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Article
Publication date: 20 August 2019

Nizar Mohammad Alsharari

The purpose of this paper is to explore the internationalization market of higher education (HE) globally and HE field. It examines the internationalization status of HE in Jordan…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the internationalization market of higher education (HE) globally and HE field. It examines the internationalization status of HE in Jordan as influenced by institutional perspectives as an example from developing countries.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper adopts a quantitative research design that includes a statistical and SWOT analysis of HE in Jordan. Data were collected from different courses: documents and archival records, websites analysis, surveys, interviews with professors and administrators, and an SWOT analysis as well as TOWS matrix. The latter has been constructed as a picture of internationalized education in the Jordan that can be used as a basis for decision making and strategies for higher education institutions (HEIs).

Findings

The study findings reveal that it is important for Jordan to endorse itself as an “education hub” in the Middle East and to educate its community to the level of skills required by globalization. The challenges of internationalizing HE are revealed by the SWOT analysis and TOWS matrix that highlight a wide range of opportunities and strengths that encourages the Jordan HE system to accelerate internationalization. The opportunities include overall improvement in the quality of education, the diffusion of technology and creating a globally competent workforce. The internationalization status in Jordan HE is still in its embryonic stage. The HE should take serious steps toward the internationalization including admission of international students, foreign postgraduate students, international accreditation, global ranking, online education and smart education. These steps will help the universities leaders to improve their universities position internationally and financially.

Research limitations/implications

The findings reveal implications for HE policy and strategy in the development of internationalized HE in the Jordan. The study shows how SWOT analysis and TOWS matrix can provide a solid platform against which particular case studies can be measured in terms of opportunities for and challenges of development. It also provides institutional perspectives with practical implications, focusing on some of the critical issues in this developing field for HE policy and strategy alike. A major threat to the Jordan progress in developing its HE sector identified in this study is external accreditation being seen as a signal of high quality, when more realistic standards are perhaps more relevant to the local population.

Originality/value

The paper is one of the very few studies in the area of the internationalization of HE in the Jordan that can contribute to the sustainability of the international dimension of HEIs. The opportunities and threats recognized in this paper can inform strategy for more balanced development of the Jordan’s internationalized HE, and for raising the quality of education overall.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 34 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 June 2022

Nizar Mohammad Alsharari

This paper aims to explain the interaction of external and internal influences in the imposition of results-based budgeting (RBB) in a public sector organization, subsequent to…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explain the interaction of external and internal influences in the imposition of results-based budgeting (RBB) in a public sector organization, subsequent to public sector reforms.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses an explanatory case study of a state-imposed RBB system, drawing evidence from in-depth interviews, document analysis, and direct observation. The paper draws on Alsharari's (2013) contextual framework which synthesizes three approaches to analyzing institutional change: Dillard et al.'s (2004) New Institutional Sociology (NIS) framework for analyzing externalities; Burns and Scapens' (2000) framework inspired by old institutional economics (OIE) for internal processes of change and Hardy (1996) power and politics mobilization model. In addition, Pettigrew's (1987) contextual framework is used for its holistic incorporation of different perspectives and to integrate theoretical perspectives.

Findings

The findings show that Jordan's National Reform Agenda represented a turning towards the New Public Management (NPM) model, following entrenched poor state budget performance. The findings also show that NPM ideas, such as results orientation and performance-based accountability, are invoked in response to common economic and social pressures, such as budget insufficiency and public antipathy to government service provision, as well as the pressures of globalization. Institutional analysis confirms the “path-dependent” and evolutionary nature of accounting change implemented in Jordan's customs agency. The study also concludes, from observation of the organization's work routines and practices, that the implementation of accounting change was not merely a symbolic innovation.

Research limitations/implications

This study has significant implications for politicians, economists, academics and government leaders as it provides fieldwork evidence about the role of RBB in the economy and public policy. Changes at the political and economic level, particularly with respect to the introduction of the fiscal reforms and customs modernization projects, have resulted in changes to structures and systems at the organizational level, particularly the implementation of RBB. This study is subject to normal limitations. The role of legitimate power in the organizational change process can be subject to further examination, especially in the public sectors of developing countries. A longitudinal study could also affirm the institutional analysis of the present case study.

Originality/value

The study contributes to accounting literature by providing further understanding and a thick explanation of the dynamics of accounting change in the Jordanian public sector. It utilizes a contextual framework for studying accounting change that attempts to overcome the limitations of single-dimension theories, such as NIS and OIE, by integrating levels of analysis. The case study provides insight into how internal dynamics interact with external pressures and recognizes the organizational field as a link between political, economic and organizational levels. It more directly addresses the dynamics of emergence, diffusion and implementation of new accounting criteria and practices.

Details

Asian Review of Accounting, vol. 30 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1321-7348

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 November 2019

Nizar Mohammad Alsharari

The purpose of this paper is to gain insight into how well past reforms have performed against revenue, equity and efficiency benchmarks of tax policymaking, so that the direction…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to gain insight into how well past reforms have performed against revenue, equity and efficiency benchmarks of tax policymaking, so that the direction of future reform of tax system might be determined. It also presents a comparative analysis of taxation and revenue trends in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region over the data set period 1990-2012.

Design/methodology/approach

By overviewing the development and relative significance of resource revenues, allocating non-resource taxes and examining the tax policies of constituent countries, this paper presents a comparative review of taxation and revenue trends in the MENA region.

Findings

Findings showed, on average, a slight decline in non-resource revenues against the significant rise in income from resources. The analysis of government revenues and current taxation structures provide insight into how prior reforms have performed against the standard measures of tax policy-making (i.e. revenue, equity and efficiency) and directions for change leading to the establishment of simple tax systems. The study observes regional differences, such as the higher tax and revenues of the Maghreb sub-region over the Mashreq, except for value-added tax, where low rates were associated with equal or greater revenue. Similarities were also found, including the partial compensation by income taxes (not indirect taxes) for revenue lost through trade liberalization. The challenges of tax reform are found to vary across countries and opportunities for improving equity and reducing the complexity of tax systems across the region are identified.

Research limitations/implications

Reforms in all tax systems could have major implications for the country, employment, earnings and tax revenues; but recommendations would require political value judgments and government decisions. The study suggests eliminating the current tax system, thereby replacing one of the more distortionary taxes in the current system with a neutral and efficient tax.

Originality/value

The paper signals the need, even of the oil-rich states of the Gulf Cooperation Council, for governments to build tax systems capable of capturing and spending revenues effectively into the future.

Details

Pacific Accounting Review, vol. 31 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0114-0582

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 August 2017

Nizar Mohammad Alsharari

The purpose of this paper is to explore the development of accounting education and practice as influenced by the socio-economic transformation in Jordan.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the development of accounting education and practice as influenced by the socio-economic transformation in Jordan.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper presents an explanatory study of how accounting education and practice has developed in relation to socio-economic change in Jordan, using the institutional economic theory-based constructivist approach, in which knowledge is constructed by compiling data from different sources, including historical and statistical analyses, documents, and archival records.

Findings

The study finds that accounting education in Jordan cannot be effectively studied without reference to how accounting practice affects, and is affected by the social, economic, political and cultural dimensions of its operating environment. The study finds that accounting change has been driven by the Jordanian Government’s response to the macroeconomic challenges that had historically restricted economic growth, including the scarcity of natural resources, budget deficits, soaring debt, and structural unemployment. The ongoing program of privatization has been a significant contributor to economic, accounting, and legal change. Since accountancy is accepted as a social practice, culture plays a significant role in accounting research, and cultural factors bearing on accounting education and practice in Jordan include the historical imposition of western accounting paradigms in developing countries, Jordan’s cultural values, the quality of its education system, and the disparity between the private sector’s and public management’s embrace of technology and applications for management accounting. The study finds that accounting education in Jordan cannot be effectively studied without reference to how accounting affects, and is affected by the social, economic, political and cultural dimensions of its operating environment.

Research limitations/implications

This paper describes the development of accounting education in an environment of socio-economic change, which has potential implications for accounting practitioners, academics, and policy makers in developing countries. The study’s constructivist approach selected with the aim of constructing a picture of the change environment, and thus, present new knowledge in a compilation of data limits, however, the generalizability of the findings.

Originality/value

The paper is a one of very few research studies in the accounting literature to present evidence from the Middle East of how accounting education and practice has developed in response to socio-economic transformation, and has itself contributed to socio-economic growth in Jordan. The significance of cultural factors in these developments provides further understanding of the dynamics of developing accounting education and practice in the era of globalization.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 31 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 August 2019

Nizar Mohammad Alsharari

The purpose of this paper is to explain the process of accounting changes and beyond budgeting principles (BBP) in the public sector as influenced by the institutional framework…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explain the process of accounting changes and beyond budgeting principles (BBP) in the public sector as influenced by the institutional framework. It also looks beyond the outcomes of implementing budgeting changes to take into account the complexities of the factors that drive and shape the cumulative processes of accounting change.

Design/methodology/approach

The study presents the results of an interpretive case study in the Jordan Customs (JC) as good evidence from developing countries. It uses the triangulation of data collection methods including interviews, observations, and documents and archival records.

Findings

The paper found that JC changes to their accounting systems were influenced by the BBP, with the new budgeting systems implemented based on reconsideration and re-enacting of theoretical accounting bases and procedures. As a result, the accounting changes were managed by modifying the laws and regulations. Among the accounting changes included in the Beyond Budgeting (BB) approach in JC was relative performance evaluation, as an alternative to fixed budget targets. Rolling forecasts were prepared the BB and were employed in JC’s revenues section and the technical aspects of preparing those relied on E-views software. Most BBP were successfully implemented as values, controls, teams, goals, rewards, resources, coordination and governance. Other BBP have faced some resistance in areas of transparency, trust and accountability.

Research limitations/implications

The paper uses the case study approach that yielded insightful lessons. It reveals the organizational interaction with the external environment and how BBP is influenced and shaped by isomorphic pressures. It also shows the successful and unsuccessful BBP with-(out) resistance in the public sector. This paper has important implications for change dynamics that can emerge from a BBP approach at the institutional level. It also explains the interaction between the “external” origins and “internal” accounts, which identified that accounting is both shaped by and shaping socio-economic and political processes. This broad sensitivity to the nature of accounting has important implications for how accounting change along with BBP is studied.

Originality/value

The paper is one of the few case studies in the accounting literature on organizations that change budgeting practice by adopting BBP. The study provides a detailed explanation of the dynamics of accounting changes through BBP in the public sector. It also provides pieces of evidence about the IPSAS and public accounting reforms in developing countries.

Details

International Journal of Public Sector Management, vol. 33 no. 2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3558

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 May 2017

Nizar Mohammad Alsharari and Mayada Abd El-Aziz Youssef

The purpose of this paper is to explain the processes of management accounting change (MAC) in the Jordanian Customs Organization (JCO) within its social context following public…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explain the processes of management accounting change (MAC) in the Jordanian Customs Organization (JCO) within its social context following public sector reforms. It focuses on the regulative way in which a new accounting system of government financial management information system (GFMIS) was implemented throughout three levels of an institutional framework.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses an interpretive case study in which the GFMIS was imposed by the government. It draws on a framework that comprises three institutional approaches: old institutional economics; new institutional sociology; and power mobilization.

Findings

In the JCO case, the GFMIS contributed effectively to the development of a comprehensive approach to the preparation of the budget while it works to facilitate the estimated process of expenditures and revenues. The study recognizes that the implementation of GFMIS may have emerged primarily as a response to external political and economic pressures. The MAC was carried out in the “from-top-to-bottom” level of institutional analysis, which confirms the “path-dependent” and evolutionary nature of the change. It concludes that the evolutionary MAC in the JCO case study was not only a decorative innovation in management accounting, but was also represented in the working practices. It has produced comprehensive and timely information about strategic planning, chart of accounts and classification of assets, liabilities, and revenues and expenses at all levels of management and programs. The study also confirms that management accounting is not a static phenomenon but one that changes over time to reflect new systems and practices.

Research limitations/implications

The need for having an integrated GFMIS in the authors’ case arises from two key dimensions: increasing pressures from the International Monetary Fund to improve fiscal management and reporting, and the government needs to respond to the demand of better information disclosure. GFMIS has provided an integrated solution for public financial management through the automation of the entire life cycle of budget preparation, budget execution, and financial reporting. The system operates across all budget organizations to ensure transparency and accountability in all public resources transactions, including allocation, use, and monitoring. Hence, it has important implications for policy decision makers through linking all budget organizations, for the purposes of supporting the process of decision making in an informed manner. The study has important implications for the ways in which change dynamics can emerge, diffuse, and implement at three levels of institutional analysis. It also explains the interaction between the external origins and internal accounts, which identified that GFMIS is both shaped by, and is shaping, wider socio-economic and political processes.

Originality/value

This study fills a gap in the literature, as it explains the processes of MAC associated with the introduction of GFMIS in the JCO within its social context. It recognizes the institutional pressures that affected the emergence and diffusion of GFMIS and how they interacted through three levels of institutional analysis.

Article
Publication date: 5 May 2023

Nizar Mohammad Alsharari and Bobbie Daniels

The study aims to explain the process of management accounting practices and organizational change aspects in the public sector’s response to environmental pressures…

Abstract

Purpose

The study aims to explain the process of management accounting practices and organizational change aspects in the public sector’s response to environmental pressures. Specifically, it discusses the interaction process between management accounting practices from one side and culture, leadership and decentralization from the other side.

Design/methodology/approach

This study adopts qualitative research approach and an interpretive case study. The study uses the triangulation method of data collection, including interviews, annual reports, documents and archival records. A theoretical lens informs it of the contextual/processual approach for interpreting interaction processes between management accounting and organizational change aspects, including culture, leadership and decentralization.

Findings

The findings confirm that a change in organizational culture has an important impact on accounting change, which has played a central role in the desire to initiate and accept such changes by the organizational members. Similarly, the new leadership style created a unique culture that was considered a solid platform to introduce new accounting systems by enhancing the trust between IT staff and management accountants and their trust in themselves to accept the change. The paper concludes that the relationships between the change aspects at the organizational level, and accounting practices at the inherent organizational and accounting levels are both recursive and two way, with the two concepts inextricably interwoven.

Research limitations/implications

The study has some limitations as the data is limited to only a single country – more explanation for Jordanian Customs Organization quantitative understandings of governance improvement. The study has important implications for practitioners and customs officials by showing that different government regulations and customs reforms have varied influences on the public sector. These reforms have included most modifications to the accounting and organizational configurations. This study contributes to institutional theory development and refinement by exploring the interface between external influences and internal origins in the accounting change process.

Originality/value

This study uses a categorical association between organizational changes and accounting in the public sector as most prior studies have been conducted on the private sector due to competitive and technical pressures. It also contributes to organizational change and accounting literature by discussing the relationship between accounting from one side and culture and leadership from another side.

Details

Journal of Accounting & Organizational Change, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1832-5912

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 March 2020

Nizar Mohammad Alsharari, Mohammad Al-Shboul and Salem Alteneiji

This study aims to explain the implementation of Cloud enterprise resource planning (ERP) system and underlying factors and challenges that might be practiced by the users. It…

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Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explain the implementation of Cloud enterprise resource planning (ERP) system and underlying factors and challenges that might be practiced by the users. It also provides a comparison between traditional and Cloud ERP systems.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses qualitative case study and analyzes the primary evidences from in-depth interviews. It conducts a thematic analysis of the interviews' findings. Furthermore, the current study uses three groups of factors (technological, management and environmental) that are expected to be best determinants of the Cloud ERP implementation.

Findings

The findings provide an evidence that using the Cloud EPR system, as alternative to on premise traditional ERP system, is constructive to the success of organizations and improve the quality of their decision-making process. The findings also reveal that effectiveness of implementing Cloud ERP is reliable on the provider's professionalism; hence resulting in issues related to minimize organizational independence.

Research limitations/implications

This paper is subjected to case studies limitations, as it lacks rigor and generalization. The paper has important implications for practitioners and decision-makers alike as it presents real-life example about Cloud ERP implementation. It thus enhances decision-makers' ability to make a relevant reporting process in the small and medium enterprises (SMEs).

Originality/value

This study can be considered as a one of very few case studies that discusses Cloud ERP implementation in UAE organizations particularly SMEs. It also provides three groups of factors (technological, management and environmental) that are influenced by the Cloud ERP implementation.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 8 April 2020

Nizar Mohammad Alsharari

This study aims to explain the transformation process from using regular enterprise resource planning (ERP) system into implementing Cloud ERP system in the UAE public sector.

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Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explain the transformation process from using regular enterprise resource planning (ERP) system into implementing Cloud ERP system in the UAE public sector.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses a qualitative case study and analyzes the primary evidences from in-depth interviews with the case organization’s personnel. It conducts a thematic analysis of the interviews’ findings. Furthermore, the study uses secondary and tertiary resources from published sources comprising the case organization’s website and previous studies.

Findings

The findings demonstrated that the transformation process to Cloud ERP could result in different practical benefits in an organization’s controlling system, cost reduction and profitability. Conversely, results revealed that the effectiveness of implementing cloud ERP is dependable on the provider’s professionalism; hence resulting in issues related to minimized organizational independence. In addition, the paper’s findings provide evidenced clarifications about the controversial misconceptions of Cloud ERP’s privacy issues.

Research limitations/implications

The paper is exposed to the regular case studies limitations, as the study is a qualitative research studying one case company. Thus, the study findings should be strengthened by future quantitative researches on more companies with implying more statistical analysis.

Practical implications

The paper has important implications for practitioners and decision-makers, as it presents significant and reality-based information about Cloud ERP implementation’s benefits and drawbacks. It thus enhances decision-makers’ ability to make an appropriate and suitable decision about adopting the Cloud ERP in the public sector.

Originality/value

As Cloud ERP is still emerging, this study is one of the very few case studies that discuss and present some experienced benefits and issues related to Cloud ERP implementation in UAE Government. This study also uses transformation theory to analyze the data.

Details

International Journal of Disruptive Innovation in Government, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2516-4392

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 September 2023

Nizar Mohammad Alsharari and Mohammed S. Aljohani

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of environmental and cultural factors on the benchmarking implementation process and management control within…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of environmental and cultural factors on the benchmarking implementation process and management control within organizations in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). By exploring the complex interplay of these factors, the study aims to uncover how environmental considerations and cultural dynamics shape the effectiveness and outcomes of benchmarking initiatives in the UAE's unique business environment. The research seeks to provide valuable insights for organizations in the UAE to optimize their benchmarking practices and enhance their overall performance and competitiveness.

Design/methodology/approach

The study adopts a mixed-methods approach, combining qualitative and quantitative methods to comprehensively explore the influence of environmental and cultural factors on benchmarking implementation and management control in the UAE. This study draws on the integration of two main theoretical perspectives: institutional theory and contingency theory. This is the first attempt to integrate these different frameworks in a single study. The study presents a case study of Emirates Industrial City (EIC), which has been recognized by global industries for boosting efficiency, cost control, quality and overall operations. The quality method known as benchmarking maximizes the potential for organizations to achieve optimal levels of production efficiency.

Findings

This paper provides compelling evidence that the benchmarking implementation process and management control in the UAE are significantly influenced by the complex interplay of environmental and cultural factors. By recognizing the importance of environmental sustainability and cultural values in guiding benchmarking practices, UAE organizations can optimize their performance and competitiveness. The findings contribute valuable insights to the existing literature, offering practical implications for UAE organizations seeking to leverage benchmarking as a strategic tool for growth and continuous improvement. The findings reveal that UAE organizations incorporating environmental considerations into benchmarking practices demonstrate a proactive approach to sustainability, aligning their goals with eco-friendly practices. Cultural influences, including a culture of collaboration and openness to external learning, contribute to successful benchmarking adoption and knowledge sharing. Moreover, the study highlights that the integration of benchmarking outcomes into the management control process positively correlates with organizational performance. UAE organizations that leverage benchmarking data for decision-making and performance evaluation exhibit higher levels of competitiveness and efficiency.

Research limitations/implications

This paper has important implications for organizations in the UAE seeking to optimize their benchmarking practices and management control. The study's findings can guide organizations in aligning their benchmarking efforts with environmental sustainability goals and cultural values to enhance performance and competitiveness. Understanding the influence of environmental and cultural factors on benchmarking adoption and implementation allows organizations to foster a benchmarking culture that embraces knowledge sharing and learning. Managers can tailor their approaches to accommodate cultural nuances and enhance the effectiveness of benchmarking initiatives.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the existing body of knowledge in several ways. Integrated approach: By examining the complex interplay of environmental and cultural factors, this study takes an integrated approach of institutional and contingency theories to understanding their influence on benchmarking implementation and management control. It offers a comprehensive view of how these factors interact to shape organizational practices and outcomes. UAE context: The study focuses specifically on the UAE, providing insights into benchmarking practices within the unique environmental and cultural context of the nation. This research addresses a gap in the literature by examining the influence of these factors in a distinct business environment.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

Keywords

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