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Article
Publication date: 9 February 2015

Mawuli Gaddah, Alistair Munro and Peter Quartey

The purpose of this paper is to examine the incidence of public education subsidies in Ghana. Since the late 1990s, Ghana’s government has increasingly recognized human…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the incidence of public education subsidies in Ghana. Since the late 1990s, Ghana’s government has increasingly recognized human capital as key to alleviating poverty and income inequality, causing dramatic increases of government expenditures to the education sector. At the same time user fees have been introduced in higher education while basic education is being made progressively free. The question then is, whether these spending increases have been effective in reaching the poor and to what extent? What factors influence the poor’s participation in the public school system?

Design/methodology/approach

The authors address the key issues by employing both the standard benefit incidence methods and the willingness-to-pay method.

Findings

The results give a clear evidence of progressivity with consistent ordering: pre-schooling and primary schooling are the most progressive, followed by secondary, and then tertiary. Own price and income elasticities are higher for private schools than public schools and for secondary than basic schools.

Practical implications

Given the liquidity constraints African governments face yet there is the need to improve the human capacity of the countries, this study offers solution to how to optimally allocate the educational budget.

Originality/value

The use of policy simulations to ascertain the incidence of public spending on education is innovative as far as previous studies in Africa is concerned.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 42 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 12 August 2020

Peter Mose

The purpose of this paper is to explain how public libraries have been instrumental in early child school literacy teaching and learning. Most African public schools do…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explain how public libraries have been instrumental in early child school literacy teaching and learning. Most African public schools do not usually afford enough core textbooks and supplementary readers.

Design/methodology/approach

This was a qualitative case study in Western Kenya amongst public library staff members, public primary school teachers and parents of library children clients. The following questions were addressed: What is the book situation in public primary schools in the study site? What school-type literacy-related services are offered by the sampled public library? and What are library staff members’, teachers’ and parents’ feelings about the public library services offered? Observations, interviews and document studies were used to collect data. Data were analysed thematically.

Findings

Public schools do not have enough core textbooks and the situation is worse for supplementary readers; the public library branch studied offers critical school-type literacies to school children both at the library building as well as at public schools registered with it; and library staff members, teachers, and parents express positive feelings about the services offered.

Research limitations/implications

This was a case study whose findings might not apply to the larger situation and the study did not confirm actual literacy benefits of the library services amongst school children by, for instance, conducting literacy tests. The findings are, however, an index to the possible situation in the macro context.

Practical implications

The relevant stakeholders should find ways of co-opting public libraries as associates of public schools in literacy teaching. This relationship is not straight forward in Kenya.

Originality/value

The findings reported are from original research.

Details

Library Management, vol. 41 no. 8/9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-5124

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Article
Publication date: 19 September 2019

Bushra Rahim

Devolution of fiscal and administrative autonomy to public schools is a global phenomenon now. Various models of school autonomy have been adopted both in developing and…

Abstract

Purpose

Devolution of fiscal and administrative autonomy to public schools is a global phenomenon now. Various models of school autonomy have been adopted both in developing and developed countries. The purpose of this paper is to explore the impact of devolution of fiscal autonomy to public primary schools through Parent–Teacher Councils (PTCs) on retention of primary school children in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) province, Pakistan.

Design/methodology/approach

Two sources of data were used to analyze the research question: Education Management Information System for the years 2006–2011 and 2007–2012, and a specially designed survey questionnaire used to compile information about PTCs from 222 public primary schools in the KP Province. Multiple linear regressions were conducted to examine whether PTC reforms are related to retention rates. An education production function approach was used to examine the effect of “inputs” (PTC reform) on “outputs” (retention).

Findings

The regression results indicate that reforms in procedural mechanisms to spend PTC budget and schools with separate classrooms for each grade level are significant in improving retention to the last grade of primary. The results also indicate that retention in all-girls’ schools tend to be significantly lower compared to all-boys’ schools.

Research limitations/implications

First, the integration of data sets resulted in a small sample size, 361 schools, out of which the researcher could visit only 222 schools (10 schools per district) due to time and financial constraints. There may be a probability that with a larger sample size the author findings may look slightly different. However, this is the only current data set collected by the researcher in KP, Pakistan. Second, an ideal way of calculating retention is to track each and every child enrolled in a school over a period of five years and to calculate retention at the end of Grade 5 called true cohort model. However, due to unavailability of such kind of data, a more commonly used method, called reconstructed cohort method, is employed. In this method, data on enrollment by grade are used for six consecutive years, with an assumption that the student flow rates will remain unchanged over time and across grades.

Practical implications

The findings of this study provide vital policy input to the Government of Pakistan in particular and other developing countries in general. The study reveals that PTCs have critical impacts on educational outcomes, school productivity and return on public sector educational investment thus providing an impetus for further strengthening of PTC and community participation. Besides, this study offers significant implications as to how school-based management programs will lead to outcomes under resource scarcity in developing countries.

Social implications

The paper has implications for the role of school leadership and community participation and for how to engender community involvement in marginalized areas where communities often do not have the time, resources or confidence to participate in their schools. Besides, community participation in parent–teacher meetings means that the school budget is spent transparently and with consensus. Hence, the chances of misuse of funds are minimized to a considerable extent, a dilemma faced by many developing countries. Finally, the collection of PTC-related data regularly especially details about budget allocated, spent and, the unutilized budget may result in better record keeping, which was found lacking during the visit.

Originality/value

The uniqueness and originality of this paper can be gauged from the fact that no systematic study exists with regards to the impact of school autonomy on students’ retention to the last grade of primary in KP province – a poor and conflict-ridden region in a low-income country (Pakistan). Also, the data collection from primary and secondary sources was not an easy task. However, the researcher as a civil servant has to use personal contacts to collect primary and secondary data. Hence, this study is unique and first of its kind in nature. No such research has been conducted so far by any researcher, especially in KP.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 33 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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Article
Publication date: 25 September 2009

Moses Waithanji Ngware, Moses Oketch, Alex Chika Ezeh and Netsayi Noris Mudege

The purpose of this paper is to examine household characteristics and schooling decisions in terms of enrollment and type of school in an urban setting in Nairobi.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine household characteristics and schooling decisions in terms of enrollment and type of school in an urban setting in Nairobi.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses a cross‐sectional data set collected in 2005. The sample comprises 7,475 primary school‐aged children. A probit model was estimated to show what influences decisions at household level.

Findings

Analysis shows that different household and individual attributes motivate different decisions. A considerable proportion (40 per cent) of children from the poorest quintile attends non‐public schools compared to 34 per cent from the richest quintile. The findings reveal that better‐off households are more represented in the free primary education (FPE) programme. The predicted probability of a decision to attend a public school for a primary school‐age child increases as the household wealth increases.

Practical implications

The paper concludes that poorer households are least attending and may be excluded from free public schools.

Originality/value

The paper demystifies the notion that introduction of FPE in developing countries is a pro‐poor policy.

Details

Equal Opportunities International, vol. 28 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0261-0159

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Article
Publication date: 16 September 2020

Ihuoma Ikemba-Efughi and Razaq Raj

This study aims to examine managerial behaviour and corporate social responsibilities of private education providers at the primary education level with a view to…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine managerial behaviour and corporate social responsibilities of private education providers at the primary education level with a view to establishing the fact that it is indeed the obligatory adoption of ethical policies and socially responsible behaviour that accounts for the positive impact some private education operators have made in the educational sector. The study also examines the areas where the private education providers have not been accountable in their business models, decision-making and operations and thus suggests ways that the private education providers can collaborate with other stakeholders to bring about transformation and better educational outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

The positive image of the corporate, social and environmental performance of any organisation to a very large extent is critical to the success of the organization. To underscore the need for managers to be more responsive to the effect their business policies and operations have on the society, this study examined the managerial behaviour and corporate social responsibility (CSR) of private education providers in Nigeria, especially at the primary level – the foundation of the educational system all over the world. The study adopted a mixed method for data collection, involving a survey and focus group discussion. Simple random sampling and purposive sampling were used, respectively, to select the final sample size of respondents made up of stakeholders of private schools – parents, teachers, school proprietors and officials of the Ministry of Education. The multiple regression procedure on Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 20 was used to analyse data from the survey, whereas ethnographic content analysis was used to analyse data from focus group discussion. While it is evident that most parents and guardian in the global community are choosing the private schools over the public schools because of their perceived accountability or social responsibility that ensures academic success, findings from the study of private schools, especially in the developing countries show that some private education providers fall short in responsible managerial behaviour and corporate responsibility. Socially responsible managerial behaviour has been found to be a deliberate choice which business-savvy managers make and use to gain competitive advantage and secure their businesses.

Findings

Based on the hypothesis testing, the calculated value of the independent variable on the dependent variable is significant because the probability is less than 0.05 (p < 0.05). The variables under consideration – the obligation to deliver quality education (independent variable) correlated significantly with the dependent variable, the establishment of private schools. Thus, the finding shows that the obligation to deliver quality education and services led to the establishment of private schools. Also, results from the focus group discussion show that the motivation for establishing a school for some private school operators is basically borne out of the need to make a positive impact on society by bringing about positive changes in the educational system.

Research limitations/implications

A major limitation of the study is the dearth of literature in this area of study – corporate social responsibility in private school. There is a dearth of research in this area because of the perception that private schools or educational entrepreneurs are exploitative (Mars and Ginter, 2012; Paul, 2012). Hence, the study adopted an exploratory approach.

Practical implications

The practical implication of the study borders on the need for private school managers and operators to collaborate with stakeholder groups – parents, teachers, the government and its regulatory body – the Ministry of Education for better educational outcomes.

Social implications

The social implication of the study is the need for managers and operators of private schools to deliver cost-effective education so that it can be fairly accessible to a higher percentage of the populace of pupils rather than just a privileged few. This will go a long a to reducing the social inequality among pupils, as a greater population of pupils in Nigeria and many other developing countries are in dilapidated public schools where little or no teaching and learning activities take place.

Originality/value

This study makes an original contribution to the literature on managerial behaviour and CSR as a strategy for making a positive impact on the stakeholders of an organization/institution as the case may be, increasing business performance and having a competitive advantage. Managerial behaviour and CSR in educational institutions, especially private educational institutions is an area that is scarcely studied and thus, there is a dearth of literature in this area (Mars and Ginter, 2012; Paul, 2012). The present study focuses on managerial behaviour of private primary education providers and operators and this because all over the world, the primary education is the basic and the most vulnerable of all the levels in the educational system.

Details

Journal of Global Responsibility, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2041-2568

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Book part
Publication date: 11 May 2010

Jeehun Kim

Korean educational migrant (kirogi) families have received widespread popular attention due to their ironic form of family that sacrifices the togetherness of a family…

Abstract

Korean educational migrant (kirogi) families have received widespread popular attention due to their ironic form of family that sacrifices the togetherness of a family. Recent trends suggest that this practice is spreading to the less affluent classes and that many such families are heading to ‘new’ destinations, including Singapore. This study examines the transnational schooling and life experiences of Korean transnational educational families in Singapore. It addresses the questions, why did these families choose Singapore? Why did transnational schooling, which parents almost unanimously said that they had organised for the betterment of their children's future, lead to some families getting stuck in the destination country?

Fieldwork in Singapore and Korea was conducted between April 2006 and September 2007. In-depth interviews with both mothers and fathers who have at least one child attending public, private or international schools in Singapore, at the primary or secondary level, were conducted with 18 families. The analysis was conducted using a grounded theory approach and NVivo 7/8.

Although the Korean state's emphasis on international competitiveness and parental aspirations for their children's future upward social mobility were common motivators, Koreans in Singapore were also attracted by the relatively low cost, English–Chinese bilingualism and other ‘family-friendly’ features in Singapore. However, kirogi children had highly contrasting schooling experiences and they met with mixed success in gaining what they expected. Furthermore, many children in public schools faced demotion and other difficulties in their new school environments. Some less affluent families found themselves facing dilemmas of cross-border schooling. This study shows that transnational schooling does not necessarily operate equally favourably for participants from diverse class backgrounds. It also demonstrates that the societal contexts of reception in both the countries of origin and of destination, including the buffering institutions and reference groups and peer culture, are important factors shaping the schooling and life experiences of educational migrant children and in reconfiguring their trajectories.

Details

Globalization, Changing Demographics, and Educational Challenges in East Asia
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-977-0

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Article
Publication date: 10 May 2013

Ashley Keshwar Seebaluck and Trisha Devi Seegum

The purpose of this study was to critically analyse the factors that affect the motivation of public primary school teachers and also to investigate if there is any…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to critically analyse the factors that affect the motivation of public primary school teachers and also to investigate if there is any relationship between teacher motivation and job satisfaction in Mauritius.

Design/methodology/approach

Simple random sampling method was used to collect data from 250 primary teachers who are members of the Government Teachers Union (GTU). Chi‐square test was used to test the hypotheses.

Findings

The findings have shown similar results to the integrated cognitive‐motivational model for the study of teachers’ professional motivation by Jesus and Lens. However, some results seem to contradict the literature review. On the whole, Mauritian primary teachers have a good motivational level.

Research limitations/implications

Owing to time and financial constraints, a larger sample size could not be taken to carry out the survey.

Practical implications

There is a need for educational leaders to take immediate actions pertaining to the improvement of teachers’ motivation.

Originality/value

Despite the fact that many research studies have been carried out on job satisfaction and motivation of teachers worldwide, there is hardly any study that has focused solely on the concept of motivation as far as the Mauritian context is concerned.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 27 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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Article
Publication date: 12 January 2015

Anna Saiti and Yiannis Papadopoulos

The purpose of this paper (based on the relevant literature) is to: investigate, through empirical analysis, primary school teachers’ perceptions regarding their job…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper (based on the relevant literature) is to: investigate, through empirical analysis, primary school teachers’ perceptions regarding their job satisfaction, and examine whether or not the personal characteristics of primary school educators (such as gender, age, family status, educational level, and the total years of service in public primary education) have any impact on their job satisfaction.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 360 questionnaires were administered to primary school teachers in the metropolitan area of Athens (region of Attiki). The sample was randomly selected. The questionnaire was based on 41 closed and was divided into two sections. The Job Satisfaction Survey developed by Spector (1985) was implemented.

Findings

Greek school teachers are generally satisfied with their profession. There is no statistical correlation between personal characteristics and the overall satisfaction while indicated that teachers are more satisfied with three aspects (subscales) of job satisfaction, namely, “administration,” “colleagues” and “nature of work” and less satisfied with “salary,” “benefits” and “potential rewards.” Age correlates with the levels of satisfaction with reference to administration, potential rewards, colleagues and the nature of work. The overall satisfaction positively correlates with all nine aspects of job satisfaction (subscales) and gender affects the aspects of “promotion” and “colleagues.”

Research limitations/implications

This study only analyzes a small sample from the Athens region and hence the results cannot be used to generalize about the whole of Greece. Since other Greek regions operate in different socio-economic environments, an analysis of additional data from other regions (rural and urban areas) would be necessary to compare and confirm the results.

Originality/value

The findings of this study a valuable extension of other relevant research as it provides the first empirical study of the Greek school system, investigating the relationship between certain aspects of job satisfaction and the personal characteristics of school educators as well as the relationship between these aspects of job satisfaction and total satisfaction. In the context of efficient educational policy, a greater understanding of educators’ job satisfaction could facilitate the development of more effective policy practice that would increase not only the level of educators’ satisfaction, commitment and morale but also improve the performance of the school system.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 29 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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Article
Publication date: 22 May 2009

M. Chan Sun, Y. Lalsing and A.H. Subratty

With the increasing rise in obesity and diabetes in Mauritius, the school food environment in Mauritius is becoming a major concern. No study in Mauritius has so far…

Abstract

Purpose

With the increasing rise in obesity and diabetes in Mauritius, the school food environment in Mauritius is becoming a major concern. No study in Mauritius has so far examined the perspective of school head teachers pertaining to food items sold in schools. The purpose of this paper is to determine the primary school food environment in Mauritius.

Design/methodology/approach

A national postal survey of all the 212 public primary schools in Mauritius was undertaken. A pilot study was initially carried out, followed by administration of a mail questionnaire to all head teachers. The methodology included a validity testing phase. Frequency and associated Pearson's and Fisher's χ2 tests were used for data analysis.

Findings

An 82.1 per cent response rate was obtained. The findings showed that a variety of food items were proposed to schoolchildren. Confectioneries were sold in 97.7 per cent schools while deep‐fried foods were on sale in 76.6 per cent schools although canteen guidelines are provided to schools. No school sold a complete meal. No statistical difference has been noted between food items sold in urban primary schools and those sold in rural primary schools (p > 0.05).

Originality/value

This national study highlights that many less healthy food choices are offered to Mauritian school children, thus undermining their health and nutrition status of Mauritian school children. There is need for urgent action to change the school food environment in order to prevent obesity among school children for a healthier Mauritius.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 39 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 4 March 2014

Tommaso Agasisti, Francesca Bonomi and Piergiacomo Sibiano

The purpose of this paper is to suggest a methodology to calculate efficiency scores for a sample of Italian primary and middle schools. The main aim is to relate these…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to suggest a methodology to calculate efficiency scores for a sample of Italian primary and middle schools. The main aim is to relate these measures of efficiency to a set of “external” factors that can affect schools’ performance, such as the average socio-economic background of their students, their location in an urban/non urban setting, etc. After presenting this analysis, the paper proposes a procedure to calculate “adjusted” efficiency measures – which take in the role of external variables – in order to assess the “pure” management efficiency of each school, and so to avoid confusing the institution's performance with the aspects relating to its background.

Design/methodology/approach

Efficiency is defined in its technical sense that is, the ability to transform inputs (financial and human resources) into outputs (results achieved by students in standardized test scores). A two-stage quantitative procedure was used to investigate “managerial” efficiency, so that the impact of external variables on educational efficiency could be suitably taken into account.

Findings

The results show that the average efficiency score is quite high in the sample of schools considered, but potential savings can still be made: overall, with the schools’ available resources, achievement scores could be increased by about 20 percent. Efficiency and educational equity are complementary in primary public (state) schools, and the most efficient schools are those with the lowest internal variance between the students’ achievement scores; the same does not hold for middle school students’ results in mathematics. Lastly, several schools appeared to be efficient when the external variables were not taken into consideration, while their background actually favored them, and they are not efficient from a purely managerial perspective.

Originality/value

The most important piece of innovation is the investigation of managerial efficiency and its implications on policies. This study confirms and suggests that there could be an inverse relationship between apparent (baseline) and true (managerial) efficiency, that is, between the efficiency scores achieved before and after the “correction” made for external variables.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 28 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

Keywords

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