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Book part
Publication date: 11 November 1994

E. Eide

Abstract

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Economics of Crime: Deterrence and the Rational Offender
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-44482-072-3

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1999

Clive Beed and Cara Beed

The Neoclassical approach to analysing personal choice is compared with an approach contained in a Biblical Christian mode of analysis. This paper compares the…

Abstract

The Neoclassical approach to analysing personal choice is compared with an approach contained in a Biblical Christian mode of analysis. This paper compares the Neoclassical and Christian positions via analysis of characteristics of the Neoclassical rational choice model. The main characteristic examined is a basic assumption of the rational choice model that human choice is explained as the optimisation of utility via rational self‐interest. The two positions are compared in terms of how they treat self‐interest and rationality, the degree to which basic assumptions about human behaviour are specified, the importance they attach to the realism of assumptions underlying their models, and the explanatory and predictive purposes for which the models are used. The conclusion of the comparison is that the Biblical Christian perspective encompasses the variables regarded as important in Neoclassical explanation, but presents them in the context of a more embracing worldview perspective than the Neoclassical. This Christian belief perspective is applicable to human behaviour in both “economic” and “non‐economic” domains.

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International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 26 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2000

Stephen Cope

This article assesses a rational-choice model of bureaucratic behaviour - the bureau-shaping model - as an explanation of budget-making in British local government. The…

Abstract

This article assesses a rational-choice model of bureaucratic behaviour - the bureau-shaping model - as an explanation of budget-making in British local government. The bureau-shaping model is essentially a reconstructed rational-choice model of bureaucratic behaviour in liberal democratic states, which emerged from critiques of its rival budgetmaximising model. The explanatory power of the bureau-shaping model is significantly superior to the budget-maximising model. However, the explanatory power of the bureaushaping model is limited because, as a supply-side model, it cannot explain how budgets are demanded and controlled by political sponsors, who in turn are constrained politically. Budgetary decision-making takes place in a political arena where both supply and demand are mediated; a supply-side model, at best, can explain only half the budget-story.

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Journal of Public Budgeting, Accounting & Financial Management, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1096-3367

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2002

B.N. Ghosh

The methodological boundary of the GPE is demarcated by truth and non‐violence. It needs to be emphasised that the GPE is dependent on a type of methodological

Abstract

The methodological boundary of the GPE is demarcated by truth and non‐violence. It needs to be emphasised that the GPE is dependent on a type of methodological individualism where individuals matter most in the operation of the whole system. Individuals are the true entities and their holistic development is the basic purpose of the GPE, and this goes a long way to achieve the desideratum of a self‐reliant society. These are the basic instrument variables so to say. To ignore the development of individuals in the system of the GPE is like playing Hamlet without the prince of Denmark. For the proper working of the Gandhian system, many instruments, and institutional and organisational changes are indeed necessary and in some cases, what Schumpeter calls creative destruction, becomes inevitable. Gandhi's methodology was a combination of both realism and idealism. Very often he used the method of eclecticism through a fusion of empirical pragmatism with metaphysical idealism. This is evident in many of his writings including the theory of state, and political and social philosophy.

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Humanomics, vol. 18 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0828-8666

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Article
Publication date: 9 May 2016

Francis C. Uzonwanne

The purpose of this study is to fill the gap by investigating the relationship between age and other demographics on decision-making and leadership styles of executives in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to fill the gap by investigating the relationship between age and other demographics on decision-making and leadership styles of executives in the non-profit sector.

Design/methodology/approach

This study is a quantitative research using correlation analysis and analysis of variance. The quantitative approach establishes facts, makes predictions and tests stated hypothesis and used the Pearson correlation coefficient, the ANOVA and the two-way analysis of variance. This study used surveys to collect data.

Findings

H1 states that there will be no significant difference in the decision-making models used among non-profit organizational leaders (rational, intuitive, dependent, spontaneous and avoidant) based on demographic variables: gender and age. H2 states that there will be no significant difference in the leadership style used among non-profit organizational executives (selling, telling, delegating and participating) and different dimensions of demographic variables: gender and age.

Research limitations/implications

This study explored the relationship between the demographics, age and gender and the decision-making models (rational, intuitive, dependent, spontaneous and avoidant) and leadership styles (selling, telling, delegating and participating) of executives in non-profit organizations. The age of the executives also showed to be important factors that influenced executive’s leadership styles and decision-making models as well.

Practical implications

Rational decision-making as reflected to in this study has been used by older, possibly more experienced non-profit executives. This model is favorable towards making decisions on complicated issues. The final choice rational decision-makers select will maximize the outcome; it is assumed that the decision-maker will choose the alternative that rates the highest and get the maximum benefits (Robbins and Decenzo, 2003, pp. 141-142). The researcher suggests that non-profit executives, especially the younger executives, should attend management and leadership conferences that focus on rational decision-making models as concerns business strategies and making the best choices based on possible alternatives.

Social implications

Rational decision-making as reflected to in this study has been used by older, possibly more experienced non-profit executives. This model is favorable towards making decisions on complicated issues. The final choice rational decision-makers select will maximize the outcome; it is assumed that the decision-maker will choose the alternative that rates the highest and get the maximum benefits (Robbins and Decenzo, 2003, pp. 141-142). The researcher suggests that non-profit executives, especially the younger executives, should attend management and leadership conferences that focus on rational decision-making models as concerns business strategies and making the best choices based on possible alternatives.

Originality/value

This is an original piece of research that contributes to the literature on leadership style.

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International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2004

Winnifred R. Louis, Donald M. Taylor and Tyson Neil

Two studies in the context of English‐French relations in Québec suggest that individuals who strongly identify with a group derive the individual‐level costs and benefits…

Abstract

Two studies in the context of English‐French relations in Québec suggest that individuals who strongly identify with a group derive the individual‐level costs and benefits that drive expectancy‐value processes (rational decision‐making) from group‐level costs and benefits. In Study 1, high identifiers linked group‐ and individual‐level outcomes of conflict choices whereas low identifiers did not. Group‐level expectancy‐value processes, in Study 2, mediated the relationship between social identity and perceptions that collective action benefits the individual actor and between social identity and intentions to act. These findings suggest the rational underpinnings of identity‐driven political behavior, a relationship sometimes obscured in intergroup theory that focuses on cognitive processes of self‐stereotyping. But the results also challenge the view that individuals' cost‐benefit analyses are independent of identity processes. The findings suggest the importance of modeling the relationship of group and individual levels of expectancy‐value processes as both hierarchical and contingent on social identity processes.

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International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 1998

Seleshi Sisaye

Contingency models have enabled researchers to develop system‐based decision‐making approaches to organizational studies. Two contingency decision‐making models ‐ rational

Abstract

Contingency models have enabled researchers to develop system‐based decision‐making approaches to organizational studies. Two contingency decision‐making models ‐ rational and political choice ‐ have been applied to identify those organizational characteristics and strategic leadership qualities associated with acquisitive growth through “absorption” and “diversification”. A study of the International Telephone and Telegraph Company (ITT) organizational growth strategies from 1920 to 1997 reveals that senior managers adopt the rational decision‐making model when organizational growth through acquisition involves absorption, and the political model when organizational growth calls for diversification. A contingency historical study of ITT demonstrates two important periods in ITT’s organizational life cycles ‐ one of growth (1920‐early 1970s) and one of consolidation/stability (from mid‐1970 to the present time). Contingency models indicate that differences in organizational growth strategies arise due to differences in environmental factors characterizing each period as organizations pass through several stages of growth in their life cycles.

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Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 19 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 1997

John L. Campbell

Interest in developing institutional explanations of political and economic behavior has blossomed among social scientists since the early 1980s. Three intellectual…

Abstract

Interest in developing institutional explanations of political and economic behavior has blossomed among social scientists since the early 1980s. Three intellectual perspectives are now prevalent: rational choice theory, historical institutionalism and a new school of organizational analysis. This paper summarizes, compares and contrasts these views and suggests ways in which cross‐fertilization may be achieved. Particular attention is paid to how the insights of organizational analysis and historical institutionalism can be blended to provide fruitful avenues of research and theorizing, especially with regard to the production, adoption, and mobilization of ideas by decision makers.

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International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 17 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Article
Publication date: 20 September 2011

Satwinder Singh, Ruth Simpson, Chima Mordi and Chinonye Okafor

The paper aims to draw on rational choice theory (RCT) to explore factors underpinning the decision by female entrepreneurs in Nigeria to enter self‐employment.

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to draw on rational choice theory (RCT) to explore factors underpinning the decision by female entrepreneurs in Nigeria to enter self‐employment.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey research design involving the use of questionnaire and structured interviews to obtain primary data was adopted. Primary data pertain to 300 female entrepreneurs currently engaged in their businesses in three states within the south‐west of the country. A model developed from reviewed literature and multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to analyse data.

Findings

Findings suggest the significance of “educational” and “family” capital, an “internal” orientation to social recognition as well as an “external” environment characterised by deregulation of the economy. Results broadly conform to RCT theory postulates of rational behaviour.

Research limitations/implications

Inter‐regional variances could not be addressed since the data are analysed in aggregate. Analysis of disaggregate data are required to study these differences and also those at the inter‐sector (manufacturing/services, etc.) levels.

Practical implications

Results from the study indicate that the government measures such as de‐regulation which may as yet be in small measures have started to work and that these should be continued. The government can go a step further and identify entrepreneurs with characteristics described in this paper and provide them with the requisite help to get them started on the entrepreneurship route.

Originality/value

The study makes a theoretical contribution by applying the lens of rational choice to this specific context. It also makes an original empirical contribution by focussing on an under‐researched group by examining the influence of personal, social, market and environmental factors on the probability of females becoming entrepreneurs.

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African Journal of Economic and Management Studies, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-0705

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2009

Mark Bevir

This paper offers a constructivist theory of governance. It begins by challenging rational choice and institutionalist accounts for neglecting meanings. If we are to take…

Abstract

This paper offers a constructivist theory of governance. It begins by challenging rational choice and institutionalist accounts for neglecting meanings. If we are to take meanings seriously, we need to allow for the constructed nature of governance − governance depends on concepts that are themselves in part products of wider webs of belief. The rest of the paper argues, first, that constructivism is compatible with various forms of realism, and, second, that constructivism is strengthened by recognition of situated agency.

Details

International Journal of Organization Theory & Behavior, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1093-4537

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