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Article
Publication date: 20 May 2019

Steffen Roth, Loet Leydesdorff, Jari Kaivo-Oja and Augusto Sales

This paper aims to extend the existing views of coopetition into the broader context of open coopetition.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to extend the existing views of coopetition into the broader context of open coopetition.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors build on the literature about open innovation cooperation between competitors in the open-source software industry, which we generalize to show that open coopetition between competitors and third parties can be observed in other industries and institutional settings.

Findings

The authors outline a research program on the management challenges of open coopetition-related and argue that open coopetition can not only be observed between business rivals but also between partners from university, industry, government and further institutional backgrounds.

Originality/value

The authors introduce to so-far neglected roots of the emerging research program on open coopetition and extend the prevailing business focus of open coopetition research to also systematically include open coopetition between partners from business and other spheres of society.

Details

Journal of Business Strategy, vol. 41 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0275-6668

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Article
Publication date: 28 June 2013

Märit Beckeman, Michael Bourlakis and Annika Olsson

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how food manufacturers in Sweden define and view innovations, how they view their role and those of other actors and the…

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1834

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how food manufacturers in Sweden define and view innovations, how they view their role and those of other actors and the interaction/collaboration regarding innovations in the food supply/value chain.

Design/methodology/approach

After an exploratory pre‐study with 12 participants, a full study of Swedish manufacturers comprised of representatives from 12 food companies was initiated. In total, 21 interviews were carried out. The majority of the respondents had food industry experience. They initially answered structured questions and thereafter open‐ended ones.

Findings

Few, if any, innovations in the Swedish food sector are considered radical. Many are “invisible” to meet demands for lower cost, shorter orders and sustainability. The food manufacturers seem to develop products in house for consumers and not by working with them or others inside or outside the supply chain; they do not adopt an “open” innovation mindset. There is lack of trust in the chain and limited exchange of information. Some manufacturers pursue horizontal collaboration with other manufacturers abroad.

Research limitations/implications

Innovations and strategies are a competitive edge for a company, so the respondents may not have been completely open.

Practical implications

Manufacturers and the whole supply chain would benefit from an “open innovation” mindset to organise and work differently and build trust.

Originality/value

There is no other published study on innovations and food manufacturers in Sweden. The food sector should embark on collaboration and coopetion and initiate discussions on what can be done to become more innovative.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 115 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 23 August 2021

Fábio Lotti Oliva, Andrei Carlos Torresani Paza, Jefferson Luiz Bution, Masaaki Kotabe, Peter Kelle, Eduardo Pinheiro Gondim de Vasconcellos, Celso Claudio de Hildebrand e Grisi, Martinho Isnard Ribeiro de Almeida and Adalberto Americo Fischmann

This study aims to investigate the risks associated with managing the dispersed knowledge in inter-organizational arrangements for innovation. Specifically, it proposes a…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the risks associated with managing the dispersed knowledge in inter-organizational arrangements for innovation. Specifically, it proposes a model to analyze the knowledge management risks in open innovation, applied in four steps.

Design/methodology/approach

Initially, the authors carried out a systematic literature review (SLR) on the concepts that connect knowledge management, inter-organizational arrangements for innovation and risks. The SLR results led to a complementary theoretical review on the conceptual elements in question. Based on the findings, the authors have developed a model to analyze the knowledge management risks in open innovation, which was validated by experts. It was then studied the case of GOL Airlines, a company that uses innovation to overcome the paradox between low-cost and full service in the commercial air transportation industry, considering the application and adjustment of the proposed model.

Findings

Open innovation is one of the inter-organizational arrangement types most applied in the context of innovation. Relations between agents are the primary sources of risks when managing the dispersed knowledge in these arrangements. The authors have found five main risks associated, namely, risk of the innovative effort does not reach the expected objective, risk of knowledge transfer being ineffective, risk of misappropriation of value, risk of dependency (lock-in) and risk of relations.

Practical implications

The practical implication is the proposition of a procedure for applying the model to analyze the knowledge management risks in open innovation, which makes it a prescriptive model for identifying risks. The proposed model is described in four steps, namely, to identify the agents in the environment of the value of open innovation; to identify the types of relations of each agent; to consider the barriers to knowledge management in innovation; and to assess the risks considering the possibilities derived from the agents, their relationships and the barriers. The model is applied in the GOL case and the results are presented.

Originality/value

First, it uses a novel approach to investigate open innovation while studying its risks. This approach considers the knowledge is dispersed and flows from one organization to another through a combination of relations inside the environment of value where the open innovation materializes. Second, it contributes to theory development by opening a research front that fuses four areas: risk management, knowledge management, innovation and inter-organizational arrangements. Third, this paper proposes a theoretical model and presents its operationalization. The study aims to make an impact beyond academia and uses a case study to illustrate the model application in a real and interesting open innovation project to support the business model at GOL Airlines.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

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Book part
Publication date: 30 November 2020

Abstract

Details

Business Models and Cognition
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-063-2

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Article
Publication date: 11 February 2021

Hao Shen, Yu Gao, Chuan Liu and Xiangru Chen

Integrating the coopetition perspective with institutional theory, this study aims to determine how balanced patterns (BPs) and combinative patterns (CPs) of coopetition

Abstract

Purpose

Integrating the coopetition perspective with institutional theory, this study aims to determine how balanced patterns (BPs) and combinative patterns (CPs) of coopetition impact firms’ new product development (NPD) and how these effects are contingent on the various types of interactions between firms and the institutional environments in which they are embedded.

Design/methodology/approach

To test the hypotheses, 303 firms in China were surveyed. Based on the responses, the proposed model was estimated using structural equation modeling and hierarchical regression analysis.

Findings

The findings indicate that CP of coopetition enhances NPD but a BP of coopetition impedes NPD. Further, the results suggest that obtaining government support positively moderates the effect of the CP on NPD but negatively moderates the effect of the BP. Conversely, influencing government policy negatively moderates the effect of the CP but positively moderates that of the BP on NPD.

Research limitations/implications

The findings indicate that different patterns of inter-firm coopetition may have different effects on NPD, thus, providing a holistic and dynamic understanding of the contingent value of coopetition for NPD. The findings also suggest that the complex effects of coopetition on NPD are influenced by institutional interactions, introducing further contingencies to the process of coopetition-based innovation.

Practical implications

This study provides guidelines for managers seeking to fully understand and capitalize on the dual nature of coopetition: they should be cautious about the different patterns of competition – cooperation interaction and manage their interactions with institutional environments to increase the benefits and avoid the potential damage that different types of coopetition may bring.

Originality/value

This study offers direct insights into the balanced nature of coopetition and opens up an avenue for further exploration of the specific effects of cooperation dominance and competition dominance on firm performance in the business-to-business context. Moreover, the proposed contingency model offers a potential interface between institutional and coopetition research on NPD in marketing and strategic fields.

Details

Chinese Management Studies, vol. 15 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-614X

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Article
Publication date: 15 March 2018

Sascha Kraus, Patrycja Klimas, Johanna Gast and Tobias Stephan

The purpose of this paper is to highlight the specific types of coopetition between small and medium-sized craft breweries and related businesses, as well as its drivers…

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1601

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to highlight the specific types of coopetition between small and medium-sized craft breweries and related businesses, as well as its drivers and outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

Qualitative research was carried out using in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 18 different small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) combined with site visits and secondary data analysis.

Findings

The results reveal that craft breweries are engaging in coopetition in several different ways. Mutual benefit, trust, commitment, and sympathy are the crucial drivers for coopetition; whereas innovation development, market reach and marketing, as well as firm growth represent the key shared outcomes of coopetition.

Research limitations/implications

This study suffers from two main limitations, including the focus on coopetition of craft breweries operating in German-speaking countries only and the risk of subjectivity in analysis and interpretation due to the qualitative, explorative nature of the research.

Originality/value

The findings reveal insights into the uniqueness of SMEs – specifically craft brewers – regarding coopetition, which is currently of strong cooperative nature. This study completes prior coopetition knowledge by revealing the importance of coopetition for small, micro and resource-constrained firms operating in dynamic and innovative but traditional (here craft) industries; presenting the cooperation-based type of coopetition as a good competition strategy under fierce competition from large, more established and global business rivals; and identifying sympathy as an important coopetition driver.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 25 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Article
Publication date: 23 September 2019

Vanessa Ratten

Open innovation is important for technology firms as they can use freely available resources to source creative and innovative ideas. Despite the usefulness of open

Abstract

Purpose

Open innovation is important for technology firms as they can use freely available resources to source creative and innovative ideas. Despite the usefulness of open innovation for technological advancements, few studies have focused on the role of cybercrime in affecting an organizations strategic direction. The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of open innovation on cybercrime in technology firms.

Design/methodology/approach

Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted on technology firms to understand the role of open innovation in terms of technology scouting, horizontal collaboration and vertical collaboration on cybercrime activity.

Findings

The study found that there is a dilemma most technology firm’s face in having an open innovation strategy and how to manage cybercrime. This means that a coopetition strategy is utilized that helps to not only balance the need to have open innovation but also protect intellectual property.

Research limitations/implications

The study has implications for emerging technology innovations that not only need to have cyber security but also harness the use of Big Data.

Practical implications

Managers of technology firms need to encourage open innovation as a strategy but manage the cybercrime that comes from sharing too much information in an online context.

Originality/value

This paper is one of the first to link open innovation strategy to cybercrime activity in technology firms. Thus, it contributes to the literature on open innovation and cyber theft and security.

Details

Information Technology & People, vol. 32 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-3845

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Book part
Publication date: 29 November 2018

Rauno Rusko

This chapter focuses on the coopetition features of tourism and specifically of tourism destinations. Because of the typical features of tourism destinations, coopetition

Abstract

This chapter focuses on the coopetition features of tourism and specifically of tourism destinations. Because of the typical features of tourism destinations, coopetition might be a particularly important theme in the literature on tourism. However, the number of tourism studies that have focused on, or at least mentioned, coopetition is surprisingly small. Regarding tourism destinations, co-location causes different forms of coopetition situations, which are not very common in geographically diffused industries. Furthermore, the basic idea of one joint tourism product, such as the experiences of a tourist in a tourism destination, forces the (competing) suppliers of services in the resort to cooperate. Co-location causes a situation in which the competing firms in the area have joint branding and marketing activities. Destination marketing organisations are an important form of coopetition activities in tourism. In addition to co-location, seasonality is one of the specific features of coopetition in tourism destinations. This study combines the outcomes of several publications and other empirical materials about coopetition in tourism.

Details

Tourism Planning and Destination Marketing
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-292-9

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2020

Julio Navío-Marco, Raquel Ibar-Alonso and Maria Bujidos-Casado

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the relationship between coopetition and organisational innovation in EU countries. As coopetition is usually studied from an…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the relationship between coopetition and organisational innovation in EU countries. As coopetition is usually studied from an inter-company perspective, this work looks in detail at the “ad intra” dynamics of the coopeting companies to understand how they adjust their organisation or implement organisational innovation to successfully adopt this original approach.

Design/methodology/approach

Using data from the Eurostat (CIS2014), this research offers a quantitative study into coopeting companies, relating coopetition to organisational innovation. The analysis technique used in this study is logistic regression with maximum likelihood estimation, where the dependent variable is the location of the coopeting companies.

Findings

The findings highlight specific characteristics and differences according to whether a company coopetes domestically or in other more complex geographic environments. It also incorporates variables into the analysis, such as the use of price marketing, employee training and company size.

Originality/value

This study provides insights into the relationship between coopetition and organisational innovation, in a research field that usually focusses on inter-company analysis. Several little-studied factors are included in the analysis, such as the role of employee qualifications and differences in coopetition in different geographic areas. The authors observe that, in certain locations, coopetition could be related to a “market entry” effect.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 36 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Article
Publication date: 15 October 2020

James M. Crick and Dave Crick

Small sports clubs are the life-blood of particular communities, even though many are under-resourced and have difficulties in operating under an individualistic business…

Abstract

Purpose

Small sports clubs are the life-blood of particular communities, even though many are under-resourced and have difficulties in operating under an individualistic business model. Although coopetition (simultaneous cooperation and competition) has been recognised as a positive driver of performance, the complexities of this association remain under-researched. Consequently, grounded in resource-based theory and the relational view, the purpose of this current study is to examine the moderating roles of inter-firm conflict and competitive intensity in the coopetition–sales performance relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

After undertaking 25 field interviews, survey data were collected from 151 non-mainstream sporting clubs in New Zealand. This setting was ideal, since it hosts high-degrees of cooperativeness and competitiveness. After assessing the statistical data for all major robustness checks (including common method variance and endogeneity bias), the hypothesised and control paths were tested through a hierarchical regression analysis.

Findings

Coopetition had a positive relationship with sales performance, but inter-firm conflict yielded a negative interaction effect. Surprisingly, this link was positively moderated by competitive intensity.

Practical implications

Under-resourced entrepreneurs (like those in many small sports clubs) should consider cooperating with their competitors, as these strategies can assist them to improve their sales performance. However, they should be careful when engaging in such activities due to the considerable risk that rival firms could behave opportunistically, which might harm their performance. That being said, owner-managers are advantaged if they operate in sectors where there are lots of competitors because there is increased scope to collaborate with “complementary” and trustworthy rivals that can help them to achieve mutually-beneficial outcomes. Indeed, sporting governing bodies (including those that operate on a non-profit basis) should encourage their members to engage in coopetition due to these positive financial consequences.

Originality/value

This investigation contributes to the extant literature by evaluating the competitive forces affecting the link between coopetition and sales performance. Specifically, new evidence emerges on the circumstances where coopetition is (and is not) a performance-enhancing entrepreneurial strategy. Further, this investigation provides unique insights regarding coopetition among non-mainstream sporting clubs, adding new knowledge to the sports entrepreneurship literature. Moreover, by infusing resource-based theory with the relational view, stronger arguments feature how owner-managers can navigate the paradoxical forces that drive coopetition activities. This study ends with several practitioner implications, alongside a series of limitations and avenues for future research.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 27 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

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