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Article
Publication date: 12 February 2018

Amy M. Alberton and Kevin M. Gorey

This scoping review thoroughly scanned research on race, contacts with police and attitudes toward police. An exploratory meta-analysis then assessed the strength of their…

Abstract

Purpose

This scoping review thoroughly scanned research on race, contacts with police and attitudes toward police. An exploratory meta-analysis then assessed the strength of their associations and interaction in Canada and the USA. Key knowledge gaps and specific future research needs, synthetic and primary, were identified. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

A germinal methodological framework for conducting scoping reviews was used (Arksey and O’Malley, 2005). The authors searched for published or unpublished research over the past 15 years and retrieved 33 eligible surveys, 19 of which were included in a sample-weighted meta-analysis.

Findings

The independent association of contact with attitudes toward police was estimated to be three times larger than the independent race association. Three large knowledge gaps were identified. Almost nothing is known about these associations among specific racial groups as they were typically aggregated into visible minority groupings. The authors have essentially no knowledge yet about specific racial group by a specific type of contact interactions. There is also a lack of generalizable knowledge as research has been largely restricted to locales.

Originality/value

This is the first research synthesis of race and attitudes toward the police that incorporated contacts with the police. Its observation of the relative importance of contacts suggested a great preventive potential. This scoping review identified needs for a full systematic research review and a formal meta-analysis to plan future primary research including large national studies that are truly representative of Canada and America’s diversity. Such will be needed to advance more confident knowledge about the factors that would support more trusted relationships between police and people in the communities they aim to serve.

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. 41 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 13 May 2014

Olga Semukhina

– The purpose of this paper is to examine key factors responsible for unwillingness of Russian respondents to contact police in life-threatening situations.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine key factors responsible for unwillingness of Russian respondents to contact police in life-threatening situations.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is based on a survey data (n=5,088) collected during 1998-2007 in Volgograd, Russia. The multivariate regression is employed for data analysis.

Findings

Findings of this study suggest that pervasive public distrust and dissatisfaction of police institution coupled with fear of police abuse and negative previous experiences with crime reporting are responsible for citizens’ unwillingness to contact Russian police.

Research limitations/implications

The findings imply that both instrumental and normative approaches to the police legitimacy are useful when explaining the issues of public-police cooperation in Russia.

Practical implications

Paper also has practical implications pertinent to the 2011 police reform in Russia.

Originality/value

The study also provides an original empirical research in previously under-research area of public-police cooperation in Russia and advances the understanding of Russian police by using the process-based model of policing.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 37 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 28 June 2021

Hyeyoung Lim and Jae-Seung Lee

The purpose of this study is to examine how direct-negative and indirect-negative contact experiences affect students' attitudes toward the police by race and test the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine how direct-negative and indirect-negative contact experiences affect students' attitudes toward the police by race and test the mediation effect of social distance on the relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

Using the data collected from two US 4-year public universities, this study employed structural equation modeling (SEM) to test the impacts of the key variables, direct-negative and indirect-negative contact experience, on the students' attitudes toward the police. This study also tests whether indirect negative contact with the police is a stronger factor than direct negative contacts among racial/ethnic minority people.

Findings

Results show that both direct-negative and indirect-negative contacts are stronger predictors of the dependent variable. In particular, the indirect-negative contact has significant direct and indirect effects through social distance on the dependent variable in racial minorities. The study also shows that indirect contact more strongly affects racial minorities than direct-negative contact experiences do.

Originality/value

This study is the first sophisticatedly to examine students' negative contact experiences into two variables: direct-negative and indirect-negative contacts with the police.

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article
Publication date: 21 March 2016

Yudu Li, Ling Ren and Fei Luo

Drawing upon the negativity bias theory, the purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of positive and negative perceptions of police-initiated or citizen-initiated…

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing upon the negativity bias theory, the purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of positive and negative perceptions of police-initiated or citizen-initiated contacts on three distinctive dimensions of public satisfaction with police (PSWP).

Design/methodology/approach

The data were obtained from a random-sample telephone survey of 1,143 residents in Houston in 2012. The OLS regressions were conducted with variables derived from the contact model and neighborhood context model that were often employed in the PSWP research. Particularly, five dichotomous variables were created to tap into the nature and quality of the police-citizen encounters.

Findings

The results confirm the negativity bias theory that “bad is stronger than good,” suggesting that the negative-contact variables have stronger influences on PSWP than the positive-contact variables, net of neighborhood context and demographic background.

Originality/value

This study expands the scope of the investigation on PSWP by exploring the effects of the nature and quality of the police-citizen contacts on the respondents’ sentiments toward the police.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 39 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 7 March 2008

Chris Menton

The purpose of this paper is to provide information on the activities of police bicycle patrols.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide information on the activities of police bicycle patrols.

Design/methodology/approach

A participant/observation research design was used. A five‐city, 32‐shift study on the output of police bicycle patrols was conducted. Same and similar ride‐alongs were conducted with bicycle and automobile patrols. All contacts (n=1,105) with the public were recorded and coded. These data included: number of people, tenor, seriousness and origination for each contact.

Findings

Analysis of these data provides evidence that bicycle patrols result in over twice as much contact with the public compared with automobile patrols. The field observation perspective revealed clear tactical advantages to bicycle patrols.

Research limitations/implications

With a limited prior study of a police bicycle patrol's activities, this study is a significant initial step.

Practical implications

With evidence of tactical and numerical public contact advantages, more attention and resources aimed at deployment of police bicycle patrols appear to be warranted.

Originality/value

With large US cities and other departments using bicycle patrols, preliminary information on effectiveness appears to be both original and of value.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 31 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 2 November 2012

Yuning Wu, Ruth Triplett and Ivan Y. Sun

The purpose of this paper is to examine Chinese immigrants’ contact with local police, uncovering the extent, nature, distribution, and consequences of police contact

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine Chinese immigrants’ contact with local police, uncovering the extent, nature, distribution, and consequences of police contact. Although literature on immigrants’ perceptions of the police has been accumulating during the past few years, research on immigrants’ encounters with the police remains extremely limited.

Design/methodology/approach

This study relies on survey data collected from approximately 350 foreign‐born Chinese immigrants residing in New York City, Philadelphia, and Delaware. Non‐probability (both purposive and convenience) sampling methods are used.

Findings

Chinese immigrants report a higher rate of police contact than the general public, with the most frequent contact occurring through traffic law violations or accidents. Immigrants who are male, older, and recent arrivals to the USA, and have vicarious experience with the police are more likely to have police contact, particularly officer‐initiated contact. The mere occurrence of contact does not affect Chinese immigrants’ global satisfaction with the police. There is, however, a significant positive link between satisfaction with recent contact and global satisfaction.

Originality/value

The paper's findings improve our understanding of police‐community relations regarding Asian Americans and also contribute to the broad literature on race/ethnicity and policing by incorporating both immigration status and ecological context into analysis.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 35 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 2 May 2018

Clair White, Michael Hogan, Tara Shelley and N. Prabha Unnithan

There are a number of individual and contextual variables that influence public opinion of the police but we know little about the public opinion regarding state law…

Abstract

Purpose

There are a number of individual and contextual variables that influence public opinion of the police but we know little about the public opinion regarding state law enforcement agencies. Prior studies involving municipal police and other criminal justice agencies indicate that the perceptions of procedural justice, or fair treatment, are important predictors of citizen satisfaction with police services. The purpose of this paper is to examine whether individuals who perceive procedurally just treatment during their contact with a state patrol officer improve the levels of satisfaction with the state patrol.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper presents the results of a public opinion study (n=846) regarding the Colorado State Patrol conducted in 2009. A subsample of 393 individuals who had contact with the state patrol and were further surveyed about their contact with the officer. Logistic regression models were used to examine individual- and contextual-level variables influence satisfaction with the state patrol and whether this relationship was mediated by the perceptions of procedural justice.

Findings

The authors found that individuals who perceive higher levels of procedural justice expressed higher satisfaction with the state patrol. Females, older respondents, and non-white respondents expressed greater satisfaction, as well as those who had voluntary contact or were not arrested. More importantly, procedural justice mediated the effect of involuntary contact and arrest on levels of satisfaction, and while non-white respondents were less likely to experience procedural justice, when levels of procedural justice are controlled for, they have higher levels of satisfaction.

Originality/value

The findings emphasize the significance of citizen perceptions of procedural justice during contacts with members of the state patrol. The current study contributes to our knowledge of procedural justice and citizen satisfaction with police encounters given previous research on citizen satisfaction with police focuses almost exclusively on local-level agencies, and research on procedural justice asks the respondents almost exclusively about the police in general.

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. 41 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 16 August 2013

Tara O’Connor Shelley, Michael J. Hogan, N. Prabha Unnithan and Paul B. Stretesky

Public opinion regarding the police is generally positive, although there are number of individual and contextual variables that affect these views. Yet research examining…

Abstract

Purpose

Public opinion regarding the police is generally positive, although there are number of individual and contextual variables that affect these views. Yet research examining public perceptions regarding state law enforcement agencies (particularly state patrols) is rare.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper utilizes a representative state‐wide sample of state residents and examine their perceptions of the Colorado State Patrol (CSP).

Findings

The paper finds positive views of the CSP overall and place particular emphasis on how individual, contextual, and contact‐related variables affect opinions.

Research limitations/implications

The study focusses on one state patrol and is not generalizable to all state patrols and to other forms of state law enforcement.

Originality/value

The paper fills a void in the research on public opinion regarding state law enforcement and discuss similarities and differences in how they are viewed when compared to municipal agencies.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 36 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article
Publication date: 19 April 2018

Roberto G. Santos

The purpose of this paper is to examine how both offenders and their families perceived their interactions with police and whether there were negative consequences of the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine how both offenders and their families perceived their interactions with police and whether there were negative consequences of the offender-focused strategy that was implemented in a hot spots policing experiment.

Design/methodology/approach

Data from interviews of 32 offenders and 29 family members are examined qualitatively for themes to evaluate how the strategy was carried out and how it impacted offenders’ behavior and both groups’ perceptions of the police detectives and the strategy overall.

Findings

The results show that there was overwhelming agreement by both offenders and their family members that the police detectives who contacted them treated both groups with dignity and respect. After the contact was over, the offenders appeared to commit less crime, followed probation more closely, and had positive feelings about what the police detectives were trying to do. Improvement of the offenders’ relationships with their families was an unanticipated finding indicating a diffusion of benefits of the strategy.

Practical implications

The results suggest that when procedural justice principles are used in an offender-focused police intervention, positive impact can be achieved without negative consequences.

Originality/value

This is a rare example of an in-depth evaluation of the perceptions of offenders and family members contacted through a hot spots policing offender-focused strategy.

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. 41 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article
Publication date: 9 November 2010

Doris C. Chu and Linda S.J. Hung

The purpose of this paper is to examine different aspects of Chinese immigrants' perceptions in San Francisco.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine different aspects of Chinese immigrants' perceptions in San Francisco.

Design/methodology/approach

Survey data gathered from 198 Chinese immigrants were utilized to assess respondents' evaluations of the local police.

Findings

It was found that Chinese immigrants' satisfaction with police contact and perceptions imported from countries of origin were significantly associated with ratings of the police in the city. In addition, length of residence in the USA was inversely associated with evaluations of the police.

Research limitations/implications

The sampling method adopted in this study, not a probability procedure, to some extent may possibly reflect the perceptions of Chinese immigrants who were in need of cultural support and services from various social and community organizations in San Francisco. It should be noted from the descriptive statistics that the average education level for this sample is comparatively lower than it is for the overall Asian population in the USA. Also, only 11 percent of the respondents were under 24 years old. It is acknowledged that this sample may under‐represent the constituency of younger people or more established immigrants who do not need as much ethnic support or various types of services.

Originality/value

There is no other empirical research that specifically examines the Chinese community's perceptions of the police in San Francisco. The findings thus provide police administration a clear strategy to improve Chinese immigrants' perceptions of the police. Training in cultural sensitivity and communication skills, as well as professional attitudes of enforcement, may improve immigrants' satisfaction with the police during the contact, which can enhance Chinese immigrants' perceptions of the police.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 33 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

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