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Article
Publication date: 5 March 2018

Samira Zare and Philip Pearce

The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of the order in which a set of cities are visited to ascertain the effects of position on group tourists’ recall and…

1521

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of the order in which a set of cities are visited to ascertain the effects of position on group tourists’ recall and evaluations.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a questionnaire, the views of highly experienced tour guides were analysed to provide preliminary insights about the likely occurrence of position effects. The topic was studied in Iran where a natural variation in the order of visiting cities on guided tours exists.

Findings

Credible and consistent evidence was found for the perceived effects of recency when considering tourists’ recall and evaluations. In particular, the influence was seen as clearly enhancing the recall and positive evaluation for the most high profile cities in the set of visited locations.

Research limitations/implications

Replications of the position effect in other countries and for other kinds of tourism cities needs to be pursued, desirably by direct assessments of tourist’ views to buttress the present views held by guides.

Practical implications

Designing itineraries by making imaginative use of the effects of order on the tourists’ sequence of city visits should facilitate the memorability of destinations for tourists and benefit businesses.

Originality/value

Empirical evidence about order effects in multi-city tour itineraries has never been established. The study provides foundation evidence for such influences through a non-reactive and naturalistic assessment by tour guides who are in contact with varied itineraries and who regularly consider the experiences of diverse and large numbers of tourists.

Details

International Journal of Tourism Cities, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-5607

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 September 2005

Faisal Manzoor Arain and Low Sui Pheng

To provide an in‐depth analysis of the potential effects of variations in institutional building projects, which would be helpful for building professionals in assessing…

4205

Abstract

Purpose

To provide an in‐depth analysis of the potential effects of variations in institutional building projects, which would be helpful for building professionals in assessing and taking proactive measures for reducing the adverse impact of variations.

Design/methodology/approach

To achieve the study objectives, a questionnaire survey was carried out to collect information on potential effects of variations. Responses from 28 professionals working for a developer organization (a government agency) were analyzed. Furthermore, 26 face‐to‐face interviews using the questionnaires were also analyzed.

Findings

The results suggest that the most frequent effects of variations were increase in project costs, additional payments for contractor, progress affected but without any delay, completion schedule delay, increase in overhead expenses and rework and demolition. Recommendations were suggested based on the findings of the research and literature review.

Research limitations/implications

This paper presented only the developers' view of the effects of variation orders on institutional building projects in Singapore. Further works can be extended to survey the consultants and the contractors who have carried out these projects.

Practical implications

The study will benefit the professionals involved with institutional building projects. The professionals would learn about the downstream effects that may assist in the valuable evaluation of variation orders.

Originality/value

This is a timely study as the program of rebuilding and improving existing institutional buildings is currently underway in Singapore. A clearer view of the effects of variations on the projects will enable the project team to take advantage of beneficial variations. Furthermore, the findings can be used by future researchers to carry out studies on the management of variation orders in various other types of projects.

Details

Facilities, vol. 23 no. 11/12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-2772

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 10 August 2005

Jennifer Kahle, Robert Pinsker and Robin Pennington

The belief-adjustment model has been an integral part of accounting research in belief revision, especially in the examination of order effects. Hogarth and Einhorn…

Abstract

The belief-adjustment model has been an integral part of accounting research in belief revision, especially in the examination of order effects. Hogarth and Einhorn ((1992) Cognitive Psychology, 24, 1–55) created the belief-adjustment model to serve as a theoretical framework for studying individuals’ decision-making processes. The model examines several aspects of decision-making, such as encoding, response mode, and task factors. The purpose of this chapter is to provide a comprehensive examination of the accounting studies that have used the theoretical framework of the belief-adjustment model in auditing, tax, and financial accounting contexts. Roberts’ ((1998) Journal of the American Taxation Association, 20, 78–121) model of tax accountants’ decision-making is used as a guideline to organize the research into categories. By using Roberts’ categorization, we can better sort out the mixed results of some prior studies and also expand the review to include a more comprehensive look at the model and its application to accounting. While many variables have been examined with respect to their effect on accounting professionals’ belief revisions, most studies examine them in isolation and do not consider the interaction effects that these variables may have. Our framework also identifies areas of the belief-adjustment model that need further research.

Details

Advances in Accounting Behavioral Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-218-4

Article
Publication date: 3 May 2016

Luqman Oyekunle Oyewobi, Richard Jimoh, Bashir Olanrewaju Ganiyu and Abdullateef Adewale Shittu

Construction process is complex and traditionally fragmented; thus, it is almost impossible to have a project completed without changes to the original plan or the…

1482

Abstract

Purpose

Construction process is complex and traditionally fragmented; thus, it is almost impossible to have a project completed without changes to the original plan or the construction process. The purpose of this study is to identify and examine the causes of variation orders, ascertain their effects and establish the cost and time performance implication as a result of variation orders.

Design/methodology/approach

This study obtained information from 90 construction stakeholders on 30 completed educational building projects to ascertain the causes and effects of variation orders on project delivery using questionnaire survey. In addition to this, a pro forma document was designed to obtain the project characteristics, cost and time data from these 30 completed educational building projects. Factor analysis was used to categorise the causes of variation orders, while severity index was used to examine their effects on project delivery. The hypothesised statement was tested using paired t-statistics to examine whether a statistically significant difference existed between variation orders, cost and time performance of the projects.

Findings

The study identified 13 main factors as causes of variation orders and the results revealed that the most frequent effects of variations were increase in construction costs, time, client dissatisfaction, increase construction project rework and demolition and project abandonment. The results also showed that variation orders had significant effects on both cost and scheduled performance of the educational building projects with average cost and time escalation of 33.95 and 29.45 per cent of the original project cost and time, respectively, for the entire projects studied, while average cost implication of variation orders is 23.79 per cent.

Practical implications

The findings in this study will be of assistance to government agencies and management of public works in higher institutions of learning in managing variations in construction projects. The study will also add to the current literature on the impact of variation orders on educational building projects in developing countries. Finally, it will create the much-needed awareness on the severity and implication of change or variation orders on project delivery.

Originality/value

The study identified and examined the causes of variation orders, ascertained their effects and established the cost and time effects of the causes of variation order on project performance. This will assist project initiators, contractors, consultants and other stakeholders to fully appreciate and understand the significant effects of variation orders on project performance.

Details

Journal of Facilities Management, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-5967

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 30 December 2004

Michelle K. Duffy, Kristin L. Scott and Anne M. O’Leary-Kelly

The impact of workplace violence on occupational stress and well being is garnering increasing attention. Despite the fact that workplace violence has been identified as a…

Abstract

The impact of workplace violence on occupational stress and well being is garnering increasing attention. Despite the fact that workplace violence has been identified as a critical organizational safety and health issue, there has been limited scholarly focus on the problem of domestic or intimate partner violence in the workplace. This paper examines intimate partner violence from both ecological and work family spillover modes of theorizing. Within this framework, we propose that the effects of intimate partner violence are reciprocal and spillover into the workplace, impacting employee and organizational well being. We conclude by discussing the implications of the integrated framework and by offering suggestions for future research in this area.

Details

Exploring Interpersonal Dynamics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-153-8

Article
Publication date: 23 May 2008

Carol W. DeMoranville, Carol C. Bienstock and Kim Judson

Previous research shows that question order affects responses, but does not indicate which order is more accurate. This study aims to examine the effect of three question…

2272

Abstract

Purpose

Previous research shows that question order affects responses, but does not indicate which order is more accurate. This study aims to examine the effect of three question orders on measurements of SERVQUAL and global quality in an effort to determine which order produced the most predictive measures.

Design/methodology/approach

Three forms of a survey were randomly distributed to users of different services; banking, dental services, and hair salons. Correlation with intention of future interaction was used to identify the order that resulted in the most predictive quality measure.

Findings

The paper finds that correlations with intention of future interaction were highest for SERVQUAL in the global‐SERVQUAL order, but highest for the global quality measure in the random order.

Research limitation/implications

This study indicates that practitioners and academicians should order questionnaire items differently depending on how the results will be used and which type of measure, specific or global service quality, is the focus of a questionnaire. Generalizations are limited to SERVQUAL and multiple item measures of service quality.

Practical implications

The findings indicate which of several question orders can be used to generate the most predictive measures of SERVQUAL and global service quality.

Originality/value

Previous research has examined measurement effects of specific‐general question orders, without indicating which order is most predictive. This study includes a random order and also suggests appropriate item order for predictive measures.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 22 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 11 July 2006

L.P. Douglas Tseng and Yuan-shuh Lii

The cognitive composition process of attribute information plays a critical role in heuristic aspects of consumers’ multiattribute preferential decisions. This study…

Abstract

The cognitive composition process of attribute information plays a critical role in heuristic aspects of consumers’ multiattribute preferential decisions. This study examines the effects of attribute information order and attribute information amount on consumers’ multiattribute preferential decisions under the premise of consumers’ limited information processing capacity. An experiment with two separate designs is conducted for testing the different hypotheses. The results support the hypothesis that consumers’ multiattribute preferential decisions are influenced by the amount of attribute information received/processed. The attribute information order is found to affect not only the outcomes of consumer decisions but also the amount of attribute information processed. These findings further suggest that consumers may be more inclined to adopt strategies of a noncompensatory heuristic nature when making multiattribute preferential decisions.

Details

Research in Consumer Behavior
Type: Book
ISBN: 0-7623-1304-8

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 5 August 2021

Gary W. Reinbold

This study seeks to determine the effects of stay-at-home orders in Spring 2020 on COVID-19 cases and deaths in the Central USA by comparing counties and health service…

Abstract

Purpose

This study seeks to determine the effects of stay-at-home orders in Spring 2020 on COVID-19 cases and deaths in the Central USA by comparing counties and health service areas that were and that were not subject to statewide orders.

Design/methodology/approach

This study estimates the effects of statewide stay-at-home orders on new COVID-19 cases and deaths within 19 central states, of which 14 had stay-at-home orders. It uses synthetic control analysis and nearest neighbor matching to estimate the effects at two geographic levels: counties and health service areas.

Findings

Statewide stay-at-home orders significantly reduced the number of new COVID-19 cases in the Central USA starting about three weeks after their effective dates; during the fourth week after their effective dates, the orders reduced the number of new cases per capita by 31%–57%. Statewide stay-at-home orders did not reduce the number of new COVID-19 deaths in the Central USA.

Social implications

The main purpose of stay-at-home orders in Spring 2020 was to “flatten the curve” so that hospitalizations would not exceed capacity. It is likely that stay-at-home orders in the Central USA reduced hospitalizations to some extent, although the effect on hospitalizations was likely smaller than the effect on cases.

Originality/value

This is the first study of stay-at-home orders in the USA to limit the population to a group of interior states. All coastal states had statewide stay-at-home orders and comparing coastal states with orders to interior states without them may be problematic.

Details

Journal of Health Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0857-4421

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 April 2018

Naomi Ziv

In many food marketing contexts products are sampled while music is played in the background. The purpose of this paper is to examine whether changing the pleasantness of…

1537

Abstract

Purpose

In many food marketing contexts products are sampled while music is played in the background. The purpose of this paper is to examine whether changing the pleasantness of background music while tasting two identical products in succession may influence the experience of taste and preference.

Design/methodology/approach

Two studies were conducted. In Study 1, 60 participants were asked to taste two identical cookies, one with pleasant and one with unpleasant background music, in differing orders. In Study 2, 60 participants tasted two cookies with two unpleasant musical pieces and 60 participants tasted two cookies with pleasant background music. Participants were asked to evaluate each cookie and indicate which cookie they preferred.

Findings

In Study 1, a main effect of music was found, with cookies tasted with pleasant background music evaluated as better than those tasted with unpleasant background music. In addition, an interaction between presentation order and music was found, with a stronger difference in evaluation between the cookies when the first is tasted with pleasant background music. In Study 2, no main effect of music was found. A primacy effect was found, with higher evaluations for the first tasted cookie.

Research limitations/implications

The studies considered only one type of product, which in itself is pleasant-tasting. Further studies, using other products, are thus needed to allow generalization.

Practical implications

A discerning use of background music in consumer settings involving sampling of a sequence of products may aid marketers in maximizing music’s effect on product evaluation and choice.

Originality/value

Although the effect of music on taste has been previously studied, this is the first research to examine presentation order effects of music pleasantness on the experience of taste. The pleasantness of background music is integrated into the experience of taste, and food marketing strategies should take into account how the order in which different musical pieces are heard may influence consumers’ evaluation and preference for sampled products.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 52 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 May 1993

Mohamed Ibrahim and Mohamed Shehata

Hogarth and Einhorn (1990) posited a psychological model for updating beliefs that is based on an anchoring and adjustment process which incorporates a contrast or…

Abstract

Hogarth and Einhorn (1990) posited a psychological model for updating beliefs that is based on an anchoring and adjustment process which incorporates a contrast or surprise effect; in particular, the larger the current belief in a hypothesis or outcome, the more it is discounted by negative information and the less it is increased by positive information. The model provides a set of predictions that could be of important implications for financial decisions. It predicts strong recency effects for mixed or conflicting information (negative and positive), and no order effects for consistent information (all positive or all negative). Furthermore, an earlier version of the model (1985) predicts that simultaneous processing of consistent information leads to more extreme responses than the sequential processing of the same information. Einhorn and Hogarth refer to this phenomenon as a “dilution effect.” This paper reports the results of testing these qualitative predictions of the belief updating model. Three experiments involving a content rich scenario of asset valuation judgment were conducted using a sample of 120 subjects enroled in two MBA courses. The results support the model's prediction that there is no order effects attributable to sequential processing of consistent information. The results also support the existence of recency effects for mixed information regardless of the response mode. However, no significant effects were observed for processing consistent information under different response modes.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 19 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

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