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Book part
Publication date: 21 September 2018

Elad Green and Zur Shapira

There are many cases where top management either missed or almost missed detecting or interpreting a major change in the environment that might have led them to a major…

Abstract

There are many cases where top management either missed or almost missed detecting or interpreting a major change in the environment that might have led them to a major setback. We propose a model of sensing in hierarchical organizations that describes a sequence of sensing and detecting changes in the environment, followed by successive stages of perception, interpretation, and finally action. We model an organization as a complex signal detection system, where the flow of information among members of the organization is constrained by two elements: the structure of the organization, which is defined by who reports to whom, and the attentional and cognitive limitations of the individuals. We infer the probability of sensing over time for different levels of environmental shocks and different organizational structures. By focusing on the (un)reliability of sensing and the information flow in different organizational structures, we are able to provide preliminary analysis of the trade-offs among cognitive limitations, speed of detection, modes of information flow, and the resulting performance measure of delay, false-alarms, and true detections.

Details

Behavioral Strategy in Perspective
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-348-3

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 10 December 2021

Jiguo Yang and Renshu Yuan

As there are different interpretations of the object of study in the preface to the first edition of Capital (Volume I) by Karl Marx, disagreements arise over the object…

Abstract

Purpose

As there are different interpretations of the object of study in the preface to the first edition of Capital (Volume I) by Karl Marx, disagreements arise over the object of study on political economy, which becomes a “difficult problem.” The purpose of the paper is to bring a new solution to the “difficult problem.”

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the analysis of the logic of the original text, the authors attempted to give a new interpretation of the “difficult problem” by analyzing the structure of Capital. The object of study of political economy is “the relations of production in the broad sense” of the capitalist mode of production.

Findings

It comprises relations of production in the narrow sense and exchange relations in the broad sense, and the latter can be divided into exchange relations in the narrow sense and distribution relations. The three of them correspond to Volume I, II and III of Capital, respectively. Consumption in “the four-section theory” is not studied by the political economy.

Originality/value

And the four-section theory is not a part of the theory of Marxist economics but a part of the classical economics criticized by Marx. Therefore, the object of study of socialist political economy with Chinese characteristics is “the relations of production in the broad sense” regarding the socialist mode of production with Chinese characteristics, which is different from the capitalist relations of production in the broad sense.

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Article
Publication date: 19 November 2021

Anthony Lising Antonio and Chanwoong Baek

Although a student’s sense of belonging is a key factor of persistence in higher education, research on international students’ belonging tends to rely on domain-agnostic…

Abstract

Purpose

Although a student’s sense of belonging is a key factor of persistence in higher education, research on international students’ belonging tends to rely on domain-agnostic survey measures and promote interpretations that focus mainly on social integration and adjustment. This paper aims to examine how male international graduate students in engineering understand and describe their sense of belonging and how they perceive its development at their institution.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted in-depth interviews with 12 male electrical engineering doctoral students at a selective research university in the USA. This interpretive approach allowed students to articulate their subjective understanding of belonging within a specific disciplinary context.

Findings

Contrary to the broad notion that the social domain is the primary locus of students’ sense of belonging, participants emphasized the academic domain when referring to their struggles with, and attempts to develop, a sense of belonging. Results suggest that the meritocratic culture of engineering education may influence students to prioritize the academic domain when conceptualizing and developing their belonging. Moreover, the strong academic motivation endemic to international students pursuing graduate education at a top American research university intensified this mechanism.

Originality/value

This study argues that universities seeking to enhance international graduate students’ sense of belonging can be more intentional in providing opportunities for students to establish positive academic identities. Furthermore, addressing students’ non-academic identity and marginalization as relevant and essential topics in engineering will expand their understanding of what means to belong.

Details

Studies in Graduate and Postdoctoral Education, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-4686

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Article
Publication date: 24 November 2021

Kellie Swan, Dianne C. Shanley and Melanie J. Zimmer-Gembeck

The purpose of this paper is to develop a measure of practitioner sense of competence when treating children with disruptive behaviours.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a measure of practitioner sense of competence when treating children with disruptive behaviours.

Design/methodology/approach

Two online surveys were conducted with health, social work and psychology practitioners (n = 113 and n = 239, respectively) working within varied Australian clinical settings. Study 1 developed scale items and conducted an exploratory factor analysis of the initial Professional Sense of Competence Scale (ProSOCS). Study 2 conducted confirmatory factor analysis and tested the construct validity of the scale.

Findings

Study 1 established a three-factor model, which accounted for 56.9% of variance in the ProSOCS items. Study 2 confirmed the three-factor model and considered an alternative unidimensional model. Study 2 demonstrated good convergent validity with measures of knowledge and general sense of competence.

Originality/value

The ProSOCS is a valid and reliable way to measure three subscales of a more global composite score of practitioner sense of competence when treating children with disruptive behaviours. Disruptive behaviour represents one of the most common reasons for child presentation in mental health care settings. Understanding how sense of competence among professionals who treat disruptive behaviours in children relates to their level of training, treatment decisions and outcomes could help to enhance use of evidence-based treatment strategies and complement strategies for measuring competence-based training in post-graduate settings.

Details

Higher Education, Skills and Work-Based Learning, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-3896

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Article
Publication date: 11 June 2019

Yawei Xu, Lihong Dong, Haidou Wang, Yuelan Di, Xiaozhu Xie, Peng Wang and Miao Zhang

Crack sensor based on RFID tag has become a research hotspot in the field of metal structural health monitoring for its significant benefit of passive wireless…

Abstract

Purpose

Crack sensor based on RFID tag has become a research hotspot in the field of metal structural health monitoring for its significant benefit of passive wireless transmission. While in practice, crack location will impact the performance of crack depth-sensing tag. The purpose of this paper is to provide a method for reducing disturbance of crack location on crack depth-sensing tag.

Design/methodology/approach

The effect analysis of crack location on crack depth-sensing tag is presented first to find disturbance reason and disturbance law. On the basis of that, a miniaturized tag is proposed to improve the current distribution and reduce the disturbance introduced by crack location.

Findings

The degree of crack location disturbance is closely related to the current distribution in the coverage area of tag. Because sensing tag performs better when crack locates in the high current density area, miniaturization of sensing tag is exploited to expand the high current density area and make the area more symmetrical. The simulated and experimental results demonstrate that tag miniaturization can enhance the performance of crack depth-sensing tag.

Originality/value

This paper provides a method to enhance the performance of crack depth-sensing tag.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 39 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 27 March 2009

Zhou Gaofeng, Zhao Yulong and Jiang Zhuangde

The flexibly thin film grid pressure sensor is mainly used to detect the interface pressure distribution between touching objects. Aim at larger measurement error, the…

Abstract

Purpose

The flexibly thin film grid pressure sensor is mainly used to detect the interface pressure distribution between touching objects. Aim at larger measurement error, the strip double sensing layer pressure sensor are designed and fabricated and tested.

Design/methodology/approach

Defects and characteristic of the flexibly thin film grid pressure sensor based on piezoresistive effect are analyzed and pointed out in this paper. After comparison of four sensors, the strip double sensing layer pressure sensor was thought to be best.

Findings

Experiment shows that the strip double sensing layer pressure sensor could eliminate the measurement error basically and illustrates the validity of measuring the interface pressure distribution between area touching objects.

Research limitations/implications

In this paper, only the strip double sensing layer pressure sensor was used to verify the validity of measuring the static interface pressure distribution between peach and platform. But there also exists some problems such as the adhering reliability of electrode and the unevenness of sensing layer. These problems could be overcome in the future research if the fabricating procedure and ingredient of material could be adjusted correctly.

Practical implications

The strip double sensing layer pressure sensor could be applied to detect the static interface pressure distribution such as peach pressure distribution. For dynamic measurement, this research needs to be done further.

Originality/value

Strip double sensing layer pressure sensor with simple “interlayer” structure and with low manufacture cost is presented to basically eliminate the measurement error of interface pressure distribution of original sensor.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 29 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2015

Nastaran Pour Ebrahim

The concept of community where people can meet their needs, interact, and feel a sense of belonging and togetherness has been an interesting topic for a majority of…

Abstract

The concept of community where people can meet their needs, interact, and feel a sense of belonging and togetherness has been an interesting topic for a majority of professionals in different academic fields such as urban planning and urban design. Different theories in these disciplines assert the correlation between the built environment and sense of community. Among these theories, New Urbanism is one of the most important schools of thought which have thrown light on this correlation. New Urbanism claims that the built environment can create a sense of community among its users. As the theory of New Urbanism develops more and more among professionals across the world, it is critical that we give the topic more research attention. This study intends to begin moving us in this direction by reviewing some studies which tried to achieve the social goal of new urbanism in recent years. Therefore the results of the empirical assessment of Sense of community in different neighbourhoods are reviewed and the influence of physical design on different domains of sense of community are discussed to find out whether the claims of new urbanism in creating sense of community could be trusted in the future development. While new urbanism movement continues to become more popular, finding enough evidence for its social claims might encourage more planners to use its principles as a way to improve the residents' social life

Details

Open House International, vol. 40 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0168-2601

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Article
Publication date: 15 September 2021

Srinivas Rao Sriram, Saidireddy Parne, Venkata Satya Chidambara Swamy Vaddadi, Damodar Edla, Nagaraju P., Raji Reddy Avala, Vijayakumar Yelsani and Uday Bhasker Sontu

This paper aims to focus on the basic principle of WO3 gas sensors to achieve high gas-sensing performance with good stability and repeatability. Metal oxide-based gas…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to focus on the basic principle of WO3 gas sensors to achieve high gas-sensing performance with good stability and repeatability. Metal oxide-based gas sensors are widely used for monitoring toxic gas leakages in the environment, industries and households. For better livelihood and a healthy environment, it is extremely helpful to have sensors with higher accuracy and improved sensing features.

Design/methodology/approach

In the present review, the authors focus on recent synthesis methods of WO3-based gas sensors to enhance sensing features towards toxic gases.

Findings

This work has proved that the synthesis method led to provide different morphologies of nanostructured WO3-based material in turn to improve gas sensing performance along with its sensing mechanism.

Originality/value

In this work, the authors reviewed challenges and possibilities associated with the nanostructured WO3-based gas sensors to trace toxic gases such as ammonia, H2S and NO2 for future research.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 41 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

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Article
Publication date: 16 September 2021

Naseer Abbas Khan, Zhang Hui, Ali Nawaz Khan and Mohsin Ali Soomro

Leadership research is of interest to academics and practitioners in the construction industry. Based on the ego-depletion theory and authentic leadership theory, the…

Abstract

Purpose

Leadership research is of interest to academics and practitioners in the construction industry. Based on the ego-depletion theory and authentic leadership theory, the current study aims to investigate the impact of women authentic leadership on leaders' emotional exhaustion and job engagement in the construction industry.

Design/methodology/approach

The data were gathered in two waves using a time lag approach. The responses of 276 women leaders-follower dyads from construction firms in China's eastern provinces were analyzed using a moderated mediation model.

Findings

Most of the proposed hypotheses were supported by the findings of this study, which showed that authentic leadership can reduce emotional exhaustion in women leaders and increase work engagement through ego depletion. Furthermore, the leader's sense of belonging, according to this study, moderates the mediating effect of ego depletion.

Research limitations/implications

This study can help managers, policymakers and human resource professionals think about authentic leadership and its impact on women leaders. Furthermore, ego depletion has an impact on the psychological well-being of authentic women leaders. The sense of belongingness of a leader is critical in buffering the negative effects of ego depletion for women in authentic leadership. Thus, women leaders in construction sector should be encouraged to express a sense of belonging to their followers, since this will improve their work engagement and lessen their emotional exhaustion.

Originality/value

This study is unique in that it examines the authentic behavior of women leaders in the Chinese construction sector, which is a challenging profession for women to work in as site managers. This study contributes to the literature on women in leadership by demonstrating how authentic leadership behavior influences the wellbeing and engagement of leaders. In addition, the study indicated that the effect of the mediator (ego depletion) and moderator (leader sense of belongingness) on the relationship between women's authentic leadership and the leader's own psychological wellbeing and job engagement was significant.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

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Article
Publication date: 11 October 2021

Yaw Owusu-Agyeman

The current study examines the moderating effect of supportive campus environment on the relationship between cultural diversity and students’ sense of belonging in a…

Abstract

Purpose

The current study examines the moderating effect of supportive campus environment on the relationship between cultural diversity and students’ sense of belonging in a university in South Africa.

Design/methodology/approach

An online survey was designed and used to gather data from a sample of 2,026 registered undergraduate students. Using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 26 software, the data gathered were analysed by way of hierarchical regression analysis.

Findings

Results of the hierarchical regression analysis revealed that supportive campus environment and cross-cultural interaction serve as strong predictors of students’ sense of belonging. Furthermore, a simple slope analysis showed that supportive campus environment enhance: the positive relationship between cross-cultural interaction and students’ sense of belonging; and the positive relationship between students’ interaction with diverse peers and their sense of belonging.

Originality/value

This study addresses important knowledge and practical gaps in the relationship between supportive campus environment, cultural diversity and students’ sense of belonging in higher education. The results further highlight the significance of institutional structures, policies and practices that aim at enhancing students’ sense of belonging and reducing possible feeling of otherlings that arise due to a lack of supportive campus structures.

Details

Journal for Multicultural Education, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-535X

Keywords

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