Search results

1 – 10 of 29
Article
Publication date: 5 January 2023

Rand H.M. Agha and Amna Nassir Hussein

This paper aims to shed light on adaptive reuse in traditional architecture (TA) in Erbil, Iraq.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to shed light on adaptive reuse in traditional architecture (TA) in Erbil, Iraq.

Design/methodology/approach

An inductive approach and qualitative method were used in this study. The inductive research approach was used because there was no clear image of adaptive reuse in traditional cafés (TCs) in Erbil. Besides, there are no studies of TCs in Erbil particularly. Thus, there is a lack of knowledge about what adaptations took place in TCs in Erbil. The qualitative method extracted themes and issues from case studies of four TCs in Erbil citadel's buffer zone. This included a physical survey and observation of the TCs in Erbil and 18 semi-structured interviews with the owners, servers and visitors.

Findings

The analysis shows the flexibility of the TCs in Erbil as a face of adaptive re-use (AR) which is explained through the capacity linked to space modifications, the addition of modern devices, the function linked to space modifications, service addition, the condition linked to space modifications and the addition of modern devices. Also, TCs in Erbil has a spatial identity and architectural value that proves it is worthy enough to be preserved through unique spirituality linked to preserving the place.

Research limitations/implications

The findings are limited to the cases of TCs in mountain regain and may not be applicable or appropriate to other cafés in other different countries.

Originality/value

There are three aspects of authenticity in the current research. Firstly, the TCs in Erbil have not been studied before. Secondly, TCs that have been discovered have made AR of themselves whilst maintaining their original function-serving beverages, to stimulate creativity. Thirdly, most of the studies of AR have dealt with historical and heritage architecture, whilst the current research paper is dealing with TA.

Details

International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, vol. 42 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-4708

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 August 2017

Rand H.M. Agha and John M. Kamara

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the adaptations that have been made to traditional courtyard houses (TCHs) in Baghdad, Iraq. The aim is to develop an understanding of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the adaptations that have been made to traditional courtyard houses (TCHs) in Baghdad, Iraq. The aim is to develop an understanding of various factors in the adaptation of these buildings to suit contemporary lifestyles, which will contribute to the wider field of building adaptability.

Design/methodology/approach

Empirical evidence was collected through case studies of 12 TCHs in the Al-Kadhimiya area of Baghdad, which involved a physical survey of buildings and semi-structured interviews with 24 occupants.

Findings

Case study analysis show that building adaptability involves both a change to physical spaces and also to lifestyles; with the latter being more likely when there are limitations in how much change can be made to the physical structure.

Research limitations/implications

The focus of this research is mainly on users’ adaptation of spaces and therefore does not consider the full range of stakeholders involved in the adaptation process. The findings also only apply to the cases considered and may not be applicable to other house types or locations.

Originality/value

Studies on building adaptability mostly focus on the ease of change to the building fabric, although the role of users is acknowledged. This study provides insights into the complexity and variety of changes that users can make, which are influenced by lifestyles and driven by the need for comfort. These insights are represented in an adaptation model, which can serve as a basis for further research.

Details

International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, vol. 35 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-4708

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 19 October 2021

Anculien Schoeman, Chris Evans and Hanneke du Preez

Enhanced revenue mobilization is essential in developing countries such as South Africa. However, it is inevitably a complex process, both from economic and political…

Abstract

Enhanced revenue mobilization is essential in developing countries such as South Africa. However, it is inevitably a complex process, both from economic and political perspectives. Increasing the rate of value-added tax (VAT) has been identified as one option to increase tax revenue, although the likely effect of VAT rate changes on tax compliance behaviour is undetermined. This study considers the impact of such a change on the tax compliance behaviour of small business entities. In order to address the impact of VAT rate changes on tax compliance behaviour, a between-subjects pre-test/post-test online field experiment was conducted and designed to identify the implications of rate changes of various directions and magnitude.

Statistical analysis of the data obtained from the experiment indicated that small business entities are inclined to reduce the VAT liability when there is an increase in the VAT rate, and to do so by overstating purchases rather than under-declaring sales. This leads to an increase in non-compliance. The greater the magnitude of the VAT rate increase, the greater the level of non-compliance. In contrast, no significant relationships were identified between a decrease in the VAT rate and tax compliance.

Book part
Publication date: 20 October 2015

Mohammad Shamsuddoha

Contemporary literature reveals that, to date, the poultry livestock sector has not received sufficient research attention. This particular industry suffers from unstructured…

Abstract

Contemporary literature reveals that, to date, the poultry livestock sector has not received sufficient research attention. This particular industry suffers from unstructured supply chain practices, lack of awareness of the implications of the sustainability concept and failure to recycle poultry wastes. The current research thus attempts to develop an integrated supply chain model in the context of poultry industry in Bangladesh. The study considers both sustainability and supply chain issues in order to incorporate them in the poultry supply chain. By placing the forward and reverse supply chains in a single framework, existing problems can be resolved to gain economic, social and environmental benefits, which will be more sustainable than the present practices.

The theoretical underpinning of this research is ‘sustainability’ and the ‘supply chain processes’ in order to examine possible improvements in the poultry production process along with waste management. The research adopts the positivist paradigm and ‘design science’ methods with the support of system dynamics (SD) and the case study methods. Initially, a mental model is developed followed by the causal loop diagram based on in-depth interviews, focus group discussions and observation techniques. The causal model helps to understand the linkages between the associated variables for each issue. Finally, the causal loop diagram is transformed into a stock and flow (quantitative) model, which is a prerequisite for SD-based simulation modelling. A decision support system (DSS) is then developed to analyse the complex decision-making process along the supply chains.

The findings reveal that integration of the supply chain can bring economic, social and environmental sustainability along with a structured production process. It is also observed that the poultry industry can apply the model outcomes in the real-life practices with minor adjustments. This present research has both theoretical and practical implications. The proposed model’s unique characteristics in mitigating the existing problems are supported by the sustainability and supply chain theories. As for practical implications, the poultry industry in Bangladesh can follow the proposed supply chain structure (as par the research model) and test various policies via simulation prior to its application. Positive outcomes of the simulation study may provide enough confidence to implement the desired changes within the industry and their supply chain networks.

Details

Sustaining Competitive Advantage Via Business Intelligence, Knowledge Management, and System Dynamics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-707-3

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 10 February 2023

Ryan Varghese, Abha Deshpande, Gargi Digholkar and Dileep Kumar

Background: Artificial intelligence (AI) is a booming sector that has profoundly influenced every walk of life, and the education sector is no exception. In education, AI has…

Abstract

Background: Artificial intelligence (AI) is a booming sector that has profoundly influenced every walk of life, and the education sector is no exception. In education, AI has helped to develop novel teaching and learning solutions that are currently being tested in various contexts. Businesses and governments across the globe have been pouring money into a wide array of implementations, and dozens of EdTech start-ups are being funded to capitalise on this technological force. The penetration of AI in classroom teaching is also a profound matter of discussion. These have garnered massive amounts of student big data and have a significant impact on the life of both students and educators alike.

Purpose: The prime focus of this chapter is to extensively review and analyse the vast literature available on the utilities of AI in health care, learning, and development. The specific objective of thematic exploration of the literature is to explicate the principal facets and recent advances in the development and employment of AI in the latter. This chapter also aims to explore how the EdTech and healthcare–education sectors would witness a paradigm shift with the advent and incorporation of AI.

Design/Methodology/Approach: To provide context and evidence, relevant publications were identified on ScienceDirect, PubMed, and Google Scholar using keywords like AI, education, learning, health care, and development. In addition, the latest articles were also thoroughly reviewed to underscore recent advances in the same field.

Results: The implementation of AI in the learning, development, and healthcare sector is rising steeply, with a projected expansion of about 50% by 2022. These algorithms and user interfaces economically facilitate efficient delivery of the latter.

Conclusions: The EdTech and healthcare sector has great potential for a spectrum of AI-based interventions, providing access to learning opportunities and personalised experiences. These interventions are often economic in the long run compared to conventional modalities. However, several ethical and regulatory concerns should be addressed before the complete adoption of AI in these sectors.

Originality/Value: The value in exploring this topic is to present a view on the potential of employing AI in health care, medical education, and learning and development. It also intends to open a discussion of its potential benefits and a remedy to its shortcomings.

Details

The Adoption and Effect of Artificial Intelligence on Human Resources Management, Part B
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80455-662-7

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 16 June 2022

Patricia Drentea, Beverly Rosa Williams, Karen Hoefer, F. Amos Bailey and Kathryn L. Burgio

Purpose: To explore how families respond to the death and dying of their loved ones in a hospital setting, archival research was conducted using eight qualitative articles

Abstract

Purpose: To explore how families respond to the death and dying of their loved ones in a hospital setting, archival research was conducted using eight qualitative articles describing next-of-kins’ perceptions of end-of-life care in Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs). The articles were based on the qualitative arm of the VA Health Services Research and Development (HSR&D) study entitled, “Best Practices for End-of-life Care and Comfort Care Order Sets for our Nation’s Veterans” (BEACON).

Design: The archival research consisted of an interactive methodological process of data immersion, analysis, and interpretation which resulted in the emergence of two overarching thematic frameworks called “losing control” and “holding on.”

Findings: “Losing control” is the process that occurs when the patient experiences a cascading sequence of deleterious biological events and situations rendering the caregiver no longer able to direct the timing or setting of the dying trajectory. The notion of “holding on” captures family member’s responses to the need to maintain control after relinquishing the patient’s care to the institutional setting. During the patient’s hospitalization, the dual dynamics of “losing control” and “holding on” unfolded in the spatial, temporal, and life narrative domains.

Originality: The findings not only contribute to better overall understanding of family members’ responses to death in the pre-COVID-19 hospital setting but also heighten the awareness of the complex spatial, temporal, and narrative issues faced by family members who lost a hospitalized loved one during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Details

Facing Death: Familial Responses to Illness and Death
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80382-264-8

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 14 December 2020

Awele Achi and Francis Chukwuedo Achi

Recently, there is an increasing academic and practitioner interest on the Igbo ethnic group, their business activities and how they have utilised industrial clusters to drive…

Abstract

Recently, there is an increasing academic and practitioner interest on the Igbo ethnic group, their business activities and how they have utilised industrial clusters to drive local industrial development in the southeast region of Nigeria and the country at large. However, there are relatively few studies that have explored the mechanisms driving this development. Our chapter focuses on explicating the Igbo business industrial clusters and its inherent locally generated venture capital approach built on the Igbo traditional culture and philosophy. We draw on previous literature to show the three phases: assessing competency, providing the start-up capital and continuous replication process involved in creating and sustaining the locally generated venture capital approach as operated by Igbo business industrial clusters. We contend that overall, this approach has the potential to drive modern business and industrial policies for driving entrepreneurial start-ups, innovation, and economic sustainability. We conclude our chapter by highlighting the implications for Africa, African business practices and areas for future studies.

Article
Publication date: 19 September 2019

Gayatri Nayak and Mitrabinda Ray

Test suite prioritization technique is the process of modifying the order in which tests run to meet certain objectives. Early fault detection and maximum coverage of source code…

Abstract

Purpose

Test suite prioritization technique is the process of modifying the order in which tests run to meet certain objectives. Early fault detection and maximum coverage of source code are the main objectives of testing. There are several test suite prioritization approaches that have been proposed at the maintenance phase of software development life cycle. A few works are done on prioritizing test suites that satisfy modified condition decision coverage (MC/DC) criteria which are derived for safety-critical systems. The authors know that it is mandatory to do MC/DC testing for Level A type software according to RTCA/DO178C standards. The paper aims to discuss this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper provides a novel method to prioritize the test suites for a system that includes MC/DC criteria along with other important criteria that ensure adequate testing.

Findings

In this approach, the authors generate test suites from the input Java program using concolic testing. These test suites are utilized to measure MC/DC% by using the coverage calculator algorithm. Now, use MC/DC% and the execution time of these test suites in the basic particle swarm optimization technique with a modified objective function to prioritize the generated test suites.

Originality/value

The proposed approach maximizes MC/DC% and minimizes the execution time of the test suites. The effectiveness of this approach is validated by experiments on 20 moderate-sized Java programs using average percentage of fault detected metric.

Details

International Journal of Intelligent Computing and Cybernetics, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-378X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 May 2020

Ahmad Farhan Alshira'h and Hijattulah Abdul-Jabbar

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of tax audit, tax rate and tax penalty on sales tax compliance and examine the moderating effect of patriotism on the…

1185

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of tax audit, tax rate and tax penalty on sales tax compliance and examine the moderating effect of patriotism on the associations between tax audit, tax rate and tax penalty with sales tax compliance among Jordanian manufacturing small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs).

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, 660 questionnaires were distributed by using systematic random sampling to manufacturing SMEs in Jordan, after which a total of 385 useable questionnaires were deemed suitable for analysis. Partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) was used to validate the measurement model and structural model and the predictive relevance of the study’s model.

Findings

The findings showed that tax audit and tax penalty were positively associated with the level of sales tax compliance, whereas tax rate was insignificantly associated with sales tax compliance. They also demonstrated the moderating significant effect of patriotism on the relationship between tax penalty, tax audit and tax rate with sales tax compliance.

Research limitations/implications

Tax authorities and policymakers in developing majority societies in developing countries and in other Arab countries, especially in Jordan may use the results to focus their interest on the formulation of policies founded on the outcomes of the study to strengthen eligible SMEs to comply to further boost their sales collections.

Originality/value

This study extends the deterrence theory in the context of sales tax compliance by proposing the moderating effect of patriotism in the deterrence theory on sales tax compliance among SMEs. Moreover, the suitability for the use of PLS-SEM as a statistical tool in investigating the extended deterrence theory with patriotism as a moderating variable as well as its implications for theory and practice was also discussed.

Details

International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8394

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 December 2023

Dorine Maurice Mattar, Joy Haddad and Celine Nammour

This study aims to assess the effect of job insecurity, customer incivility and work–life imbalance on Lebanese bank employee workplace well-being (EWW), while investigating the…

296

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to assess the effect of job insecurity, customer incivility and work–life imbalance on Lebanese bank employee workplace well-being (EWW), while investigating the moderating role that positive and negative affect might have.

Design/methodology/approach

Quantitative data was collected from 202 respondents and analyzed using structural equation modeling system through IBM SPSS and AMOS.

Findings

Results revealed that each of the independent variables has a negative, statistically significant effect on Lebanese bank EWW. The positive affect and the negative one are shown to have a moderating effect that lessens and boosts, respectively, these negative effects.

Theoretical implications

The study adds to the literature on EWW while highlighting the high-power distance and collectivist society that the research took place in.

Research limitations/implications

Limitations include the sample size that was hoped to be larger, in addition to the self-reporting issue and what it entails in the data collection process.

Practical implications

The study has many practical implications, including the validation of a questionnaire in a developing Arab country, hence providing a reliable tool for researchers. HR specialists should lean toward applicants with positive affect, ensuring that their workplace is occupied by members with enhanced resilience. Furthermore, employers should support their employees’ professional growth, thus, boosting their employability during turmoil and consequently making them less vulnerable in times of economic recession.

Originality/value

The study’s unique context, depicted in the harsh economic and financial crisis, makes the findings on EWW of a high value.

1 – 10 of 29