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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1992

T.S. Gross, D.W. Watt, R.S. Raber, J.A. Perault and Y. Zhang

The failure of copper‐plated holes in dielectric laminates during thermal cycling is a serious problem for the electronics industry. The large difference in out‐of‐plane thermal…

Abstract

The failure of copper‐plated holes in dielectric laminates during thermal cycling is a serious problem for the electronics industry. The large difference in out‐of‐plane thermal expansion between the dielectric laminate and the copper plating can cause the copper plating to deform and fail as the board is thermally cycled. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of using electro‐optic holographic interferometry (EOHI) to measure deformation around plated holes and to evaluate methods for estimating the stress in the barrel plating. It was demonstrated that EOHI was more than adequate to resolve the out‐of‐plane thermally induced displacement field around an array of plated‐through holes. The displacement sensitivity was better than ±10 nm with high spatial resolution (92 ?m horizontally and 75 ?m vertically).The expansion was reasonably linear from 30°C to 120°C. The deformation around the individual holes was not axisymmetric. It is suggested that the method for estimating barrel stresses may be too sensitive to thickness and architecture variations in the pad for reliable stress estimates. An alternative scheme for estimation of barrel stresses based on thermal strain energy evaluation is described.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 18 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Article
Publication date: 25 March 2024

Robert Ford and Lindsay Schakenbach Regele

This historical example of the creation of the arms industry in the Connecticut River Valley in the 1800s provides new insights into the value of government venture capital (GVC…

Abstract

Purpose

This historical example of the creation of the arms industry in the Connecticut River Valley in the 1800s provides new insights into the value of government venture capital (GVC) and government demand in creating a new industry. Since current theoretical explanations of the best uses of governmental venture capital are still under development, there is considerable need for further theory development to explain and predict the creation of an industry and especially those industries where failures in private capital supply necessitates governmental involvement in new firm creation. The purpose of this paper is to provide an in depth historical review of how the arms industry evolved spurred by GVC and government created demand.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses abductive inference as the best way to build and test emerging theories and advancing theoretical explanations of the best uses of GVC and governmental demand to achieve socially required outcomes.

Findings

By observing this specific historical example in detail, the authors add to the understanding of value creation caused by governmental venture capital funding of existing theory. A major contribution of this paper is to advance theory based on detailed observation.

Originality/value

The relatively limited research literature and theory development on governmental venture capital funding and the critical success factors in startups are enriched by this abductive investigation of the creation of the historically important arms industry and its spillover into creating the specialized machine industry.

Details

Journal of Management History, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1348

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Looking for Information
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80382-424-6

Article
Publication date: 3 June 2024

Motoko Yamagishi, Masanori Koizumi and Håkon Larsen

The purpose of this research is to comprehensively describe the legitimacy of the public library in the 21st century.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to comprehensively describe the legitimacy of the public library in the 21st century.

Design/methodology/approach

The research involved a comprehensive literature review using the Library and Information Science Abstracts (LISA) database with keywords “Library” and “Legitimacy”, combined with citation searches and additional collections. In total, we analysed 159 research articles primarily from the 21st century, with some comparative analysis of pre-2,000 works. The final phase of the research investigated libraries’ legitimisation efforts across various dimensions, examining how they employ rhetoric and theories to maintain legitimacy amidst challenging circumstances.

Findings

Through this research process, five dimensions of public library legitimacy emerged; (1) Democracy, (2) Culture and History, (3) Communication and Education, (4) Economy and (5) Librarianship, with the most diverse literature being related to democracy, and its subsections intellectual freedom, neutrality, the public sphere, social justice and social capital.

Originality/value

The outcome of our results indicates that the evolving legitimacy of the public library in the 21st century has become multifaceted, compared to the elements of legitimacy in the 20th century. Contemporary public libraries can continue to utilise the dimensions of legitimacy identified in this study and can reconstruct their legitimacy accordingly.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 14 December 2017

Eric S. Brown

This paper analyzes the connection between black political protest and mobilization, and the rise and fall of a black urban regime. The case of Oakland is instructive because by…

Abstract

This paper analyzes the connection between black political protest and mobilization, and the rise and fall of a black urban regime. The case of Oakland is instructive because by the mid-1960s the ideology of “black power” was important in mobilizing two significant elements of the historically disparaged black community: (1) supporters of the Black Panthers and, (2) neighborhood organizations concentrated in West Oakland. Additionally, Oakland like the city of Atlanta also developed a substantial black middle class that was able to mobilize along the lines of its own “racialized” class interests. Collectively, these factors were important elements in molding class-stratified “black power” and coalitional activism into the institutional politics of a black urban regime in Oakland. Ultimately, reversal factors would undermine the black urban regime in Oakland. These included changes in the race and class composition of the local population: black out-migration, the “new immigration,” increasing (predominantly white) gentrification, and the continued lack of opportunity for poor and working-class blacks, who served as the unrequited base of the black urban regime. These factors would change the fortunes of black political life in Oakland during the turbulent neoliberal era.

Details

On the Cross Road of Polity, Political Elites and Mobilization
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-480-8

Keywords

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 30 June 2023

Lisa M. Given, Donald O. Case and Rebekah Willson

Abstract

Details

Looking for Information
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80382-424-6

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 30 June 2023

Lisa M. Given, Donald O. Case and Rebekah Willson

Abstract

Details

Looking for Information
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80382-424-6

Book part
Publication date: 1 October 2015

Ikseon Suh and Joseph Ugrin

This study investigates how disclosure of the board of directors’ leadership and role in risk oversight (BODs oversight disclosure) influences investors’ judgments when…

Abstract

This study investigates how disclosure of the board of directors’ leadership and role in risk oversight (BODs oversight disclosure) influences investors’ judgments when information on risk exposures is disclosed. The theoretical lens through which we examine this issue involves negativity bias. Sixty-two stock market investors who engage in the evaluation and/or investment of stocks on a regular or professional basis participated in our study. Our results reveal that the addition of BODs oversight disclosure (positive information) does not carry significant weight on investor judgments (i.e., attractiveness and investment) when financial statement disclosures indicate a high level of operational and financial risk exposures (negative information). In contrast, under the condition of a low level of risk exposures, BODs oversight disclosure causes investors to assess higher risk in terms of worry, catastrophic potentials and unfamiliarity about risk information and, in turn, make less favorable investor judgments. Our findings add to the literature on negativity bias and contribute to the debate on the usefulness of disclosures about risk.

Details

Advances in Accounting Behavioral Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-635-5

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 June 2020

Robert C. Ford and Keenan D. Yoho

The purpose of this paper is to illustrate, through the example of the Springfield Armory and its role in the development of interchangeable parts, the critical role of government…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to illustrate, through the example of the Springfield Armory and its role in the development of interchangeable parts, the critical role of government in establishing a cluster of organizations that evolved into an innovation ecosystem primarily located in the Connecticut River Valley in the 1800s. Using the Springfield Armory example, we use the related but largely unjoined concepts of ecosystem and networks to show that these organizational forms are effective in driving innovation.

Design/methodology/approach

The design uses an in-depth analysis of the role of the Springfield Armory to explicate the joining of network and ecosystem theory as an early example of the importance of governmental funding and support for innovation.

Findings

The development of interchangeable parts in the American arms industry in the 19th century transformed manufacturing worldwide. At the heart of this transformation was the network of arms makers that developed in the Connecticut River Valley as a direct result of US Government investment and support. This network of arms makers evolved into an ecosystem of mutually reinforcing relationships as machine tool manufacturers benefited from an environment of free-flowing intellectual property, information and growing governmental demand for arms. The Armory illustrates the government’s role in initiating and sustaining clusters of innovation that otherwise might not have developed as quickly.

Originality/value

Much of the research on the role of government in creating innovation ecosystems and organizational networks is based on modern organizations. This use of the Springfield Armory in the early 1800s broadens the knowledge on how innovation ecosystems in conjunction with networked organizations can be created by governments serving the public good.

Details

Journal of Management History, vol. 26 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1348

Keywords

Abstract

Details

The Emerald Handbook of Computer-Mediated Communication and Social Media
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-598-1

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