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Article
Publication date: 4 October 2011

Alexander Schroll and Andreas Mild

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how and how much open innovation is used across Europe. The goal of this study is therefore to provide comprehensive empirical…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how and how much open innovation is used across Europe. The goal of this study is therefore to provide comprehensive empirical evidence for the adoption of inbound and outbound open innovation activities in Europe.

Design/methodology/approach

Data from 180 European companies were used to test three hypotheses on open innovation adoption and the role of internal R&D. Data were collected in 2009 and the sample comprises companies from different industries and 24 European countries.

Findings

It is found that 30.3 per cent of European companies are very open to innovation and 38.7 per cent are semi‐open. The results show that inbound open innovation is more commonly used than outbound open innovation, which can be explained by insufficiencies of the market or the organization. Finally, it is found that the type of innovation strategy (vertically integrated, inbound, outbound, or mixed) is related to the R&D intensity.

Originality/value

This paper provides large‐scale empirical evidence for the extent of open innovation adoption in Europe. Moreover, it confirms the role of open innovation generally as a complement for internal R&D. However, results show that firms can reduce R&D intensity through inbound open innovation.

Details

European Journal of Innovation Management, vol. 14 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1460-1060

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Article
Publication date: 3 August 2015

Hao-Chen Huang, Mei-Chi Lai and Wei-Wei Huang

This study aims to examine the potential impact of external complementary resources on inbound open innovation and whether transformative capacity acts as a mediator in…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the potential impact of external complementary resources on inbound open innovation and whether transformative capacity acts as a mediator in the process. If small and medium enterprises (SMEs) are to successfully implement inbound open innovation, they require injections of external complementary resources.

Design/methodology/approach

Structural equation modeling was used to conduct confirmatory factor analysis to evaluate measurement model, while ordinary least squares regression analysis was used to test the hypotheses; research data are collected using surveys of 200 Taiwanese-owned SMEs in mainland China.

Findings

Empirical results indicate that when SMEs seek to implement inbound open innovation, technological complementarity is the most important factor in resource complementarity. In addition, transformative capacity has a significant mediating role on the relationship between resource complementarity and inbound open innovation.

Originality/value

The contribution of this paper lies in explaining the role played by transformative capacity in the process of inbound open innovation for SMEs through empirical analysis.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 30 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Article
Publication date: 23 February 2021

Amila Pilav-Velic and Hatidza Jahic

Literature suggests that open innovation approach of large firms shows different characteristics with small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), so this paper tends to…

Abstract

Purpose

Literature suggests that open innovation approach of large firms shows different characteristics with small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), so this paper tends to shed light on these structural differences. With the aim to gain a deeper understanding of the adoption of inbound innovation practices among firms in one small transition economy, this study is focused on the question of how different dimensions of inbound innovation practices affect the innovative performances of SMEs and large firms and how, eventually, these practices should be framed and managed differently.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper develops a research model which analyses inbound innovation practices on a data set of 227 SMEs and large firms operating in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The data were collected by using a questionnaire specifically designed for this research. Association between the level of innovation of products in firms and inbound practices, between exploit and explore strategies, between types of industry and different types of collaborations with partners outside the firm is assessed by canonical correlation.

Findings

The research results revealed that inbound innovation practices of manufacturing firms in different stages of innovation development process starting from idea generation, experimentation, up to the commercialization, have positive influence on their innovative performances.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the existing research on open innovation by providing empirical evidences for different dimensions of inbound innovation practices in SMEs and large firms. We offer a very important insight into open innovation practices and challenges beyond well-researched developed countries.

Details

European Journal of Innovation Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1460-1060

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2019

Suqin Liao, Lihua Fu and Zhiying Liu

This study aims to assess how firm functional capability moderates the relationship between two types of open innovation and performance, with a special focus on the role…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to assess how firm functional capability moderates the relationship between two types of open innovation and performance, with a special focus on the role of technological capability and the join effect market information management capability. This paper develops and tests a research model, which assesses how the performance implications of two open innovation forms are shaped by the technological capability and how such an effect is contingent on market information management capability.

Design/methodology/approach

Survey data were collected from 238 Chinese high-tech enterprises. Structural equation modeling and linear regression were used to test the data. Then, the main research questions were answered.

Findings

Empirically results show that technological capability strengthens the influence of inbound open innovation on firm performance. However, the moderate effect of technological capability on the relationship between outbound open innovation and firm performance remains unsupported. A higher technological capability with a high level of market information management capability increases the efficacy of outbound open innovation in gaining superior performance. Additional analysis shows that when firms implement inbound activities and possess a strong technological capability, they will achieve higher performance if they possess a moderate level of market information management capability, compared with a high or low level.

Originality/value

This paper provides new evidence on the benefits of different open innovation strategies on firm’s performance and, more importantly, the specific firm-level contingencies (technological capability and market information management capability) under which these benefits are more likely to be enhanced. It clarifies what the capabilities are and how they interact to foster the robust open innovation strategies, which sheds new light on the boundary conditions that affect the open innovations–firm performance relationship.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 35 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Article
Publication date: 14 May 2018

Xiaoxiao Shi and Qingpu Zhang

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the impact of inbound open innovation and organizational inertia on radical innovation capability (RIC). It also seeks to explore…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the impact of inbound open innovation and organizational inertia on radical innovation capability (RIC). It also seeks to explore whether the existence of organizational inertia has a moderating effect and influence on the relationship between inbound open innovation and RIC.

Design/methodology/approach

In this empirical research, the authors collected sample of patents in smart phone industry over the 2000-2016 period. Then, the authors examined the direct roles of inbound open innovation and organizational inertia, and the moderating role of organizational inertia by using hierarchical regression analysis.

Findings

Results found that cognitive inertia (CI) has a positive influence on firms’ RIC, but network inertia (NI) has a negative influence on RIC. CI also has a significant moderating effect on the relationship between inbound open innovation and RIC, but NI only has a significant moderating effect on the relationship between open search breadth and RIC. Inbound open innovation directly affects RIC.

Research limitations/implications

The authors collected the patent data of this study within the single industry and excluded other types of industries. And it may limit the generalization of the findings.

Practical implications

The paper includes implications for adopting an appropriate open search strategy and developing a better understanding of organizational inertia on firms’ radical innovation behavior. The findings suggest future directions to technology intensive industries for improving their RIC.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the relationship between organizational inertia and RIC within the framework of inbound open innovation.

Details

Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 31 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0953-4814

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Book part
Publication date: 13 October 2016

Christina Öberg

Researchers have shown increased interest in open innovation – that is, the inflow and outflow of ideas, or the collaborative efforts of innovating – while previous…

Abstract

Researchers have shown increased interest in open innovation – that is, the inflow and outflow of ideas, or the collaborative efforts of innovating – while previous research on acquisitions of innovative firms has foremost focused on the inflow only. Open innovation, however, introduces several new challenges related to acquisitions of such firms, not the least related to intellectual property rights and innovative skills that may be distributed among several parties. This paper explores what issues the literature on open innovation and acquisitions deals with related to acquisitions in open innovation environments.

A systematic literature review is conducted to achieve the purpose of the paper. Two main questions are addressed. First, how can acquisitions be understood in relation to open innovation? Second, what does the open innovation literature say on matters of distributed innovations in relation to acquisitions?

The paper concludes that there is a quite limited amount of research concerning itself with open innovation and acquisitions combined. Furthermore, acquisitions are for the most part seen as a means to reach innovation in transaction-based transfers between parties.

With acquisitions of innovative firms, in general, being seen as an important means to reach new ideas, while open innovation is on the rise, the juxtaposing of these phenomena would be of high practical and theoretical relevance to study further.

Details

Mergers and Acquisitions, Entrepreneurship and Innovation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-371-9

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Article
Publication date: 11 September 2018

M. Muzamil Naqshbandi, Ibrahim Tabche and Neetu Choudhary

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationships between empowering leadership style and two types of open innovation: inbound and outbound. The intervening…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationships between empowering leadership style and two types of open innovation: inbound and outbound. The intervening mechanism of employee involvement climate in these relationships is also investigated.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses data collected using a questionnaire survey from middle and top managers working in various firms in northern India.

Findings

Results reveal that empowering leadership positively affects both types of open innovation. Thus empowering leadership supports followers to seek, integrate and diffuse new ideas and knowledge to improve open innovation outcomes. Further, the mediating role of employee involvement climate is established for empowering leadership-inbound open innovation link. This suggests that an empowering leadership style creates an employee involvement climate that empowers employees and involves them in relevant decision-making which consequently enhances a firms inbound open innovation performance.

Research limitations/implications

This study used a cross-sectional research design and a relatively small sample size. These limitations can affect generalizability of the findings.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to leadership and open innovation literatures and provides insights into how the practitioners can use an appropriate leadership style to maximize success in the open innovation paradigm. The study is one of the first to empirically shed light on this strand of open innovation research.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 57 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 8 May 2017

Veronica Scuotto, Manlio Del Giudice, Stefano Bresciani and Dirk Meissner

This paper aims to investigate three key factors (i.e. cognitive dimensions, the knowledge-driven approach and absorptive capacity) that are likely to determine the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate three key factors (i.e. cognitive dimensions, the knowledge-driven approach and absorptive capacity) that are likely to determine the preference for informal inbound open innovation (OI) modes, through the lens of the OI model and knowledge-based view (KBV). The innovation literature has differentiated these collaborations into informal inbound OI entry modes and formal inbound OI modes, offering an advocative and conceptual view. However, empirical studies on these collaborations are still limited.

Design/methodology/approach

Building on the above-mentioned theoretical framework, the empirical research was performed in two stages. First, data were collected via a closed-ended questionnaire distributed to all the participants from the sample by e-mail. Second, to assess the hypotheses, structural equation modelling (SEM) via IBM® SPSS® Amos 20 was applied.

Findings

The empirical research was conducted on 175 small to medium enterprises in the United Kingdom, suggesting that the knowledge-driven approach is the strongest determinant, leading to a preference for informal inbound OI modes. The findings were obtained using SEM and are discussed in line with the theoretical framework.

Research limitations/implications

Owing to the chosen context and sector of the empirical analysis, the research results may lack generalisability. Hence, new studies are proposed.

Practical implications

The paper includes implications for the development of informal inbound OI led by knowledge-driven approach.

Originality/value

This paper offers an empirical research to investigate knowledge-driven preferences in informal inbound OI modes.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 21 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

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Article
Publication date: 4 June 2018

María J. Oltra, M. Luisa Flor and José A. Alfaro

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between the use of open innovation (OI) practices and firm performance, and the role of organizational mechanisms…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between the use of open innovation (OI) practices and firm performance, and the role of organizational mechanisms (OMs) (formalization and decentralization) as moderator variables.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors build a theoretical framework to define a set of hypotheses that are then verified in an empirical study. These theoretical propositions are tested by using the data gathered from a survey addressed to 244 firms in Spanish low- and medium-technology industries.

Findings

With regard to inbound practices, the practices oriented to cooperate with partners in a R&D context have a positive influence. The results show that outbound practices, either by direct generation of revenues from licensing payments or, more indirectly, through the indirect marketing and technical benefits that can stem from revealing have a positive effect on firm performance. Coupled practices, which are related to participation in clusters and innovation networks, have the highest impact on firm performance. In the industrial context examined, decentralization exerts a positive effect which enhances the effect of outbound practices meanwhile formalization reduces their positive effect.

Practical implications

This study helps practitioners in low- and medium-technology firms to determine which OI practices are most beneficial to firm performance and how formalization and decentralization can influence the relationship between OI and firm performance.

Originality/value

This study helps determine the influence of OI practices in terms of inbound, outbound and coupled types through an analysis of low- and medium-technology firms. The OI literature is enriched by the types herein of the role of OMs, which includes an analysis of how formalization and decentralization moderate the influence of OI practices on firm performance.

Details

Business Process Management Journal, vol. 24 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-7154

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Article
Publication date: 25 September 2018

Huiping Zhou, Yanhong Yao and Huanhuan Chen

This paper aims to explore the direct effects of open innovation (OI) on firms’ innovative performance, and to examine the moderating effects of knowledge attributes…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the direct effects of open innovation (OI) on firms’ innovative performance, and to examine the moderating effects of knowledge attributes, including knowledge distance, knowledge embeddedness and partner opportunism on this relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

Survey data of 247 samples from China were used to test the proposed model through hierarchical regression analysis.

Findings

The findings indicate that the dimensions of OI are positively related to innovative performance. The results also reveal that knowledge distance positively moderates the relationship between inbound OI and innovative performance, whereas knowledge embeddedness negatively affects that relationship. Knowledge embeddedness negatively affects the relationship between inbound OI and innovative performance, whereas knowledge distance positively moderates that relationship. Thus, a new finding is proposed that knowledge attributes could align effectively with specific OI type to achieve superior innovation outcomes. In addition, the empirical results suggest that partner opportunism plays a negative moderating role on the relationship between outbound OI and innovative performance.

Originality/value

The proposed view that a firm’s innovation outputs will be superior when its knowledge attributes effectively align with OI enriches studies of the OI context and expands the literature of both the resource-based view and the knowledge-based view. Furthermore, this study provides insights into how OI benefits can be influenced by external contexts from the perspective of partners’ opportunistic behaviour.

Details

Chinese Management Studies, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-614X

Keywords

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