how privacy information is handled in the environment.

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. 2 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

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Article
Publication date: 12 July 2011

Jiun‐Sheng Chris Lin and Haw‐Yi Liang

Previous research on the relationship between service environments and customer emotions and service outcomes has focused on the physical environment. Among studies…

Abstract

Purpose

Previous research on the relationship between service environments and customer emotions and service outcomes has focused on the physical environment. Among studies exploring the social environment, the emphasis has been on service employees, ignoring the impact of other customers. Recent research has further called for the need to include displayed emotion within the social environment. Therefore, this study aims to develop and test a more comprehensive model that focuses on the relationship between the social environment (employee displayed emotion and customer climate) and the physical environment (ambient and design factors) and resulting customer emotion and service outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on past research, a theoretical framework was developed to propose the links between social/physical environments and customer emotion/perceptions. Extant research from various academic fields, including environmental psychology, was reviewed, deriving 11 hypotheses. Data collected from fashion apparel retailers, using both observation and customer survey methods, was examined through structural equation modeling (SEM).

Findings

Results show that both social and physical environments have a positive influence on customer emotion and satisfaction, which in turn affect behavioral intentions. The physical environment exhibited more influence on customer emotion and satisfaction than social environment.

Research limitations/implications

This research explains how both social and physical environments affect customer emotion and perceptions. Future research directions are discussed, with an emphasis on incorporating customer characteristics, industry attributes, and cultural variables to better understand the influence of service environments in different service settings.

Practical implications

Social and physical environments influence customer emotional states within the service delivery context, which in turn affect customer service evaluations. Therefore, both social and physical service environments should be emphasized by service firms.

Originality/value

This research represents an early attempt to develop a more comprehensive model explaining how both social and physical environments affect customer emotion and perceptions. This study also represents the first empirical study of service environment research to include employee displayed emotion as part of the social environment.

Details

Managing Service Quality: An International Journal, vol. 21 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-4529

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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2009

Nicole Bieak Kreidler and Sacha Joseph‐Mathews

The purpose of this paper is to introduce the idea of green atmospherics and propose a conceptual framework for green service environment factors and a typology for green…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to introduce the idea of green atmospherics and propose a conceptual framework for green service environment factors and a typology for green consumers.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper takes the form of a conceptual piece. and offers a new approach to green consumerism. Green atmospherics goes beyond many of the typical factors explored in previous service environment studies. The paper examines how many terms commonplace in the design and architectural literature can be translated into the marketing arena. Factors such as daylighting, recycling, offgassing, insulation, optimal energy performance and design for the environment are discussed.

Findings

The paper proposes that “going green” goes beyond having recyclable or even sustainable products, to an ideology that incorporates improving worker morale and retention, and giving back to the communities they are located in. Additionally, the paper makes a case for classifying green consumers based on a psychographic segmentation approach compared to the more traditional socioeconomic classification.

Originality/value

This paper offers a conceptual framework for assessing green atmospherics within service environments and proposes a green consumer typology that references “stimuli” versus “socio‐demographics” for categorization. A new categorization is proposed and the importance of this topic to consumers, practitioners and researchers are discussed.

Details

International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, vol. 3 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6182

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 2 March 2015

Noel Carroll and Markus Helfert

Open innovation is an emerging paradigm which exposes organisations to networked capabilities and competencies though collaboration relationships. The traditional view of…

Abstract

Purpose

Open innovation is an emerging paradigm which exposes organisations to networked capabilities and competencies though collaboration relationships. The traditional view of the organisational environment raises concerns regarding the mismatch in the methods used to assess business value and understanding service process maturity. The purpose of this paper is to address this gap.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper employs a systematic literature review to present a state-of-the-art literature review with particular focus on the applicability of capability maturity models (CMM) within an open innovation context.

Findings

The authors present a conceptual account of our research developments and build on the state-of-the-art which bridges open innovation and CMM. The authors provide a comprehensive discussion on the literature and challenge the applicability of individual organisations evolving through maturity stages. The authors identify a significant gap in the emergence of open innovation and CMM and present a service capability sourcing model (SCSM) to bridge these two research areas.

Practical implications

Unpacking the nature of service capabilities allows us to understand the primary components of value co-creation and their contribution towards service maturity within an open service innovation environment. The authors verify the explanation model using a cloud computing scenario within an open service innovation environment.

Originality/value

The contribution of this paper is an explanation model of an open service innovation environment through our SCSM. Though an open innovation perspective, the authors examine the nature of service capabilities and the suitability of traditional CMM in a modern service context.

Details

Journal of Enterprise Information Management, vol. 28 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0398

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2021

Muhammad Khalilur Rahman, Md Shah Newaz, Mina Hemmati and S M Yusuf Mallick

The purpose of this study is to explore the private general practice (GP) clinics' service environment, patients' satisfaction and their impact on word of mouth (WoM) for…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to explore the private general practice (GP) clinics' service environment, patients' satisfaction and their impact on word of mouth (WoM) for others for future treatment in GP clinics.

Design/methodology/approach

Data are collected from 367 respondents using a paper-based survey questionnaire. Partial least square (PLS) is used to evaluate the proposed model and hypotheses relationships.

Findings

The findings reveal that ambience and service delivery have a high significant influence on patients' emotional satisfaction (β = 0.27, t = 4.31, p = 0.00) and (β = 0.26, t = 4.81, p = 0.00), respectively, while interior décor has a positive and significant influence on satisfaction (β = 0.13, t = 1.98, p = 0.04). The results indicate that exterior design and cleanliness are not associated with satisfaction. Patients' emotional satisfaction is highly related to WoM (β = 0.55, t = 13.44, p = 0.00). The results also show that emotional satisfaction has a significant mediating effect on the relationship between clinic service environments (ambience, interior décor, service delivery) and WoM (β = 0.15, t = 3.94, p = 0.00), (β = 0.073, t = 3.94, p = 0.04), (β = 0. 0.143, t = 4.13, p = 0.00), respectively.

Originality/value

The study will provide insights regarding Malaysian health consumers' perceptions toward GP clinics' service environment, whether they remain utilitarian or have evolved to entail hedonic appreciations. The contribution to the service environment could be adopted by future health-care studies, particularly those intended to examine GP clinics and other clinic-based institutions.

Details

Health Education, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-4283

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Book part
Publication date: 29 November 2019

Emrah Ozkul, Hakan Boz, Bilsen Bilgili and Erdogan Koc

This chapter explains the role and potential of colour and lighting as two important elements of the service atmosphere in tourism and hospitality service encounters. The…

Abstract

This chapter explains the role and potential of colour and lighting as two important elements of the service atmosphere in tourism and hospitality service encounters. The chapter first explains the importance of colour and lighting in services from the perspective of customers’ sensory perceptions. Then, the chapter provides examples to demonstrate how psychological/neuro-marketing tools of Eye Tracker and Facial Recognition, Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) and Heart Rate (HR) can be used to understand the role of colour and lighting in customer satisfaction in tourism and hospitality service encounters. Based on this perspective, the study offers recommendations to design service environments in terms of colour and lighting.

Details

Atmospheric Turn in Culture and Tourism: Place, Design and Process Impacts on Customer Behaviour, Marketing and Branding
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-070-2

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2020

Julie Baker, Kara Bentley and Charles Lamb, Jr

This paper aims to explore the evolution of the service environment literature and speculates about future research in this area. This paper focuses on studies regarding…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the evolution of the service environment literature and speculates about future research in this area. This paper focuses on studies regarding how the interior and exterior environments of physical service settings (including retail stores) influence consumer response. Web atmospherics are not covered in this paper. In addition, while a number of studies have been conducted on retail and service atmospherics elements in other disciplines, such as environmental psychology and leisure and hospitality, the focus is on research published in marketing and consumer-related journals.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper reports the results of empirical studies; however, as there are few empirical studies on the effects of exterior environmental characteristics (e.g. storefronts) in marketing, two conceptual papers on this topic will be reviewed to set the stage for future research on exterior design.

Findings

Over the past 40 years, there has been a proliferation of articles on how service environments influence consumer responses. The review covers illustrative examples of articles in several categories of environmental topics. The areas for future research based on the review are suggested.

Originality/value

An up-to-date review of service environment research that is broad in scope is provided. The authors also propose 41 different research questions based on the review that services scholars can use to take this area of inquiry forward.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 34 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

Keywords

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