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Many neo-Weberians adopt the state’s authority-monopolizing aim as their theoretical expectation. Through a case study of the Peruvian state and Lima’s squatter…
Many neo-Weberians adopt the state’s authority-monopolizing aim as their theoretical expectation. Through a case study of the Peruvian state and Lima’s squatter settlements, I provide evidence in support of the opposite contention: that states may unintentionally produce non-state extractive-coercive organizations. During the mid- to late-twentieth century, Lima’s population grew rapidly. Since they had few economic resources, the new urban poor requisitioned public lands and set up dozens of squatter settlements in the city’s periphery. Other researchers have identified several novel political phenomena stemming from such urban conditions. I focus here on the impact of the state. Using secondary and primary data, I examine three periods during which the state applied distinct settlement policies and one in which it did not apply a settlement policy, from 1948 to 1980. I find that when it applied each of the settlement policies, the state produced non-state political authorities – neighborhood elites – who extracted resources from squatters and tried to control neighborhood turf even against state encroachment, and that the state’s non-involvement did not produce them.
The purpose of this paper is to examine differential perceptions of neighborhood problems by the police and residents.
The purpose of this paper is to examine differential perceptions of neighborhood problems by the police and residents.
This study uses interview and survey data collected from 50 neighborhoods a mid‐western city to assess whether police officers and citizens differ in their perceptions of neighborhood disorder, drug‐gang, and property crime problems. Multivariate regressions were conducted to examine the effects of neighborhood structural characteristics, social organization, perceptions of the legitimacy of local authorities, and actual crime rates on police's and citizens' perceptions of neighborhood problems.
Police officers rate neighborhood problems more seriously than do local residents. Neighborhood structural characteristics and perceptions of the legitimacy of local authorities significantly affect variation in perceptions of neighborhood problems by citizens and police. Actual property crime rates influence police perceptions of disorder and property crime problems.
Future research should continue to explore the factors that contribute to perceptual differences between citizens and police officers. Research should also pay more attention to variables such as informal control, social capital, and collective efficacy. More research efforts should be devoted to explore how variation in officers' perceptions of neighborhood problems affects their behavior toward local residents.
The study incorporates neighborhood contexts in its analysis and tests both officers' and citizens' perceptions of neighborhood problems simultaneously, which have rarely been done in previous research.
The objective of the present study is to examine the history, activities, and relationships of a neighbourhood service cooperative, which evolved into a neighbourhood…
The objective of the present study is to examine the history, activities, and relationships of a neighbourhood service cooperative, which evolved into a neighbourhood disaster management project that has been adopted by more than 100 neighbourhoods in the north western part of Turkey. In order to understand the core reasons for participation lethargy of the public in community based organizations (CBOs) for disaster preparedness, both qualitative and quantitative data collection methods were employed. An active CBO, at the local level, is shown to have a positive influence on the trustworthiness and perception of responsibility of such organizations by the public. The respondents in this study seem to prefer autonomous and expert actors that formally belong to the centralized state system, such as universities, search and rescue teams, and the military, although they also attribute responsibility to CBOs for disaster related activities and expect some level of leadership from these organizations. The findings point to the direction of a cultural phenomenon, which results in high power distance and low future orientation, coupled with low levels of trust towards institutions and lack of public legitimacy of such organizations. This results in the public avoiding active engagement in preparedness initiatives and suggests the need for an initial leading group to mobilize the community in this area. A set of policy recommendations are provided that will contribute to increasing the effectiveness of CBOs and will allow them become stronger actors in the network of interactions regarding disaster related activities, especially in centralized state systems.
Recounts the merger of Jerusalem’s Neighbourhood Self Management Organizations (NSMOs) and Community Service Organizations (CSOs) into the Joint Community Neighbourhood…
Recounts the merger of Jerusalem’s Neighbourhood Self Management Organizations (NSMOs) and Community Service Organizations (CSOs) into the Joint Community Neighbourhood Management Organization (JCNM). Refers to literature on institutional theory and the process of decentralization. Focuses then on the NSMOs and CSOs, providing some background information on how and why they were originally set up and what their goals were. Compares the differences between the organizations, as well as the basic principles they have in common – hence the merge into one organization. Discusses the problems the JCNM has faced over the years, including issues such as identify, legitimacy, composition of board of directors, professional or political values, and restructuring the organization. Draws a quadrant model of patronage and centralization, suggesting that the NCNM aims to occupy a particular quadrant but is being hampered in doing so because policy makers prefer to keep things the way they are.
This paper examines the determinants of neighborhood readiness to engage in collective action for substance abuse prevention. Factors investigated include community…
This paper examines the determinants of neighborhood readiness to engage in collective action for substance abuse prevention. Factors investigated include community composition (characteristics such as SES, presence of children, racial composition), community context (drug problems and police resources), and community organization (formal neighborhood association functioning, informal neighboring, collective activities). Data were obtained from 188 community leaders who reported about their neighborhood, and census data were aggregated to the neighborhood level. Community composition and context factors had opposite effects on formal and informal neighborhood organization: SES was positively associated with informal neighboring and negatively associated with formal organization, while drug problem severity was negatively associated with informal neighboring and positively associated with formal organization. Yet, formal and informal organization were positively associated with one another, and both were positively associated with perceived readiness of the neighborhood to engage in additional drug prevention activities in the future.
Management fundamentals, public management, social responsibility, strategy.
This case may be used in undergraduate courses on management fundamentals, public management, social responsibility, or strategy. Also, it is useful for strategy courses in MBA level and MA in development practice.
In 1997, Corporación Picacho con Futuro (Picacho), a second-tier community organization created with the support of Fundación Social (FS) at Medellín's Comuna 6, stands at a crossroads. After promoting community development in the area for over ten years, FS announces that it will be withdrawing its financial support in the following year. As a result, self-sustainability mechanisms and strategies must be sought and formulated in preparation for FS' departure. The Corporation's accomplishments over its collaboration with FS were noteworthy: 16 grassroots organizations working together in one of Medellín's most violent districts proved the social fabric woven by Picacho. The young people who engaged in its projects had become examples of cohesion and civil resistance to armed groups' and drug-dealing networks' recruitment efforts. The Corporation's communication projects safeguarded these youths, providing them with a means to escape conflict. Would that all go down the drain without FS' support?
Expected learning outcomes
The intended focus of the case is to help students to understand: third sector organizations' complexity and structure; the notion of social value (how this value is created and measured); sustainability challenges facing social ventures, and, particularly, how to manage tensions between social and economic value creation in social organizations; support ecosystems for social ventures, and management strategies associated with base-of-the-pyramid businesses, introducing the concept of inclusive business.
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The purpose of this paper is to reflect upon the development of the third sector and its relationship with social inclusion by reference to a specific case study – the…
The purpose of this paper is to reflect upon the development of the third sector and its relationship with social inclusion by reference to a specific case study – the Castle Vale Community Regeneration Services (CVCRS). By drawing upon an informed understanding of CVCRS the authors examine the ways in which the discourse of “regeneration” and the “third sector” is played out.
The paper uses a case study approach as the basis for framing the debate and analysis.
The paper concludes that the capacity of third sector organisations to meet the expectations of local residents and local agencies and professionals represent real challenges. The case study also illustrates the way in which such organisations share the characteristics of small businesses and this raises important questions over the skills and capacities of those managing such projects.
Implications for third sector organisations can be generalised from this paper.
The paper identifies the ways in which the medium to long‐term sustainability of such projects is contingent upon enhancing both the management/governance of such projects and also the mainstream funding of projects.
Case study material provides a richness in description and adds to understanding of the topic.
The purpose of this study is to examine the residents’ satisfaction level with their neighbourhood and which dominant attributes can predict the neighbourhood satisfaction…
The purpose of this study is to examine the residents’ satisfaction level with their neighbourhood and which dominant attributes can predict the neighbourhood satisfaction levels of the residents in the green-accredited township.
In this survey, 300 self-administered questionnaires were distributed to respondents who have resided in the green-accredited township. Only 190 survey forms were returned and used in generating the analysis.
Integrated connectivity and accessibility and environmental quality have been shown to exert a significant influence on neighbourhood satisfaction. However, residents were not satisfied with the security level and community participation in the green-accredited neighbourhood.
Neighbourhood attributes are noteworthy determinants in assessing the significance of the green-accredited township in Malaysia.
The results of this study would assist policymaking in proposing actual improvements in a sustainable neighbourhood and help in prediction of satisfaction with the planned housing development project.
Going green has become trendy amongst communities. With the government’s move to promote green living, stakeholders, such as residents, local government or housing developers, have urged to contribute towards ensuring a more sustainable and green neighbourhood.